Basnyat family or Basnet dynasty was a Kshatriya family involved in the politics and administration of the Gorkha Kingdom and Kingdom of Nepal. This family got entry into Thar Ghar aristocracy group of Gorkha at the time of King Prithvi Narayan Shah, it was one of the four noble family to be involved in active politics of Nepal together with Shah dynasty, Pande family and Thapa dynasty before the rise of Rana dynasty. This family is descended from Shivaram Singh Basnyat, the commander of Gorkhali forces and a member of Shreepali Basnyat clan of Gorkha; this family was maritally linked to Kala Pande section of Pande family through Chitravati Pande who married Kaji Kehar Singh Basnyat. This family was the last Kshatriya political family to be wiped out from the central power by Jung Bahadur Rana during the Bhandarkhal Massacre in 1846. Basnyats/Basnet were part of Tharghar aristocratic group which assisted the rulers of the Kingdom of Gorkha and played significant roles in the Unification of Nepal.
Basnets were not included in the Tharghar aristocracy group but got entry during the rule of King Prithvi Narayan Shah together with Thapas. Shivaram Singh Basnyat, the commander of Gorkhali forces, was the son of Jaya Ram Singh Basnyat, a Shreepali Basnyat of Gorkha. King Prithvi Narayan Shah formed an alliance with Basnyat and Pande families of Gorkha in his quest for the unification of Nepal; as per his Divya Upadesh, King Prithvi Narayan is known to have arranged the marriage between Kaji Kehar Singh Basnyat, the second son of Senapati Badabir Shivaram Singh Basnyat, Chitra Devi, the daughter of Kaji Kalu Pandey. Shivaram Singh Basnyat was addressed as Senapati Badabir in all the documents of that era, he died in the defensive battle of Sanga Chowk during Unification of Nepal on 1803 B. S. Shivram Singh became the first major military leader of Gorkha, martyred before Kaji Kalu Pande in the campaign of unification of Nepal. Birangana Shoorprabha Basnyat, widow of Shivram Singh, constructed the Narayan temple in Timal Danda in honour of her husband Senapati Badabir Shivram Singh.'Birangana' Shoorprabha was a daughter of Bagale Thapa of Gorkha, who raised her four brave sons after the early martyrdom of her husband.
The story of Shoor Prabha is written by former Vice Chancellor late Rudra Raj Pandey in his epic "Nepal ka Bir Birangana Haru". Kazi Naahar Singh Basnyat, first son of Shivram, fought in the battle of Makwanpur against the forces of Mir Kasim, he was a major military leader in the battle to capture Kantipur and Bhadgaun in 1826 B. S. along with his three younger brothers. He fought in the battle of Tibet in 1845 B. S. Kazi Kehar Singh went to Tibet to negotiate with it to have the Nepali coins circulated in Tibet, he was the major military/civilian leader who united the western districts and Kathmandu valley to Nepal. He was instrumental in annexing Kathmandu, Patan and Kirtipur, his contribution to unify Nepal is incomparable. He was appointed Chief Administrator of Patan after it was annexed to Nepal. King Prithvi Narayan Shah waged war against western Chaubise Confederacy on 1770 under military leadership of Kaji Vamsharaj Pande, Kaji Kehar Singh Basnyat and Sardar Prabhu Malla and achieved initial success.
On 1771, the Gorkhali forces lost the war against Chaubise principalities and Kaji Kehar Singh Basnyat died in the battlefield. Abhiman Singh Basnyat,born on 14 Falgun 1801 B. S. the third son of Senapati Badabir Shivaram Singh Basnyat became the second Commander in Chief of a United Nepal. Abhiman's two elder brothers were Kazi Kehar Singh, his youngest brother Kazi Dhokal Singh Basnyat, who became the governor of Kumaun Gadwal, was the first owner of present Narayanhity Palace area known as Kirti Mandir at that time. Stone inscription about this is still there inside Narayanhity Palace compound. Abhiman Singh died at the age of fifty-six in Ashad 1857 B. S. when he was sent to settle the area of Morang and Sunsari,then called Kaala Banzaar. He had delivered the jamindari power to honored with the title of chaudhari, it was a great injustice to him to have been assigned by King Rana Rahadur Shah to this area of dense forests at that old age when he was a Mulkazi. It was because of Abhiman's displeasure about the marriage of Rana Bahadur with the child Brahmin widow Kantivati.
