Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat and civet families. The word mongoose is likely derived from the Marathi name mungūs or probably ultimately from Telugu name mangisu, the form of the English name was altered to its -goose ending by folk-etymology. It has no connection with the word goose. Historically, it has been spelled mungoose, the plural form is mongooses, or, mongeese. Mongooses live in southern Asia and southern Europe, as well in Fiji, Puerto Rico, and some Caribbean and Hawaiian islands, the 34 species range from 24 to 58 cm in length, excluding the tail. Mongooses range in weight from the dwarf mongoose, at 320 g, to the cat-sized white-tailed mongoose. Some species lead predominantly solitary lives, seeking out food only for themselves, while others travel in groups, sharing food among group members and offspring.
Mongooses bear a resemblance to mustelids, having long faces and bodies, rounded ears, short legs. Most are brindled or grizzly, a few have strongly marked coats and their nonretractile claws are used primarily for digging. Mongooses, much like goats, have narrow, ovular pupils, most species have a large anal scent gland, used for territorial marking and signaling reproductive status. The dental formula of mongooses is similar to that of viverrids,3.1. 3-4. 1-23.1. 3-4. 1-2. Mongooses have receptors for acetylcholine that, like the receptors in snakes, are shaped so that it is impossible for snake venom to attach to them. Mongooses are one of four known species with mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom. Pigs, honey badgers and mongooses all have modifications to the pocket that prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four separate, independent mutations, in the mongoose, this change is effected uniquely, by glycosylation.
Researchers are investigating whether similar mechanisms protect the mongoose from hemotoxic snake venoms, in contrast to the arboreal, nocturnal viverrids, mongooses are more commonly terrestrial and many are active during the day. The Egyptian mongoose is sometimes held as an example of a solitary mongoose, Mongooses mostly feed on insects, earthworms, lizards and rodents
Porcupines are rodentian mammals with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators. The term covers two families of animals, the Old World porcupines of family Hystricidae, and the New World porcupines of family Erethizontidae, the Old World porcupines live in southern Europe and most of Africa. They are large and strictly nocturnal, in taxonomic terms, they form the family Hystricidae. The New World porcupines are indigenous to North America and northern South America and they live in wooded areas and can climb trees, where some species spend their entire lives. They are less strictly nocturnal than their Old World relatives, in taxonomic terms, they form the family Erethizontidae. Porcupines are the third-largest of the rodents, behind the capybara, most porcupines are about 60–90 cm long, with an 20–25 cm long tail. Weighing 5–16 kg, they are rounded and slow, Porcupines occur in various shades of brown and white. Porcupines spiny protection resembles that of the unrelated erinaceomorph hedgehogs and Australian spiny anteaters or monotreme echidnas, the name porcupine comes from Latin porcus pig + spina spine, via Old Italian—Middle French—Middle English.
A regional American name for the animal is quill pig, the German name, means thorn-swine and the Afrikaans name, means iron pig. Fossils belonging to the Hystrix genus date back to the late Miocene of Africa, a porcupine is any of 29 species of rodents belonging to the families Erethizontidae or Hystricidae. The two families of porcupines are quite different, and although both belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are not closely related, the 11 Old World porcupines tend to be fairly large, and have spikes grouped in clusters. The two subfamilies of New World porcupines are mostly smaller, have their quills attached singly rather than grouped in clusters, the New World porcupines evolved their spines independently and are more closely related to several other families of rodents than they are to the Old World porcupines. The North American porcupine is a herbivore, it leaves, twigs. In the winter, it may eat bark and it often climbs trees to find food. The African porcupine is not a climber and forages on the ground and it is mostly nocturnal, but will sometimes forage for food in the day.
