Enryaku-ji is a Tendai monastery located on Mount Hiei in Ōtsu, overlooking Kyoto. It was founded in 788 during the early Heian period; the temple complex was established by Saichō known as Dengyō Daishi, who introduced the Tendai sect of Mahayana Buddhism to Japan from China. Enryaku-ji is the headquarters of the Tendai sect and one of the most significant monasteries in Japanese history; as such, it is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto". The founders of Jōdo-shū, Sōtō Zen, Nichiren Buddhism all spent time at the monastery. Enryaku-ji is the center for the practice of kaihōgyō. With the support of Emperor Kanmu, the Buddhist monk Saichō ordained a hundred disciples in 807. Maintaining a strict discipline on Mt. Hiei, his monks lived in seclusion for twelve years of study and meditation. After this period, the best students were retained in positions in the monastery and others graduated into positions in the government. At the peak of its power, Enryaku-ji was a huge complex of as many as 3,000 sub-temples and a powerful army of warrior monks.
In the tenth century, succession disputes broke out between Tendai monks of the line of Ennin and Enchin. These disputes resulted in opposing Tendai centers at Enryaku-ji and at Mii-dera, known as the Mountain Order and the Temple Order. Warrior monks were used to settle the disputes, Tendai leaders began to hire mercenary armies who threatened rivals and marched on the capital to enforce monastic demands; as part of a program to remove all potential rivals and unite the country, warlord Oda Nobunaga ended this Buddhist militancy in 1571 by attacking Enryaku-ji, leveling the buildings and slaughtering monks. Enryaku-ji's current structures date from the late 16th century through the first half of the 17th century, when the temple was reconstructed following a change of government. Only one minor building survived, the Ruri-dō, located down a long, unmarked path from the Sai-tō complex. During reconstruction, some buildings were transferred from other temples, notably Mii-dera, thus the buildings themselves are old, though they have not always been at this location.
Today, most of Enryaku-ji's buildings are clustered in three areas: Tō-dō, Sai-tō, Yokokawa. The monastery's most important buildings are concentrated in Tō-dō. Sai-tō is a 20-minute walk away downhill from Tō-dō, features several important buildings. Yokokawa is more isolated and less visited, about a 1:30 walk, is most reached by bus, which connects the three complexes and other locations on the mountain. On April 4, 2006, Enryaku-ji performed a ceremony for former leaders of Yamaguchi-gumi, by far the largest Yakuza organization in Japan; because such temple ceremonies have been used for Yamaguchi-gumi fund-raising and demonstrations of power, the Shiga Prefectural Police requested that Enryaku-ji cease performance of the ceremony. Rejecting the request, Enryaku-ji received crime-related money for the ceremony and allowed nearly 100 upper-level Yamaguchi-gumi leaders to attend. After reports in the Asahi Shimbun and Yomiuri Shimbun newspapers, Enryaku-ji faced a nationwide scandal; the temple was criticized by the Japan Buddhist Temple Association, which led a movement against the Yakuza.
On May 18, all representative directors of Enryaku-ji resigned, apologizing on their website and in e-mails which were sent to 3,000 branch temples. Glossary of Japanese Buddhism Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Tourism in Japan Guoqing Temple Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. Official website Japan Atlas: Enryaku-Ji Temple Photos of Mount Hiei and the three precincts of Enryaku-ji Temple
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai means "large", myō stands for myōden, meaning private land. Subordinate to the shōgun, nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyō of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history; the backgrounds of daimyō varied considerably. The term daimyō sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans called "Lord", it was though not from these warlords that a shōgun arose or a regent was chosen. Daimyō hired samurai to guard their land and they paid the samurai in land or food as few could afford to pay samurai in money; the daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871. The shugo daimyō were the first group of men to hold the title daimyō.
They arose from among the shugo during the Muromachi period. The shugo-daimyō held not only military and police powers, but economic power within a province, they accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period. Major shugo-daimyō came from the Shiba and Hosokawa clans, as well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ōuchi, Akamatsu; the greatest ruled multiple provinces. The Ashikaga shogunate required the shugo-daimyō to reside in Kyoto, so they appointed relatives or retainers, called shugodai, to represent them in their home provinces; some of these in turn came to reside in Kyoto, appointing deputies in the provinces. The Ōnin War was a major uprising. During this and other wars of the time, kuni ikki, or provincial uprisings, took place as locally powerful warriors sought independence from the shugo-daimyō; the deputies of the shugo-daimyō, living in the provinces, seized the opportunity to strengthen their position. At the end of the fifteenth century, those shugo-daimyō who succeeded remained in power.