He was reported to have suffered from fever Malaria and died of it. Despite the Basnyat family's immense contribution to Nepal's Unification, nobody from Basnyat family was declared Rastriya Bibhuti. We cannot undermine the sacrifice made by the brave Basnyat family of six members at that time namely Shivram, Shoor Prabha, Kehar,Abhiman and Dhaukal in the unification campaign of King Prithvi Narayan Shah. There were other Basnyats of Shreepali origin such as Ranya Basnyat, Bir Dhwaj Basnyat, Indra Bir, Banka Bir, Ranadip Singh, Rana Dhir Singh, Jahar Singh, Kirti Man Singh, Bakhtabar Singh, Bakhat Singh, Kul Man Singh, Prasad Singh etc. who fought or sacrificed their life in various battles and wars for the protection of Nepal's sovereignty in the periods of Nepalese history. Researchers are suggested to read the book jointly written by late Lt. Col. Hanuman Singh Basnyat and late Purna Man Singh Basnyat entitled "Shreepali Basnyat-Parichaya, Published in 2058 BS for details. King Prithvi Narayan Shah has stressed the importance of the Basnyats in his historic piece known as "Dibya Upadesh" or "Divine Counsel" in English.
Here is a link to the translation of the "Dibya Upadesh" into English. This translation was done by Prawin Adhikari, from a transcription published by historian Baburam Acharya from Bakhat man S
Vamshidhar Pande known by sobriquet Kalu Pande was Nepalese politician and military general, appointed as Kaji of Gorkha Kingdom. He was born in 1713 A. D in Gorkha, he was the commander of the gorkhali forces during the Expansion Campaign of Nepal. He died in the first Battle of Kirtipur in 1757 A. D, his real name was Banshidhar Pande. He was a son of Kaji Bhimraj Pande, minister during reign of King Prithivipati Shah of Gorkha, he was descendent of Dravya Shah's accomplice Ganesh Pande. He had three sons: Dewan Kajisaheb Vamsharaj Pande, Sardar Ranasur Pande and Mulkaji Sahib Damodar Pande. Kalu Pande was made the Commander-in-Chief of the Gorkhali Army after Biraj Thapa Magar and his first major Battle was the Battle of Kirtipur. Despite his initial resentment that the valley kings were well prepared and the Gorkhalis were not, Pande gave an'Yes' to the operation on being insisted from Prithvi Narayan; the Gorkhalis had set up a base on Naikap, a hill on the valley's western rim, from where they were to mount their assaults on Kirtipur.
They were armed with swords and arrows and muskets. The Valley Kings brought a large number of Doyas from Indian Plains under Shaktiballabh sardar. During the first assault in 1757, the Gorkhali army killed 1200 enemies Doyas, but were badly beaten themselves. Both sides suffered heavy losses; as they advanced towards Kirtipur, the combined force of Valley Kings under Kaji Gangadhar Jha, Kaji Gangaram Thapa and Sardar Shaktiballabh brought Havoc to the outnumbered Gorkhalis. The two forces fought on the plain of Tyangla Phant in the northwest of Kirtipur. Surapratap Shah, the King's brother lost his right eye to an arrow while scaling the city wall; the Gorkhali commander Kaji Kalu Pande was surrounded and killed, the Gorkhali king himself narrowly escaped with his life into the surrounding hills disguised as a saint
Thapa or Thapa noble family is a Chhetri) political family that handled Nepali administration affairs between 1806 and 1837 A. D. and 1843 to 1845 A. D. as Mukhtiyar. This was one of the four noble families to be involved in the active politics of the Kingdom of Nepal, along with the Shah dynasty, Basnyat family, the Pande dynasty before the rise of the Rana dynasty. At the end of 18th century, Thapas had extreme dominance over Nepalese Darbar politics alternatively contesting for central power against the Pandes; the dynasty was established by leading patron Bhimsen Thapa of the Bagale Thapa clan. The Thapa family gave rise to the Rana of Jung Bahadur Kunwar Rana whose father Bal Narsingh Kunwar was the son-in-law of Thapa Kaji Nain Singh Thapa; this dynasty was connected to the Pande aristocratic family through Nain Singh Thapa, the son-in-law of once Mulkaji Ranajit Pande The Thapa dynasty comes from the family of Kaji Bir Bhadra Thapa, commander of Unification of Nepal who belonged to the Bagale Thapa clan.