Porcupines have become a pest in Kenya and are eaten as a delicacy, Porcupines quills, or spines, take on various forms, depending on the species, but all are modified hairs coated with thick plates of keratin, and embedded in the skin musculature. Old World porcupines have quills embedded in clusters, whereas in New World porcupines, single quills are interspersed with bristles, quills are released by contact or may drop out when the porcupine shakes its body. New quills grow to replace lost ones, Porcupines were long believed to have the ability to project their quills to a considerable distance at an enemy, but this has since been proven to be untrue
Mount Longonot is a stratovolcano located southeast of Lake Naivasha in the Great Rift Valley of Kenya, Africa. It is thought to have last erupted in the 1860s and its name is derived from the Maasai word Oloonongot, meaning mountains of many spurs or steep ridges. Mount Longonot is protected by Kenya Wildlife Service as part of Mount Longonot National Park, a 3.1 km trail runs from the park entrance up to the crater rim, and continues in a 7.2 km loop encircling the crater. The whole tour of 13.5 km takes about 4–5 hours allowing for necessary rest breaks - parts of the trail are heavily eroded and very steep. The gate is around 2150 m asl and the peak at 2780 m asl, a forest of small trees covers the crater floor, and small steam vents are found spaced around the walls of the crater. The mountain is home to species of wildlife, notably plains zebra, Thomsons gazelle, buffaloes. African leopards have been reported but are difficult to spot. Mount Longonot is 60 kilometres northwest of Nairobi and may be reached there by a tarmac road.
A nearby town is named Longonot, the Longonot satellite earth station is located south of the mountain. Longonot is a stratovolcano which contains a large 8 x 12 km caldera formed by vast eruptions of trachytic lava some 21,000 years ago, the current summit cone was developed within the earlier caldera. This cone itself is capped by an 1.8 km crater, the Mountain has several parasitic cones and effusive lava eruptions occur on the flanks and within the caldera floor. Periodic geodetic activity recorded at Longonot in 2004–2006 demonstrated the presence of active magmatic systems beneath this volcano, on March 21,2009 Brush Fires burned up the side of the mountain and descended into the crater, trapping wildlife and feeding on drought ravaged brush. List of volcanoes in Kenya Suswa Kenya Wildlife Service – Mount Longonot National Park Webcam pointed at Mt. Longonot from Kijabe
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings is hardened into wing-cases, the Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms, new species are discovered frequently. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae with some 70,000 member species and they are found in almost every habitat except the sea and the polar regions. They interact with their ecosystems in several ways, beetles often feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, and eat other invertebrates. Beetles typically have a hard exoskeleton including the elytra, though some such as the rove beetles have very short elytra while blister beetles have softer elytra. Some, such as, stag beetles have a sexual dimorphism. Many beetles are aposematic, with colours and patterns warning of their toxicity. Many beetles, including those that live in places, have effective camouflage.
Beetles are prominent in human culture, from the sacred scarabs of ancient Egypt to beetlewing art and use as pets or fighting insects for entertainment, many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. Over 300 species are used as food, mostly as larvae, species widely consumed include mealworms, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural and horticultural pests. Serious pests include the boll weevil of cotton, the Colorado potato beetle, the coconut hispine beetle, most beetles, however, do not cause economic damage and many, such as the lady beetles and dung beetles are beneficial by helping to control insect pests. The name of the order, comes from the Greek koleopteros, given to the group by Aristotle for their elytra, hardened shield-like forewings, from koleos, sheath. The English name beetle comes from the Old English word bitela, little biter, related to bītan, another Old English name for beetle is ceafor, used in names such as cockchafer, from the Proto-Germanic *kabraz-.
Beetles are by far the largest order of insects, the roughly 400,000 species make up about 40% of all species so far described. The four estimates made use of host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, beetle ratios, and extrapolations based on body size by year of description. The heaviest beetle, indeed the heaviest insect stage, is the larva of the beetle, Goliathus goliatus, which can attain a mass of at least 115 g. Adult male goliath beetles are the heaviest beetle in its stage, weighing 70–100 g. Adult elephant beetles, Megasoma elephas and Megasoma actaeon often reach 50 g and 10 cm, the longest beetle is the Hercules beetle Dynastes hercules, with a maximum overall length of at least 16.7 cm including the very long pronotal horn
The White Stinkwood is a deciduous tree in the family Cannabaceae. Its habit ranges from a tree in forest to a medium-sized tree in bushveld and open country. It occurs in Yemen and over parts of Africa south of the Sahara. It is a tree in the south and east of southern Africa. Growing as a tree in the open and under favourable conditions, Celtis africana becomes a tree of medium height. It usually forms a dense, hemispherical canopy, the bole of a mature tree is thick and buttressed, often forked fairly near the ground. In forest it may grow up to 25 m tall, with a single, clean bole, in an exposed, rocky position it may be a bonsai-like small shrub. The trunk has a smooth, pale grey to white bark that may be loosely peeling in old trees, in spring it produces light green, new leaves that contrast with the pale bark. The leaves are simple, ovate to acuminate in shape with three distinct veins from the base, the leaf margin is slightly toothed towards the apex, whereas the basal third tends to be entire.
