Kamehameha Schools called Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate, is a private school system in Hawaiʻi established by the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate, under the terms of the will of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, a formal member of the House of Kamehameha. Bishop's will established a trust called the "Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate", Hawaiʻi's largest private landowner. Established in 1887 as an all-boys school for native Hawaiian children, it shared its grounds with the Bishop Museum. After it moved to another location, the museum took over two school halls. Kamehameha Schools opened its girls' school in 1894, it became coeducational in 1965. The 600-acre Kapālama campus opened in 1931, while the Maui and Hawaiʻi campuses opened in 1996 and 2001, respectively, it was developed at the bequest of Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop to educate children of Hawaiian descent, is designed to serve students from preschool through twelfth grade. The school teaches in the English language a college-prep education enhanced by Hawaiian culture and practices, imparting historical and practical value of continuing Hawaiian traditions.
It operates 31 preschools statewide and three grade K–12 campuses in Kapālama, Oʻahu, Pukalani and Keaʻau, Hawaiʻi. By the terms of its founding, the schools' admissions policy prefers applicants with Native Hawaiian ancestry. Since 1965 it has excluded all but two non-Hawaiians from being admitted. A lawsuit challenging the school's admission policy resulted in a narrow victory for Kamehameha in the Ninth Circuit Court; as of the 2011–12 school year, Kamehameha had an enrollment of 5,398 students at its three main campuses and 1,317 children at its preschools, for a total enrollment of 5,416. Beyond its campuses, Kamehameha served an estimated 46,923 Hawaiians in 2011 through its support for public schools, charter schools, families and caregivers throughout Hawaii. According to the Kamehameha Schools home website, the mission statement is as follows: "Kamehameha Schools' mission is to fulfill Pauahi's desire to create educational opportunities in perpetuity to improve the capability and well-being of people of Hawaiian ancestry."
In 1883, Bernice Pauahi Bishop, a member of the Hawaiian Royal Family, directed in her will, after naming heirs for gifts of money and land, that the remainder of her estate be held in trust to create the Kamehameha Schools. A majority of the Bishop estate was inherited from her parent and her cousin Ruth Keʻelikōlani, who in turn had inherited a substantial amount from her first husband Leleiohoku I and her half-siblings Victoria Kamāmalu and Kamehameha V, all who were given substantial amounts of land in the Great Mahele of 1848 which had divided the land of the kingdom amongst the King, the ali'i and the common people. During her lifetime, she encountered the decline of her Hawaiian people, she was well aware. Bernice named Samuel Mills Damon, William Owen Smith, Charles Montague Cooke, Charles McEwen Hyde, her husband, Charles Reed Bishop, as the original five trustees to invest her estate at their discretion, use the income to operate the schools, "to devote a portion of each year's income to the support and education of orphans, others in indigent circumstances, giving the preference to Hawaiians of pure or part aboriginal blood."
