World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. It is bounded by Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south, Assam to the west; the state covers an area of 22,327 square kilometres and has a population of 3 million, including the Meitei, who are the majority group in the state, the Pangals or the Pangans and Naga people, who speak a variety of Sino-Tibetan languages. Manipur has been at the crossroads of Asian economic and cultural exchange for more than 2,500 years, it has long connected the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, Siberia and Polynesia, enabling migration of people and religions. During the Raj, the Kingdom of Manipur was one of the princely states. Between 1917 and 1939, the people of Manipur pressed for their rights against British rule. By the late 1930s, the princely state of Manipur negotiated with the British administration its preference to be part of India, rather than Burma; these negotiations were cut short with the outbreak of World War II.
On 11 August 1947, Maharaja Budhachandra signed the Instrument of Accession. On 21 September 1949, he signed a Merger Agreement, merging the kingdom into India; this merger has been disputed by groups in Manipur as having been completed without consensus and under duress. The dispute and differing visions for the future has resulted in a 50-year insurgency in the state for independence from India, as well as in repeated episodes of violence among ethnic groups in the state. From 2009 through 2018, the conflict was responsible for the violent deaths of over 1000 people; the Meitei ethnic group represents 53% of the population of Manipur state. The main language of the state is Meitei followed by Thadou language of the Kuki tribe and other various dialects of the Kuki tribes, followed by Naga tribes various dialects. Tribes constituting about 40% of the state population are distinguished by dialects and cultures that are village-based. Manipur's ethnic groups practice a variety of religions. According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the major religion in the state followed by Christianity.
Other religions include Islam, Judaism etc. Manipur has an agrarian economy, with significant hydroelectric power generation potential, it is connected to other areas by daily flights through Imphal airport, the second largest in northeastern India. Manipur is home to many sports and the origin of Manipuri dance, is credited with introducing polo to Europeans. Manipur is mentioned in historic texts as Kangleipak or Meeteileipak Sanamahi Laikan wrote that officials during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba in the eighteenth century adopted Manipur's new name. According to Sakok Lamlen, the area had different names in its history. During the Hayachak period, it was known as Mayai Koiren poirei namthak saronpung or Tilli Koktong Ahanba. During the Langbachak era, it became Tilli Koktong Leikoiren, was known as Muwapali in the Konnachak epoch. Neighbouring cultures each had differing names for its people; the Shan or Pong called the area Cassay, the Burmese Kathe, the Assamese Meklee. In the first treaty between the British East India Company and Meidingu Chingthangkhomba signed in 1762, the kingdom was recorded as Meckley.
Bhagyachandra and his successors issued coins engraved with "Manipureshwar", or "lord of Manipur", the British discarded the name Meckley. On, the work Dharani Samhita popularised the Sanskrit legends of the origin of Manipur's name; the term Kanglei, meaning "of Manipur/Kangleipak", is used to refer to items associated with the state where the term Manipuri is a recent given name. The history of Manipur Meities is chronicled in Puyas or Puwaris, the Ninghthou Kangbalon, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Ningthourol Lambuba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, Panthoibi Khongkul, etc. in the archaic Meitei script, comparable to the Thai script. The historical accounts presented here were recordings from the eyes and the judgment of the Meitei Kings and Maichous. Hill tribes have their own folk tales and legends. Manipur was known by different names at various periods in its history, such as, Tilli-Koktong, Poirei-Lam, Sanna-Leipak, Mitei-Leipak, Meitrabak or Manipur, its capital was Yumphal or Imphal. Its people were known by various names, such as Mi-tei, Poirei-Mitei, Maitei or Meitei.