The new leaves are bright, fresh green and hairy on the surface, they turn darker green. The trees small flowers are yellow in colour, and appear from August to October. Their fruit are carried on long, thin stalks and they are yellow or brown in colour and about 4 mm in diameter. Occurs in a variety of habitats from wet forest and coastal bush to bushveld, mountain gorges and open country. Its range extends from the Western Cape and northwards around the southern African coastline, extending inland in the warmer, wetter regions, Celtis africana leaves are browsed by cattle and goats, and eaten from the ground when shed. Various species of Celtis are food plants for the larvae of species of long-nosed butterfly. In particular, Celtis africana is the host to Libythea labdaca, the leaves provide food for the larvae of Caloptilia celtina. The inconspicuous, greenish, star-like flowers appear in early spring and female flowers are separate, but they are produced on the same tree. Various insects pollinate them, particularly honeybees, from October to February, following flowering, the rounded, berry-like fruit appear
The potto is a strepsirrhine primate of the family Lorisidae. It is the species in the genus Perodicticus. It is known as Bosmans potto, after Willem Bosman who described the species in 1704, in some English-speaking parts of Africa, it is called a softly-softly. A few closely related species have potto in their names, although it has been suggested that the differences that separate the false potto from the potto are a result of an anomalous specimen being used as the holotype which may have been a potto. The Central- and South American kinkajou and olingos are similar in appearance and behavior to African pottos and kinkajous are now known to be members of the raccoon family. The potto grows to a length of 30 to 39 cm, with a short tail, the close, woolly fur is grey-brown. The index finger is vestigial, although it has opposable thumbs with which it grasps branches firmly, like other strepsirrhines the potto has a moist nose, and a toilet claw on the second toe of the hind legs. The neck has four to six low tubercles or growths that cover its elongated vertebrae which have sharp points and nearly pierce the skin, both males and females have large scent glands under the tail, which they use to mark their territories and to reinforce pair bonds.
The potto has an odor that some observers have likened to curry. The potto inhabits the canopy of forests in tropical Africa, from Nigeria, Guinea to Kenya. It is nocturnal and arboreal, sleeping during the day in the leaves, the potto moves slowly and carefully, always gripping a branch with at least two limbs. It is quiet and avoids predators using cryptic movement, the most common call is a high-pitched tsic, which is used mainly between mother and offspring. Studies of stomach contents have shown the potto diet consists of about 65% fruit, 21% tree gums, the potto has occasionally been known to catch bats and small birds. Its strong jaws enable it to eat fruits and lumps of dried gum that are too tough for other tree-dwellers, the insects it eats tend to have a strong smell and are generally not eaten by other animals. The potto has large territories which it marks with urine and glandular secretions, same-sex intruders are vehemently guarded against, and each males territory generally overlaps with that of two or more females.
Females have been known to donate part of their territories to their daughters, as part of their courting rituals, pottos often meet for bouts of mutual grooming. This is frequently performed while they hang upside down from a branch, grooming consists of licking, combing fur with the grooming claw and teeth, and anointing with the scent glands. Pottos mate face-to-face while hanging upside down from a branch, after a gestation period of about 193–205 days, the female gives birth, typically to a single young, but twins are known to occur
Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other orders of organisms, Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exceptions of air and sea colonization. As of November 2015, at least 45,700 spider species, spiders differ from other arthropods in that the usual body segments are fused into two tagmata, the cephalothorax and abdomen, and joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel. Unlike insects, spiders do not have antennae, in all except the most primitive group, the Mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as all their ganglia are fused into one mass in the cephalothorax. Unlike most arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in their limbs and their abdomens bear appendages that have been modified into spinnerets that extrude silk from up to six types of glands.