Those who had failed to exert control over their deputies fell from power and were replaced by a new class, the sengoku-daimyō, who arose from the ranks of the shugodai and ji-samurai. Among the sengoku daimyō were many, shugo-daimyō, such as the Satake, Takeda, Rokkaku, Ōuchi, Shimazu. New to the ranks of the daimyō were the Asakura, Nagao, Miyoshi, Chōsokabe, Jimbō, Hatano and Matsunaga; these came from the ranks of their deputies. Additional sengoku-daimyō such as the Mōri, Ryūzōji arose from the ji-samurai; the lower officials of the shogunate and rōnin, provincial officials, kuge gave rise to sengoku-daimyō. The Battle of Sekigahara in the year 1600 marked the beginning of the Edo period. Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized 200 daimyō and their territories into han, which were assessed by rice production; those heading han assessed at 10,000 koku or more were considered daimyō. Ieyasu categorized the daimyō according to their relation to the ruling Tokugawa family: the shinpan were related to the Tokugawa.
The shinpan were collaterals of Ieyasu, such as the Matsudaira, or descendants of Ieyasu other than in the main line of succession. Several shinpan, including the Tokugawa of Owari and Mito, as well as the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu, held large han. A few fudai daimyō, such as the Ii of Hikone, held large han; the shogunate placed many fudai at strategic locations to guard the trade routes and the approaches to Edo. Many fudai daimyō took positions in the Edo shogunate, some rising to the position of rōjū; the fact that fudai daimyō could hold government positions while tozama in general, could not was a main difference between the two. Tozama daimyō held large fiefs far away from the capital, with e.g. the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku. Other famous tozama clans included the Mori of Chōshū, the Shimazu of Satsuma, the Date of Sendai, the Uesugi of Yonezawa, the Hachisuka of Awa; the Tokugawa regarded them as rebellious, but for most of the Edo period, marriages between the Tokugawa and the tozama, as well as control policies such as sankin-kōtai, resulted in peaceful relations.
Daimyō were required to maintain residences in Edo as well as their fiefs, to move periodically between Edo and their fiefs spending alternate years in each place, in a practice called sankin-kōtai. In 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyō, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. In 1871, the han were abolished and prefectures were established, thus ending the daimyō era in Japan. In the wake of this change, many daimyō remained in control of their lands, being appointed as prefectural governors. Despite this, members of former daimyō families remained prominent in government and society, in some cases continue to re
Ōmi Province is an old province of Japan, which today comprises Shiga Prefecture. It was one of the provinces, its nickname is Gōshū. Lake Biwa, Japan's largest lake, is located at the center of the province. "Ōmi" came from awaumi or "fresh-water sea" and the kanji of "Ōmi" means "an inlet near the capital". The ancient capital was near Ōtsu, a major castle town. In north of Otsu, one of the most important monastery Enryaku-ji is located on Mount Hiei. Hōjō Tokimasa, the first shikken of the Kamakura shogunate, was made daimyō of Ōmi Province in the 10th month of Shōji 2. During the Sengoku period, the northern part of the province was the fief of Ishida Mitsunari, Tokugawa Ieyasu's opponent at the Battle of Sekigahara, although he spent most of his time in Osaka Castle administering the fief of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's young son. After Ishida's defeat, Tokugawa granted the fief to his allies, the Ii clan, who built the castle and town of Hikone from the ruins of Sawayama. Takebe taisha was designated as the chief Shinto shrine for the province.