He had three sons: Jeevan Thapa, Bangsha Raj Thapa, Amar Singh Thapa. The eldest son of Amar Singh Thapa was Bhimsen Thapa who became an essential ruler in Nepalese history; the family became prominent during the rule of King Prithvi Narayan Shah and were established as a dominant faction during the reign of King Rana Bahadur Shah. After the assassination of King Rana Bahadur Shah, Bhimsen Thapa rose to the event killing all enemies and proving the strength and presence of the Thapa family in the Royal Court of Nepal, he went on to become the second Prime Minister of Nepal and thus founded the Thapa family in the political context of Nepal. Afterwards, the Thapas took the stronghold of the military power with an absolute order, which leads to a rivalry among other nobles. Tripurasundari was the daughter of Kazi Nain Singh Thapa. After the chaos that followed King Rana Bahadur's murder, Bhimsen became the Mukhtiyar and his niece Tripurasundari was given the title Lalita Tripurasundari and declared regent and Queen Mother of Nepal.
The Thapa family remained in power continuously after the death of King Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah and after the peace deal with the British East India Company done between the ruling prime minister Bhimsen Thapa representative of Nepal and British. The modernization of the Nepalese Army was done to keep things in control while convincing the suspicious British of no intention to use. Bhimsen increased his family members in court and military and transferred other aristocratic families away from the capital. Bhimsen instated his youngest brother, General Ranabir Singh Thapa, in the royal palace as chief palace authority. Any meetings between the royal family and commoners or Bhardars were done under his permission and observation. Bhimsen had committed atrocities against the Pande family by being involved in the execution of Nepalese Chief Kazi Damodar Pande. Rana Jang Pande, the youngest son of Damodar Pande, was a supporter of Senior Queen Samrajya Laxmi and had planned for the downfall of the thirty-one year Thapa rule.
In the Nepalese court, the rivalry between the two queens rose where the Senior Queen supported the Pandes, while the Junior Queen supported the Thapas. Bhimsen went to his ancestral home in Gorkha for some time making Ranabir Singh Thapa as Acting Mukhtiyar. Rana Jang Pande, the leading member of Pande aristocratic family and his brother, Ranadal Pande, was elevated in the Nepal Darbar. On 24 July 1837, Devendra Bikram Shah, died. Bhimsen and members of the Thapa faction conspired against. On this charge and whole the Thapa family, the court physicians and Eksurya Upadhyay, his deputy Bhajuman Baidya, with relatives of the Thapas were incarcerated, proclaimed outcasts, their properties confiscated. Fatte Jang Shah, Rangnath Poudel, the Junior Queen Rajya Laxmi Devi, the anti-Pande faction, obtained from the King the liberation of Bhimsen and the rest of the party, about eight months after they were incarcerated for the poisoning case. Confiscation of some properties was pardoned; the pro-Thapa soldiers rallied to Bhimsen, Mathabar Singh, Sherjung Thapa's houses.
Mathabar Singh fled to India. Mathabarsingh Thapa fled to India when Bhimsen Thapa courtiers were punished. Sher Jung Thapa and other jailed Thapa members were pardoned on the request of Junior Queen after the death of Senior Queen. Mathabar, the most senior Thapa, was requested to return to Nepal by ruling Junior Queen Rajya Laxmi after six years of exile. Mathabarsingh Thapa arrived in Kathmandu Valley on 17 April 1843 where he was greeted with state honors, he re-opened the murder case of his uncle and godfather Bhimsen Thapa, members of Pande faction and their supporters were executed. The murder of Mathabar Singh on 17 May 1845 by his nephew, Janga Bahadur Kunwar, on the orders of King Rajendra Bikram Shah and his Junior Queen, ended the Thapa family's rule in Nepal giving rise to Agnatic Rana dynasty; the family resided at Bagh Durbar. Bagh Durbar was constructed by Bhimsen Thapa, he moved from Gorkha district to Thapathali Durbar and to Bagh Durbar. Bagh Durbar, which means The Tiger's Mansion, was built in 1805 A.
D. by PM Bhimsen Thapa. It had a pond and many temples glorifying the Mukhtiyar General; when Thapa
Ranga Nath Poudyal
Ranga Nath Poudyal popularly known as Ranganath Pandit was the Mukhtiyar of Nepal from 1837 December to 1838 August and in 1840 November for about 2–3 weeks. He was the first Brahmin Prime Minister of Nepal. Ranga Nath Poudyal was born in 1773 A. D. at Makhantole Kathmandu to Pandit Brajnath, a, prominent courtier in the palace, exiled to Benaras. He was a Bahun by ethnicity. Ranga Nath Poudyal spent his childhood years in Benares, he was granted the title "Pandit Raj" by the king of Benares. Ranga Nath Poudyal met Bhimsen Thapa in Benares, he was influenced by Bhimsen Thapa and thus he forged his path to power by establishing himself as the prominent supporter of Bhimsen Thapa. After the execution of Mulkaji Damodar Pande, Paudyal was appointed as Raj Guru along with Ranajit Pande as appointed as Mulkaji, Bhimsen Thapa as second Kaji and Sher Bahadur Shah as Mul Chautariya, he became Prime Minister of Nepal at the time of utmost political turmoil. He is remembered as a clever Brahmin rather than an able administrator.
Although he was the prominent supporter of Bhimsen Thapa he is characterized by his loyalty towards Brian Houghton Hodgson, the British Resident to Nepal. His political career was doomed after the downfall of Bhimsen Thapa, he is characterized as the spiritual advisor of the court rather than a powerful governor. Not much is known about his personal life, he remained unmarried throughout his life. Brian Houghton Hodgson Bhimsen Thapa Puskar Shah Bal Chandra Poudel Acharya, Acharya, Shri Krishna, ed. Janaral Bhimsen Thapa: Yinko Utthan Tatha Pattan, Kathmandu: Education Book House, p. 228, ISBN 9789937241748 Pradhan, Kumar L. Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806–1839, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, p. 278, ISBN 9788180698132 Raj, Prakash A. Dancing Democracy: The power of a Third Eye, Rupa & Company, ISBN 9788129109460
Rana Bahadur Shah
Rana Bahadur Shah, King of Nepal was the King of Nepal from 1777 to 1806. In 1777, he succeeded to the throne after the death of King Pratap Singh Shah, he ruled under the regencies of his mother, Queen Rajendra Rajya Lakshmi Devi, of his uncle, Bahadur Shah. During this time, the kingdom expanded by conquest to include the Garhwal and Kumaon regions, now part of India, he sent his uncle Bahadur Shah to jail, who died in jail. The premature death of Pratap Singh Shah, the eldest son of Prithvi Narayan Shah, left a huge power vacuum that remained unfilled for decades debilitating the emerging Nepalese state. Pratap Singh Shah's successor was his son, Rana Bahadur Shah, aged two and one-half years at his accession; the acting regent until 1785 was Queen Rajendralakshmi, followed by Bahadur Shah, the second son of Prithvi Narayan Shah. Court life was consumed by rivalry centered on alignments with these two regents rather than on issues of national administration, it set a bad precedent for future competition among contending regents.
The exigencies of Sino-Nepalese War in 1788–92 had forced Bahadur Shah to temporarily take a pro-British stance, which had led to a commercial treaty with the British in 1792. Meanwhile, Rana Bahadur's youth had been spent in pampered luxury. In 1794 King Rana Bahadur Shah came of age, his first act was to re-constitute the government such that his uncle, Bahadur Shah, had no official part to play. In mid 1795, he became infatuated with a Maithili Brahman widow, Kantavati Jha, married her on the oath of making their illegitimate half-caste son the heir apparent, by excluding the legitimate heir from his previous marriage. By 1797, his relationship with his uncle, living a retired life, who wanted to seek refuge in China on the pretext of meeting the new emperor, had deteriorated to the extent that he ordered his imprisonment and his subsequent murder; such acts earned Rana Bahadur notoriety both among courtiers and common people among Brahmins. Being ranodatta was the eldest son but not made king of Nepal That same year in 1797, Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah was born and was declared the crown prince.