Spider webs vary widely in size and the amount of thread used. It now appears that the orb web may be one of the earliest forms. Spider-like arachnids with silk-producing spigots appeared in the Devonian period about 386 million years ago, true spiders have been found in Carboniferous rocks from 318 to 299 million years ago, and are very similar to the most primitive surviving suborder, the Mesothelae. The main groups of spiders and Araneomorphae, first appeared in the Triassic period. It is estimated that 25 million tons of spiders kill 400–800 million tons of prey per year. Spiders use a range of strategies to capture prey, trapping it in sticky webs, lassoing it with sticky bolas, mimicking the prey to avoid detection. Spiders guts are too narrow to take solids, and they liquefy their food by flooding it with digestive enzymes and they grind food with the bases of their pedipalps, as arachnids do not have the mandibles that crustaceans and insects have. Male spiders identify themselves by a variety of courtship rituals to avoid being eaten by the females.
Males of most species survive a few matings, limited mainly by their life spans. Females weave silk egg-cases, each of which may contain hundreds of eggs, females of many species care for their young, for example by carrying them around or by sharing food with them. A minority of species are social, building communal webs that may house anywhere from a few to 50,000 individuals, social behavior ranges from precarious toleration, as in the widow spiders, to co-operative hunting and food-sharing. Although most spiders live for at most two years and other spiders can live up to 25 years in captivity. While the venom of a few species is dangerous to humans, scientists are now researching the use of venom in medicine
Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya. It is famous for having the Nairobi National Park, the only game reserve found within a major city. The city and its surrounding area form Nairobi County, whose current governor is Evans Kidero, the name Nairobi comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nairobi, which translates to cool water. The phrase is the Maasai name of the Nairobi river, however, it is popularly known as the Green City in the Sun, and is surrounded by several expanding villa suburbs. Nairobi was founded in 1899 by the authorities in British East Africa. The town quickly grew to replace Machakos as the capital of Kenya in 1907, after independence in 1963, Nairobi became the capital of the Republic of Kenya. During Kenyas colonial period, the city became a centre for the coffee, tea. The city lies on the River Athi in the part of the country. With a population of 3.36 million in 2011, Nairobi is the second-largest city by population in the African Great Lakes region after Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
According to the 2009 census, in the area of Nairobi,3,138,295 inhabitants lived within 696 km2. Nairobi is the 14th-largest city in Africa, including the population of its suburbs, the Nairobi Securities Exchange is one of the largest in Africa and the second-oldest exchange on the continent. It is Africas fourth-largest exchange in terms of trading volume, capable of making 10 million trades a day, Nairobi is found within the Greater Nairobi Metropolitan region, which consists of 4 out of 47 counties in Kenya, which generates about 60% of the entire nations wealth. The city was named after a water hole known in Maasai as Enkare Nairobi and it was completely rebuilt in the early 1900s after an outbreak of plague and the burning of the original town. The location of the Nairobi railway camp was due to its central position between Mombasa and Kampala. It was chosen because its network of rivers could supply the camp with water, malaria was a serious problem, leading to at least one attempt to have the town moved.
In 1905, Nairobi replaced Mombasa as capital of the British protectorate, as the British occupiers started to explore the region, they started using Nairobi as their first port of call. This prompted the government to build several spectacular grand hotels in the city. The main occupants were British game hunters, Nairobi continued to grow under the British and many British subjects settled within the citys suburbs
Kisumu County is one of the new devolved counties of Kenya. Its borders follow those of the original Kisumu District, one of the administrative districts of the former Nyanza Province in western Kenya. It has a population of 968,909, the land area of Kisumu County totals 2085.9 km². Kisumu Countys neighbours are Siaya County to the West Vihiga County to the North, Nandi County to the North East and its neighbour to the South is Nyamira County and Homa Bay County is to the South West. The county has a shoreline on Lake Victoria, occupying northern, the name Kisumu comes from the Luo word KisumaKikelo. Generally, Kisuma means a place where people meet to exchange goods, when Europeans and Indians came to the area of the present-day city of Kisumu, pronouncing the name Kisuma correctly proved difficult, and the name evolved into the current Kisumu. The local people however, now call the place Kisumo. Kisumu County stretches from the Nandi escarpment in the East to the Kano Plains in the all the way to the hills of the West.