During the Edo period, it was host to five stations of the Tōkaidō and eight stations of the Nakasendō. The southern part of the province around the town of Kōka was the home of the famous Kōga ninja, one of the two main founding schools of ninjutsu. Shiga Prefecture Azai District Higashiazai District – dissolved Nishiazai District – merged into Ika District on April 1, 1897 Echi District Gamō District Ika District – absorbed Nishiazai District on April 1, 1897. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Media related to Omi Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Kitano Tenmangū is a Shinto shrine in Kamigyō-ku, Japan. The shrine was first built in 947 to appease the angry spirit of bureaucrat and poet Sugawara no Michizane, exiled as a result of political maneuvers of his enemies in the Fujiwara clan; the shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers be sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan; these messenger, called heihaku, were presented to 16 shrines. From 1871 through 1946, the Kitano Tenman-gū was designated one of the Kanpei-chūsha, meaning that it stood in the second rank of government supported shrines; the shrine was dedicated to Michizane. The grounds are filled with Michizane's favorite tree, the red and white ume or plum blossom, when they blossom the shrine is very crowded; the Plum Blossom Festival is held on February 25. An open-air tea ceremony is hosted by geiko and apprentice maiko from the nearby Kamishichiken district, where tea and wagashi are served to 3,000 guests by geisha and maiko.
The plum festival has been held on the same day every year for about 900 years to mark the death of Michizane. The outdoor tea ceremony dates back to 1952. In that year, a big festival was held to mark the 1,050th anniversary of Michizane's death, based on the historic Kitano Ochakai tea ceremony hosted at the shrine by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Kitano Tenmangū is popular with students praying for success in exams because the deity was in his life a man of literature and knowledge. On the 25th of every month, the shrine hosts a flea market. Together with the similar festival at Tō-ji, a temple in the same city, they inspired the Kyoto proverb, "Fair weather at the Tōji market means rainy weather at the Tenjin market," calling to mind Kyoto's fickle weather. List of Shinto shrines Twenty-Two Shrines List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines Three Great Tenjin Shrines Breen and Mark Teeuwen.. Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449 ____________.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 ____________.. Visiting Famous Shrines in Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby-Fane Memorial Society. OCLC 1030156 Kitano Tenmangū Official web page Kyoto Shimbun: Open-Air Tea Ceremony
The Chichibu incident was a large-scale peasant revolt in November 1884 in Chichibu, Saitama, a short distance from Japan's capital. It lasted about two weeks, it was one of many similar uprisings in Japan around that time, occurring in reaction to the dramatic changes to society which came about in the wake of the 1868 Meiji Restoration. What set Chichibu apart was the scope of the uprising, the severity of the government's response. After the end of the Tokugawa shogunate with the Meiji Restoration of 1868, Japanese agriculture was dominated by a tenant farming system; the Meiji government based its industrialization program on tax revenues from private land ownership, the Land Tax Reform of 1873 increased the process of landlordism, with many farmers having their land confiscated due to inability to pay the new taxes. This situation was worsened by the deflationary Matsukata Fiscal Policy from 1881, which depressed rice prices, leading to further bankruptcies; as tenants were forced to pay over half their crop as rent, they were forced to send wives and daughters to textile mills or to sell daughters into prostitution to pay for taxes.
The rising discontent of the farmers led to a number of peasant revolts in various impoverished rural areas around the country. The year 1884 saw sixty riots. A number of these uprisings were organized and led through the "Freedom and People's Rights Movement", a catch-all term for a number of disconnected meeting groups and societies throughout the country, consisting of citizens who sought more representation in government and basic rights; the national constitutions and other writings on freedom in the west were unknown among the Japanese masses at this time, but there were those in the movement who had studied the west and were able to conceive of democratic political ideology. Some societies within the movement wrote their own draft constitutions, many saw their work as a form of yonaoshi. Songs and rumors among the rebels indicated their belief that the Liberal Party would alleviate their problems. While many groups and political parties across the country debated political issues peacefully, the self-titled "Revolutionary Army" erupted in revolt on 31 October 1884, in the Chichibu district of Saitama Prefecture.
The uprising was triggered by the refusal of creditors to allow a moratorium on repayment of loans. The insurgents sought to attack a government building and loan shark offices and to destroy records of their debts. Accounts of the size of the revolt varied from 5,000 to over 10,000 men. Most of the rebels were armed with farming implements, bamboo spears, wooden cannon, hunting muskets; the rebels poured out of their small mountain villages, armed not only with weapons, but with banners and slogans. The revolutionaries dispatched smaller groups to seek out and oust individual government officials in the neighboring villages before recalling their forces and marching toward Tokyo, where the movement first met with significant resistance; the revolutionaries were met by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police and the new professional Imperial Japanese Army, their advance ground to a halt under the overwhelming police and army firepower. Ten days after the seizure of the district office, the Chichibu uprising was fully quashed at the foot of the Yatsugatake Mountains.