The Puwaris, Ninghthou Kangbalon, Ningthourol Lambuba, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Poireiton Khunthokpa, recorded the events of each King who ruled Manipur in a span of more than 3500 years until 1955 AD. Ningthou Kangba is regarded the foremost king of Manipur. There were times when the country was in turmoil without rulers and long historical gaps in between 1129 BC - 44 BC. In 1891 AD, after the defeat of the Meiteis by the British in the Anglo-Manipuri war of Khongjom, the sovereignty of Manipur which it had maintained for more than three millenniums, was lost. In 1926,it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 1947,January 4, it regained its freedom on 14th August 1947 AD. On 15 October 1949, Manipur was unified with India. By the medieval period, marriage alliances between royal families of the Manipur kingdom and Burma had become common. Medieval era Manipur manuscripts discovered in the 20th century the Puya, provide evidence that Hindus from the Indian subcontinent were married to Manipur royalty at least by the 14th century.
In centuries thereafter, roya
Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy. The honorific Netaji, first applied in early 1942 to Bose in Germany by the Indian soldiers of the Indische Legion and by the German and Indian officials in the Special Bureau for India in Berlin, was used throughout India. Bose had been a leader of the younger, wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress President in 1938 and 1939. However, he was ousted from Congress leadership positions in 1939 following differences with Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress high command, he was subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India in 1940. Bose arrived in Germany in April 1941, where the leadership offered unexpected, if sometimes ambivalent, sympathy for the cause of India's independence, contrasting starkly with its attitudes towards other colonised peoples and ethnic communities.
In November 1941, with German funds, a Free India Centre was set up in Berlin, soon a Free India Radio, on which Bose broadcast nightly. A 3,000-strong Free India Legion, comprising Indians captured by Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps, was formed to aid in a possible future German land invasion of India. By spring 1942, in light of Japanese victories in southeast Asia and changing German priorities, a German invasion of India became untenable, Bose became keen to move to southeast Asia. Adolf Hitler, during his only meeting with Bose in late May 1942, suggested the same, offered to arrange for a submarine. During this time Bose became a father. Identifying with the Axis powers, no longer apologetically, Bose boarded a German submarine in February 1943. In Madagascar, he was transferred to a Japanese submarine from which he disembarked in Japanese-held Sumatra in May 1943. With Japanese support, Bose revamped the Indian National Army composed of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army, captured in the Battle of Singapore.
To these, after Bose's arrival, were added enlisting Indian civilians in Malaya and Singapore. The Japanese had come to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions, such as those in Burma, the Philippines and Manchukuo. Before long the Provisional Government of Free India, presided by Bose, was formed in the Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bose had great drive and charisma—creating popular Indian slogans, such as "Jai Hind,"—and the INA under Bose was a model of diversity by region, ethnicity and gender. However, Bose was regarded by the Japanese as being militarily unskilled, his military effort was short-lived. In late 1944 and early 1945 the British Indian Army first halted and devastatingly reversed the Japanese attack on India. Half the Japanese forces and half the participating INA contingent were killed; the INA was driven down the Malay Peninsula, surrendered with the recapture of Singapore. Bose had earlier chosen not to surrender with his forces or with the Japanese, but rather to escape to Manchuria with a view to seeking a future in the Soviet Union which he believed to be turning anti-British.
He died from third degree burns received. Some Indians, did not believe that the crash had occurred, with many among them in Bengal, believing that Bose would return to gain India's independence; the Indian National Congress, the main instrument of Indian nationalism, praised Bose's patriotism but distanced itself from his tactics and ideology his collaboration with fascism. The British Raj, though never threatened by the INA, charged 300 INA officers with treason in the INA trials, but backtracked in the face both of popular sentiment and of its own end. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, to Prabhavati Dutt Bose and Janakinath Bose, an advocate belonging to a Kayastha family, he was the ninth in a family of 14 children. His family was well to do, he was admitted to the Protestant European School in Cuttack, like his brothers and sisters, in January 1902. He continued his studies at this school, run by the Baptist Mission up to 1909 and shifted to the Ravenshaw Collegiate School.