The Kano Plain is perhaps its most famous feature, sporting black cotton soil that is very fertile, the county has several inselbergs, mostly in the Kisian Area. Several rock outcrops exist, the most famous of them being Kit Mikayi in Seme Sub-county, Kit Mikay consists of several rocks piled onto each other with several caves inside. But Kit Mikayi is neither the only, or the largest piled rock in the county, the climate of the whole county is modified by the presence of Lake Victoria. The county has an annual rainfall that ranges between 1200 mm and 1300 mm in different sectors. The rain mainly falls in two seasons, Kisumu is known for its thunderstorms, which are the major type of precipitation and normally occur in mid-afternoon during the rainy season. Kisumu is warm throughout the year with an annual temperature of 23. The temperature ranges between 20 0C and 35 0C but seldom falls below 19 0C, the humidity is relatively high throughout the year. http, The first and current governor of Kisumu County is Jakton Ranguma.
He is deputised by Ruth Odinga, sister to the former Prime Minister Raila Odinga, the legislature of the county is called the County Assembly and has 35 representatives. For administrative purposes, the county is divided into 7 sub-counties, the sub-counties are further divided into 35 wards, which forward representatives to the County Assembly in Kisumu City. Kisumu County sits on the shores of Lake Victoria, providing it with the potential to be a centre of fishing
Flower mantises are those species of praying mantis that mimic flowers. Their coloration is an example of mimicry, a form of camouflage in which a predators colours. Most species of mantis are in the family Hymenopodidae. Their behaviour varies, but typically involves climbing a plant until they reach a suitable flower, many of these mantises have deimatic displays to startle or put off potential predators. Many species of mantis are popular as pets. The orchid mantis, Hymenopus coronatus, of southeast Asia mimics a pink orchid flower and it remains motionless on the flower spike until prey arrive, the same camouflage protects it from predators. In his 1940 book Adaptive Coloration in Animals, Hugh Cott quotes an account by Nelson Annandale, saying that the mantis hunts on the flowers of the Straits Rhododendron, the nymph has what Cott calls Special Alluring Coloration, where the animal itself is the decoy. The mantis climbs up and down the twigs of the plant until it finds one that has flowers and it holds on to these with the claws of its two rearmost pairs of legs.
It sways from side to side, and soon various small flies land on and around it, when a larger dipteran fly, as big as a house fly, landed nearby, the mantis at once seized and ate it. More recently, the orchid mantiss coloration has been shown to be a mimic of tropical flowers. The flower mantises include the species, many of which are popularly kept as pets, List of mantis genera and species Cott. The Insects, An Outline of Entomology
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community. Its capital and largest city is Nairobi and it is bordered by Tanzania to the south and southwest, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581,309 km2, and had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017, Kenya has a warm and humid tropical climate on its Indian Ocean coastline. The climate is cooler in the grasslands around the capital city and especially closer to Mount Kenya. Further inland are highlands in Central and Rift Valley regions where tea, in the West are Nyanza and Western regions, there is an equatorial and dry climate which becomes humid around Lake Victoria, the largest tropical fresh-water lake in the world. This gives way to temperate and forested areas in the neighbouring western region. The north-eastern regions along the border with Somalia and Ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes, Kenya is known for its world class athletes in track and field and rugby.
The African Great Lakes region, which Kenya is a part of, has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic period, by the first millennium AD, the Bantu expansion had reached the area from West-Central Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of the nations residents and Arab presence in coastal Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period, European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century. The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, which starting in 1920 gave way to the Kenya Colony, Kenya obtained independence in December 1963. Following a referendum in August 2010 and adoption of a new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties, the capital, Nairobi, is a regional commercial hub. The economy of Kenya is the largest by GDP in East, agriculture is a major employer, the country traditionally exports tea and coffee and has more recently begun to export fresh flowers to Europe. The service industry is an economic driver.
Additionally, Kenya is a member of the East African Community trading bloc, the Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The origin of the name Kenya is not clear, but perhaps linked to the Kikuyu and Kamba words Kirinyaga, Kirenyaa, if so, the British may not so much have mispronounced it, as misspelled it. In the 19th century, the German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf was staying with the Bantu Kamba people when he first spotted the mountain. On asking for the name of the mountain, he was told Kĩ-Nyaa or Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa probably because the pattern of black rock, the Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, which is quite similar to the Kamba name. Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia believed by most to be a corruption of the Kamba version, others say that this was—on the contrary—a very precise notation of a correct African pronunciation /ˈkɛnjə/