The precise number of revolutionaries killed remains unknown. Many survivors were arrested, nearly 3,000 were tried and convicted. Three hundred were convicted as felons, the seven ringleaders were sentenced to death. Five of the seven were hanged less than three months in February 1885. Although this was the largest popular uprising of the Meiji period, or because of it, the government sought to dismiss it by describing the rebels as little more than hooligans. Overall, the Chichibu Incident was caused by a combination of liberal, revolutionary ideologies and economic motivations. Though the traditional view of the event reduces the peasants' motivations to being purely economic, some scholars see it as part of a suppressed peoples' rights movement in this period. Irokawa Daikichi of Tokyo Keizai University, describes the incident in detail in his book, The Culture of the Meiji Period, argues that it was not part of a yonaoshi movement, nor an ordinary uprising by poor peasants looking to absolve themselves of their debts.
The leaders of the uprising, if not the majority of their followers, were active thinkers of the Freedom and People's Rights movements, sought no less than to challenge the Meiji government itself. According to Irokawa, they were guided by "the revolutionary ideology of the Liberal Party. Though a monument to the fallen was erected several decades a great number of the ringleaders and others who escaped formal punishment have never had their names cleared. A film, Kusa no Ran, appeared in 2004, directed by Seijirō Kōyama, commemorating the incident's 120th anniversary. Bowman, John. Columbian Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11004-9. Howell, David L.. Geographies of Ident
Kiyomizu-dera Otowa-san Kiyomizu-dera, is an independent Buddhist temple in eastern Kyoto. The temple is part of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto UNESCO World Heritage site; the place is not to be confused with Kiyomizu-dera in Yasugi, part of the 33-temple route of the Chūgoku 33 Kannon Pilgrimage through western Japan, or the Kiyozumi-dera temple associated with the Buddhist priest Nichiren. Kiyomizu-dera was founded in the early Heian period; the temple was founded in 778 by Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, its present buildings were constructed in 1633, ordered by the Tokugawa Iemitsu. There is not a single nail used in the entire structure, it takes its name from the waterfall within the complex. Kiyomizu means pure water, it was affiliated with the old and influential Hossō sect dating from Nara times. However, in 1965 it severed that affiliation, its present custodians call themselves members of the "Kitahossō" sect; the main hall has a large veranda, supported by tall pillars, that juts out over the hillside and offers impressive views of the city.
Large verandas and main halls were constructed at many popular sites during the Edo period to accommodate large numbers of pilgrims. The popular expression "to jump off the stage at Kiyomizu" is the Japanese equivalent of the English expression "to take the plunge"; this refers to an Edo-period tradition that held that if one were to survive a 13-meter jump from the stage, one's wish would be granted. During the Edo period, 234 jumps were recorded, of those, 85.4% survived. The practice was prohibited in 1872. Beneath the main hall is the Otowa waterfall, where three channels of water fall into a pond. Visitors can catch and drink the water, believed to have wish-granting powers; the temple complex includes several other shrines, among them the Jishu Shrine, dedicated to Ōkuninushi, a god of love and "good matches". Jishu Shrine possesses a pair of "love stones" placed 18 meters apart, which lonely visitors can try to walk between with their eyes closed. Success in reaching the other stone with their eyes closed implies that the pilgrim will find love, or true love.
One can be assisted in the crossing. The person's romantic interest can assist them as well; the complex offers various talismans and omikuji. The site is popular during festivals when additional booths fill the grounds selling traditional holiday foodstuffs and souvenirs to throngs of visitors. In 2007, Kiyomizu-dera was one of 21 finalists for the New Seven Wonders of the World, but was not picked as one of the seven winning sites. Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto List of National Treasures of Japan The Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture The New Seven Wonders - Wikipedia's list of the other finalists can be found here. Tourism in Japan Graham, Patricia J. Faith and Power in Japanese Buddhist Art ISBN 978-0-8248-3126-4. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society. Information and Photograph Kiyomizu-dera Temple at Official Kyoto Travel Guide Kiyomizu-dera Temple home page Photos and details of Kiyomizu-dera as a pilgrimage destination