She directed the Hawaiʻi Supreme Court to appoint replacement trustees and required that all teachers be Protestant, without regard to denomination. After Bishop's death in 1884, her husband Charles Reed Bishop carried out her will. Reverend William Brewster Oleson, former principal of the Hilo boarding school founded by David Belden Lyman in 1836, helped organize the schools on a similar model of European-American education; the original Kamehameha School for Boys opened in 1887. The girls' school opened nearby in 1894; the preparatory school serving grades K–6, opened in 1888 adjacent to the boys' school. By 1955, all three schools had moved to the current 600-acre campus in Kapālama Heights; the schools became co-ed in 1965 In 1996, the school opened a 180-acre campus on Maui, followed in 2001 by the 300-acre campus on Hawaiʻi. In 1991, The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission brought suit against Kamehameha Schools alleging that its requirement that all teachers be Protestant was religious discrimination in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Although Kamehameha Schools conceded the practice was discriminatory, the School maintained that it was bound by the provisions of Bernice Pauahi Bishop's will, which established the charitable trust creating the School as well as mandating that all the teachers "be persons of the Protestant religion." Accordingly, the School sought to be included within one of the applicable exemptions to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The United States District Court for the District of Hawaii found in the School's favor, ruling that the religious education exemption, the religious curriculum exemption, the bona fide occupational qualification exemption were each applicable to Kamehameha Schools; the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the decision of the District Court, holding that none of the exemptions to the Civil Rights Act was applicable since the School was a secular and not a religious institution despite certain historical traditions including Protestantism. As a result, the requirement that all teachers be Protesta
Downtown Honolulu is the current historic, economic and central part of Honolulu—bounded by Nuʻuanu Stream to the west, Ward Avenue to the east, Vineyard Boulevard to the north, Honolulu Harbor to the south—situated within the City of Honolulu. Both modern and historic buildings and complexes, many of the latter declared National Historic Landmarks on the National Register of Historic Places, are located in the area, 21°18′12″N 157°51′26″W. Downtown Honolulu can be subdivided into four neighborhoods, each with its own central focus and mix of buildings; these areas are the Capitol District, the Central Business District and the Waterfront. The Capitol District, or Civic Center, contains most of the federal and city governmental buildings and is centered on the Hawaiʻi State Capitol, ʻIolani Palace, Honolulu Hale, it is bounded by Richards Street on the west, Ward Avenue on the east, Vineyard Boulevard to the north, Nimitz Highway to the south. Significant buildings in this area include: Old Advertiser Building Aliʻiōlani Hale Bishop Estate Building Frank F. Fasi Municipal Building Hawaiʻi State Capitol Hawaiʻi State Library Honolulu Fire Headquarters Honolulu Hale Honolulu Police Station ʻIolani Barracks ʻIolani Palace Kakaʻako Fire Station Kalanimoku Building Kamehameha V Post Office Kawaiahaʻo Church Kawaiahaʻo Plaza King Kalakaua Building Kapuaiwa Building Leiopapa a Kamehameha Building Mission Memorial Building The Pacific Club Prince Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Federal Building Territorial Building Washington Place Centered on Bishop Street and Fort Street Mall, the central business district is bounded by Nuʻuanu Avenue, Nimitz Highway, Richards Street, Vineyard Boulevard.
This area contains most of the headquarters buildings of Hawaiʻi-based companies and most of the skyscrapers. Buildings in this area include: 1100 Alakea Street 1132 Bishop Street Alexander & Baldwin Building Ali'i Place American Savings Building Arcade Building Armstrong Building Army and Navy YMCA Bishop Bank Building Bishop Square Cades Schutte Building Capitol Place Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace C. Brewer Building Central Fire Station Central Pacific Plaza Century Square City Financial Tower Davies Pacific Center Dillingham Transportation Building Executive Center Financial Plaza of the Pacific First Hawaiian Center Fort Street Mall Harbor Court Hawaiʻi Pacific University Hawaiian Electric Building Hawaiian Telcom Building Judd Building Central Middle School McCandless Building Melchers Building Oʻahu Railway and Land Terminal Oceanit Center Pacific Guardian Center Pinnacle Honolulu Pioneer Plaza Royal Brewery Stangenwald Building Theo H. Davies Building TOPA Financial Tower Yokohama Specie Bank YWCA Building Located between Nuʻuanu Stream and Nuʻuanu Avenue, Chinatown at one time was the center of Chinese cultural contact on the island.