Here, he was ridiculed by his fellow students because he knew little Bengali. The day Subhas was admitted to this school, Beni Madhab Das, the headmaster, understood how brilliant and scintillating his genius was. After securing the second position in the matriculation examination in 1913, he got admitted to the Presidency College where he studied briefly, he was influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna after reading their works at the age of 16. He felt. In those days, the British in Calcutta made offensive remarks to the Indians in public places and insulted them openly; this behavior of the British as well as the outbreak of World War I began to influence his thinking. His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for the latter's anti-India comments, he was expelled although he appealed that he only witnessed the assault and did not participate in it. He joined the Scottish Church College at the University of Calcutta and passed his B.
A. in 1918 in philosophy. Bose le
Huyen langlon is an Indian martial art from Manipur. In the Meitei language, huyen means war while langlong can mean net, knowledge or art. Huyen langlon consists of two main components: thang-ta and sarit sarak; the primary weapons of huyen langlon are the ta. The spear can be thrown from afar. Other weapons include the axe. Unarmed combat incorporates hand strikes and grappling; because of Manipur's cultural similarity and geographical proximity with Myanmar, huyen langlon is related to Burmese bando and banshay. The thang-ta aspect of huyen langlon can be practiced in three ways: ritual and combat; the first way is related to tantric practices and is ritualistic in nature. The second way consists of a spectacular performance involving spear dances; these routines can be converted into actual fighting practices. The third way is the true combat application. Thang-ta shares a connection with certain war-dances blurring the line between dance and combat forms, such as thangkairol and khosarol. Many ritualistic dances in Manipur were traditionally performed by martial artists such as the spear dance for funerals or the sacred thengou dance.
The sword movements in dance are meant to ward off evil spirits. All that can be gleaned of huyen langlon's ancient history comes from legends. Folklore links its related dances with the native animist gods. Manipur was a valley protected from neighbouring Hindu and Chinese kingdoms by hills; the tribal people of the hills were divided into seven related clans, known as yek, salai, or pana. These were the Mangang, Khuman, Angom,Moirang, Khaba-Nganba and Sarang Leishangthem. Before their integration into a single unified Meitei community, these clans each ruled separate principalities over which they fought amongst each other; the earliest written record of huyen langlon come from the Puya or written records handed down to posterity by the forefathers of the Meiteis, which record the history of the Manipur royalty in archaic Meitei script. The Chainarol-Puya details the ethics of dueling; the fights took place under strict rules of conduct and to violate them was sinful. When a fighter is challenged, the day for the bout is fixed to allow for time to prepare the weapons.
Allowing the opponent the first chance to fire an arrow or hurl a spear was considered courageous. The duel itself was not to the death and ended once first blood has been drawn. However, the victor was expected to behead the loser. Either before the duel or before the beheading, the fighters would share the meals and wine prepared by their wives. If it had been so requested beforehand, the loser's body may be cremated. Heads were taken as trophies. Taboos existed such as not killing an opponent who runs, begs or cries out of fear, or anyone who pleads for protection; until this point, most of the fighters were commoners who served as warriors. Loiyamba Shinyen introduced an armed force or lallup, while King Punshiba created a permanent military department known as Shingchep Meira Haijouroi, paving the way for the conqueror kings of the 15th century; the warrior queen Linthoingambi defeated raiding Tangkhul tribesmen while the king was absent. Her husband Meidingu Ningthou Khomba took advantage of his trained warriors and expanded the kingdom's territory.
Their son Meidingu Senbi Kiyamba, an expert with the spear went on to conquer the Shan kingdom of Kyang. Meidingu Pamheiba is regarded as one of Manipur's greatest kings, he upgraded the lallup system, making it the duty of every male above 16 to serve the state for 10 in 40 days. Therefore each person served the state some 90 days in a year, with martial arts as part of their training, thus Manipur relied on its individual warriors for protection. Pamheiba's development of the military paid off, his warriors fought the Burmese kingdom of Awa, expanding Meitei rule as far as Cachar. Conflict with the Burmese continued through the 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in the Chahi-Taret Khuntakpa or Seven Years Devastation; as muskets were not available and spears remained the primary weapons of both the Burmese and Meitei armies. From 1891 to 1947 British colonists prohibited martial arts, the possession of weapons, duels to the death, other violent customs among India's indigenous populations; the ban was somewhat difficult to enforce due to the region's isolation.