However, within a year of Girvan's birth, Kantavati contracted tuberculosis. To make sure that Girvan succeeded to the throne while Kantavati was still alive, Rana Bahadur, aged just 23, abdicated in favor of their son on 23 March 1799, placing his first wife, Raj Rajeshwari, as the regent, he joined his ailing wife, with his second wife, Subarnaprabha, in ascetic life and started to live in Deopatan, donning saffron robes and titling himself Swami Nirgunanda. This move was supported by all the courtiers who were discontented of his wanton and capricious behavior, it was around this time that both Bhimsen Thapa and his father Amar Singh Thapa were promoted from subedar to the rank of sardar, Bhimsen began to serve as the ex-King's chief bodyguard. However, Rana Bahadur's renunciation lasted only a few months. After the inevitable death of Kantavati, Rana Bahadur suffered a mental breakdown during which he lashed out by desecrating temples and cruelly punishing the attendant physicians and astrologers.
He renounced his ascetic life and attempted to re-assert his royal authority. This led to a direct conflict with all the courtiers who had pledged a holy oath of allegiance to the legitimate King Girvan. Since most of the military officers had sided with the courtiers, Rana Bahadur realized that his authority could not be re-established; as Rana Bahadur Shah's bodyguard and advisor, Bhimsen Thapa accompanied him to Varanasi. Rana Bahadur's retinue included his first wife, while his second wife, stayed back in Kathmandu to serve as the regent. Since Rana Bahadur was willing to do anything to regain his power and punish those who had forced him to exile, he served as a focal point of dissidenting factions in Varanasi, he first sought help from the British in exchange for which he was willing to concede a trading post in Kathmandu and grant them certain percentage of the tax revenue. However, the British were in favor of working with the existing government in Nepal, rather than risk the uncertainties of restoring an exiled ex-King to power.
The Kathmandu Durbar was willing to appease the British and agreed to sign a commercial treaty so long as the wayward Rana Bahadur and his group were held in India under strict British surveillance. This arrangement was kept a secret from his group. An elaborate intrigue was set in motion with the aim of splitting the unity of courtiers in Kathmandu Durbar and fomenting anti-British feelings. A flurry of letters were exchanged between the ex-King and individual courtiers in which he tried to set them up against Damodar Pande and tried to woo them by promises of high government positions, which they could hold for their entire life, which could be inherited by their progeny. Meanwhile, fed up of her debauch husband, left Varanasi, entered the border of Nepal on 26 July 1801, ta
Dr Francis Buchanan FRS FRSE FLS FAS FSA DL known as Francis Hamilton but referred to as Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, was a Scottish physician who made significant contributions as a geographer and botanist while living in India. The standard botanical author abbreviation Buch.-Ham. is applied to plants and animals he described, though today the form "Hamilton, 1822" is more seen in ichthyology and is preferred by Fishbase. Francis Buchanan was born at Bardowie, Perthshire where Elizabeth, his mother, lived on the estate of Branziet. Francis Buchanan matriculated in 1774 and received an MA in 1779; as he had three older brothers, he had to earn a living from a profession, so Buchanan studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, graduating MD in 1783. His thesis was on febris intermittens, he served on Merchant Navy ships to Asia, served in the Bengal Medical Service from 1794 to 1815. He studied botany under John Hope in Edinburgh. Hope was among the first in Britain to teach the Linnean system of botanical nomenclature, although he knew of several others having been trained under Antoine Laurent de Jussieu.
Buchanan's early career was on board ships plying between Asia. The first few years were spent as Surgeon aboard the Duke of Montrose sailing between Bombay and China under Captain Alexander Gray and Captain Joseph Dorin, he served on the Phoenix along the Coromandel Coast again under Captain Gray. In 1794 he served on the Rose, sailing from Portsmouth to Calcutta and reaching Calcutta in September, he joined the Medical Service of the Bengal Presidency. Buchanan's training was ideal as a Surgeon naturalist for a political mission to the Kingdom of Ava in Burma under Captain Symes; the Ava mission set sail on the Sea Horse and would pass the Andaman Islands and Ava before returning to Calcutta. In 1799, after the defeat of Tipu Sultan and the fall of Mysore, he was asked to survey South India resulting in A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore and Malabar, he wrote An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal. He conducted two surveys, the first of Mysore in 1800 and the second of Bengal in 1807-14.
From 1803 to 1804 he was surgeon to the Governor General of India Lord Wellesley in Calcutta, where he organized a zoo, to become the Calcutta Alipore Zoo. In 1804, he was in charge of the Institution for Promoting the Natural History of India founded by Wellesley at Barrackpore. From 1807 to 1814, under the instructions of the government of Bengal, he made a comprehensive survey of the areas within the jurisdiction of the British East India Company, he was asked to report on topography, antiquities, the condition of the inhabitants, natural productions, agriculture (covering vegetables, manure, domestic animals, fences and landed property and common arts, commerce. His conclusions are reported in a series of treatises that are retained in major United Kingdom libraries, they include an important work on Indian fish species, entitled An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges and its branches, which describes over 100 species not recognised scientifically. He collected and described many new plants in the region, collected a series of watercolours of Indian and Nepalese plants and animals painted by Indian artists, which are now in the library of the Linnean Society of London He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in May, 1806 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in January 1817 He succeeded William Roxburgh to become the Superintendent of the Calcutta botanical garden in 1814, but had to return to Britain in 1815 due to his ill health.
In an interesting incident the notes that he took of Hope's botany lectures in 1780 were lent to his shipmate Alexander Boswell during a voyage in 1785. Boswell, lost the notes in Satyamangalam in Mysore and the notes went into the hands of Tipu Sultan who had them rebound. In 1800 they were found in Tippu's library by a major. Buchanan left India in 1815, in the same year inherited his mother's estate and in consequence took her surname of Hamilton, referring to himself as "Francis Hamilton Buchanan" or "Francis Hamilton"; however he is variously referred to by others as "Buchanan-Hamilton", "Francis Hamilton Buchanan" or "Francis Buchanan Hamilton". Francis Buchanan-Hamilton is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of South Asian turtle, Geoclemys hamiltoni. Vicziany, Marika. "Imperialism and Statistics in Early Nineteenth-Century India: The Surveys of Francis Buchanan". Modern Asian Studies. 20: 625–660. JSTOR 312628. Buchanan, Francis. A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore and Malabar.
London: T. Cadell & W. Davies / Black, Parry & Kingsbury. – in three volumes, publishers noted as booksellers to the Asiatic Society and the East India Company, respectively. Noltie, H. J. Indian botanical drawings 1793–1868. ISBN 1-872291-23-6 Works by Francis Hamilton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Francis Buchanan-Hamilton at Internet Archive
Bista is a family name of people of Nepal belonging to Khas people group under the caste Chhetri, sub-groups of Kshatriya varna. They are Hindu with a local Masto deity, they speak Nepali language as mother tongue. The Bista's of Kalikot found their way into the Shah court and were given the honorary title of Kaji which can be interpreted as noble or aristocrat. In India Bista/Bistas are spelled as Bisht/Bishts or Bist/Bists and are titled as Rajputs, they are found in Indian state of Uttarakhand. Bista is translated as Baron or landholder. Bista is referred as high caste group. For example. S. on the grounds of assaulting a high caste citizen. The Tibetan Buddhist vassal dynasty of Lo Manthang in Northern Nepal adopted the title of "Bista". Anjan Bista, Youth Nepali Footballer Bikash Bista, Nepali academician Deepak Bista, Taekwando Gold Medalist Dor Bahadur Bista, Nepalese anthropologist Kirti Nidhi Bista, Former PM of Nepal Om Bikram Bista, King of Nepali Pop Ranjan Bista, Youth Nepali Footballer Lalit Bista, Nepali Writer Daulat Bikram Bista and classic writer Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista, Former Titular King of Mustang Regmi, Mahesh Chandra, Regmi Research Series, 19, Regmi Research Centre