Central to this area is the open-air Oʻahu Market. The area around Nuʻuanu Avenue has become an Arts District, thanks to the renovation of the Hawaiʻi Theatre. Buildings in this area include: Hawaiʻi Theatre Lum Yip Kee Building Nippu Jiji Building Oʻahu Market Wo Fat Building Honolulu's waterfront area centers on Aloha Tower, once the tallest building in Hawaiʻi and where cruise ships would dock before the advent of air travel between Hawaiʻi and the U. S. Mainland. Cruise ships between the Hawaiian Islands now dock at Honolulu Harbor. Buildings in this area include: Aloha Tower Falls of Clyde Hawaiʻi Maritime Center Honolulu Foreign Trade Zone The Honolulu Police Department operates the Alapai Police Headquarters and the Downtown Police Station in Downtown Honolulu; the United States Postal Service operates the Downtown Honolulu Post Office at 335 Merchant Street. List of tallest buildings in Honolulu Downtown Honolulu travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ala Moana, Honolulu
Ala Moana is a commercial and residential district of Honolulu, Hawaiʻi. It is nestled between Waikīkī to Kakaʻako and Honolulu Harbor to the west. King Street, to the north, marks the border with the neighborhood of Makiki. Ala Moana is situated along the southern shores of the island of Oʻahu and features a vast stretch of reef-protected white sandy beaches; the main roads through Ala Moana are Kapiʻolani Boulevard. Ala Moana is a major transfer point in Honolulu's bus system. Across the street from Ala Moana Center is Ala Moana Beach Park, dedicated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930's; the civic center of Ala Moana is Ala Moana Center, once the largest shopping center in the United States and the largest open-air shopping center in the world. The shopping center was developed by Don Graham and opened August 13, 1959; the area is experiencing residential and retail growth in addition to the shopping center. A new name, Midtown Ala Moana, has been coined to promote the area; the ancient Hawaiian name for the area was Kâlia.
It included many fishponds, taro fields and residences for the fishermen. The land was sold in 1861 to Lot Kamehameha; the parcel passed into Bernice Pauahi Bishop’s holdings and became part of the Bishop Estate which put the parcel up for sale around the time of Bernice Pauahi Bishop’s death in 1884. It was sold to Walter F. Dillingham in 1912 for $30,000. Dillingham established the Hawaiian Dredging Company in 1902 to build harbors along his father’s OR&L Co.’s lines and, shortly thereafter, won the U. S. Navy contract to dredge the entrance channel to Pearl Harbor; the parcel of land in Kalia provided a dumping spot for excess fill from dredging Pearl Harbor, creating the opportunity for future development. Honolulu’s 1939-1944 master plan had zoned the property for hotels and apartments with a street grid through the site. A 1949 feasibility survey by Skidmore Owings & Merrill convinced the developer, the Hawaiian Land Company, a newly formed subsidiary company of the Hawaiian Dredging Company headed by Walter Dillingham’s son Lowell, to request a change in zoning in order to develop the property into a shopping center.
The study, prior to the construction of most of the island’s shopping centers, had found that urban Honolulu was underserved by retail outlets and that parking had become difficult in the downtown shopping area
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 220.127.116.11 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
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Waikiki is a neighborhood of Honolulu on the south shore of the island of Oʻahu in the United States state of Hawaii. Waikiki is most famous for Waikiki Beach, one of six beaches in the district, along with Queen's Beach, Kuhio Beach, Gray's Beach, Fort DeRussy Beach and Kahanamoku Beach. Waikiki Beach is entirely man-made. Waikiki is home to public places including Kapiʻolani Park, Fort DeRussy, Kahanamoku Lagoon, Kūhiō Beach Park and Ala Wai Harbor; the Hawaiian language name Waikīkī means spouting fresh water, for springs and streams that fed wetlands that once separated Waikiki from the interior. The area was a retreat for Hawaiian royalty in the 1800s who enjoyed surfing there on early forms of longboards. A few small hotels opened in the 1880s. In 1893, Greek-American George Lycurgus leased the guest house of Allen Herbert and renamed it the "Sans Souci" creating one of the first beach resorts; that year Robert Louis Stevenson stayed at the resort. The area at coordinates 21°15′49″N 157°49′17″W is still called "Sans Souci Beach".
Waikiki has had erosion problems since the late-1800s, because hotels and homes were built too close to the natural shoreline, while seawalls and other structures blocked the natural ebb and flow of sand along the beach. By 1950, more than 80 structures, including seawalls, groins and storm drains, occupied the Waikiki shoreline; the area became filled with large resort hotels, such as the Hilton Hawaiian Village, the Hyatt Regency Waikiki, Marriott Waikiki, Sheraton Waikiki, historic hotels dating back to the early 20th century. The beach hosts many events, including surf competitions, outdoor performances, hula dancing and outrigger canoe races; the many amenities and hotels enable Waikiki to generate 42 percent of Hawaiʻi's visitor revenue. In the early 1900s, Waikiki was home to many wetlands, which were believed to harbor disease-carrying mosquitoes. To get rid of the mosquitoes, islanders created the Ala Wai canal; the canal known as the Waikiki Drainage Canal, was created by a Hawaiian dredging company run by Walter F. Dillingham.
The project took about seven years, 1921-1928. In the early 20th century, Duke Kahanamoku became a well-known surfer in Waikiki. Throughout his life and after competing in the Olympics, many people around the world wanted to learn to surf. Duke's influence made Waikiki beach a surfing hotspot. "Dukes", a club in Waikiki named for Kahanamoku, helped Don Ho produce music and hosted the longest-running show in Waikiki. In the 1920s and 1930s sand was imported from Manhattan Beach, via ship and barge. In the early 1900s, plans for the Ala Wai Canal were developed to help with drainage and seawalls and groynes began to appear; these helped build sand at one beach, but appropriated sand from others. Before 1950, Waikiki beaches were continuous, they became separated into some with sandy beach and others without. Following World War II, Waikiki beach restoration efforts have occurred every few years. Sand was imported to this artificial beach from the 1920s to the 1970s, once by boat and barge from Southern California.
1,730 feet of shoreline was replenished at a cost of $2.4 million following chronic erosion of more than a foot a year. Importing stopped in the 1970s. In March 1971, the Department of the Army Pacific Ocean Division, created a Draft Environmental Statement for the Kuhio Beach Sector of Waikiki, which aimed to improve the overall quality and size of the fading and narrowing shoreline. On October 29–November 4, 2000, the first FINA World Open Water Swimming Championships, were held in the waters off Waikiki Beach. A partial restoration was completed in the spring of 2012; the project imported sand from nearby shoals and widened the 1,700-foot long beach by about 37 feet between the Royal Hawaiian Hotel concrete groyne and the Kūhiō Beach crib wall. The project temporarily restored the beach to its 1985 shoreline. Two aging sandbag groyne structures were removed in 2012. In 2017, beach erosion worsened with “king tides” along with elevated sea level. Honolulu's mayor stated: “I’m not a scientist, but I’ll get a jackhammer in there and remove all the concrete that’s there creating this backwash and sucking out more sand, plus it’s just downright dangerous.”
The neighborhood extends to Diamond Head on the east. Waikiki Beach is noted for its views of the Diamond Head tuff cone, its warm and cloud-free climate and its surf break; the Waikiki skyline is filled with high-rises and resort hotels. Half of the beach is marked off for surfers. For some distance into the ocean the water is quite shallow, with numerous rocks on the bottom; the waves can have some force on windy days. The surf is known for its long rolling break, making it ideal for long boarding, tandem surfing and beginners; as a result of shoreline development, Waikiki has eight distinct beaches. They are Ft. DeRussy, Duke Kahanamoku, Royal Hawaiian, Kapiolani and Kaimana. Since 1951, nearly 80,000 cubic meters of sand have been added to restore Waikiki beaches. Today, however, it is believed that little of the added sand remains. From the beach the sunset in the sea is visible from mid-September to late March Ala Moana Beach Park, Hawaii's single most popular beach, is adjacent to but not technically part of Waikiki, was artificially made.
Waikiki's main thoroughfare is Kalakaua Avenue, named after King Kalakaua, whic