The neighbouring Naga people in particular have practiced headhunting in living memory. Modernization and adoption of Christianity killed off much of the native culture after the second World War; the meditative practices of huyen langlon were nearly lost. Today it is the most popular of Meitei martial arts, practiced by women, it is most seen through demonstrations in cultural programs. In recent years huyen langlon has been promoted as a sport all over India and as a self-defence tactical subject. Competitions are held yearly at school, district and national level; the promotion of huyen langlon as a sport helped in the cause of its promotion and spread from Manipur to the whole of India Jammu and Kashmir. Manipur and Jammu & Kashmir are the strongest contenders at the national level. In 2009 Gurumayum Gourakishor Sharma, a leading exponent and teacher of huyen langlon, received the high Padma Shri award from the Indian G
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
Liquefied petroleum gas
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas referred to as propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, vehicles. It is used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer; when used as a vehicle fuel it is referred to as autogas. Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are propane butane, most mixes including both propane and butane. In the northern hemisphere winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain more butane. In the United States two grades of LPG are sold: commercial propane and HD-5; these specifications are published by the Gas Processors Association and the American Society of Testing and Materials. Propane/butane blends are listed in these specifications. Propylene and various other hydrocarbons are also present in small concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5%, is utilized as an autogas specification.
A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added. The internationally recognized European Standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene or amyl mercaptan are approved odorants, although neither is being utilized. LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, is entirely derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum, or extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground, it was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, the first commercial products appeared in 1912, it provides about 3% of all energy consumed, burns cleanly with no soot and few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water pollution hazards. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium grade petrol. However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than either that of petrol or fuel oil, as its relative density is lower; as its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will evaporate at normal temperatures and pressures and is supplied in pressurised steel vessels.
They are filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition and temperature, but is around 250:1; the pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure varies depending on composition and temperature. LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements. There are two main dangers from this; the first is a possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is within the explosive limits and there is an ignition source. The second is suffocation causing a decrease in oxygen concentration. A "full" LPG cylinder contains 85% liquid, the ullage volume will contain vapour at a pressure that varies with temperature. LPG has a wide variety of uses used for cylinders across many different markets as an efficient fuel container in the agricultural, hospitality, construction and fishing sectors.
It can serve as fuel for cooking, central heating and to water heating and is a cost-effective and efficient way to heat off-grid homes. LPG is used for cooking in many countries for economic reasons, for convenience or because it is the preferred fuel source. In India, nearly 8.9 million tons of LPG was consumed in the six months between April and September 2016 in the domestic sector for cooking. The number of domestic connections are 215 million with a circulation of more than 350 million LPG cylinders. Most of the LPG requirement is imported. Piped city gas supply in India is not yet developed on major scale. LPG is subsidised by the Indian government for domestic users. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in India as it affects the middle class voting pattern. LPG was once a standard cooking fuel in Hong Kong. However, other than electric, induction, or infrared stoves, LPG-fueled stoves are the only type available in most suburban villages and many public housing estates.
LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in all households, with the exception of the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, which have a natural gas pipeline infrastructure. Since 2001, poor families receive a government grant used for the acquisition of LPG. Since 2003, this grant is part of the government main social welfare program. Since 2005 the national oil company Petrobras differentiates between LPG destined for cooking and LPG destined for other uses, practicing a lower price for the former; this is a result of a directive from Brazilian federal government, but its demise is being debated. LPG is used in North America for domestic cooking and outdoor grilling. Predominantly in Europe and rural parts of many co
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte