Your Name. is a 2016 Japanese animated romantic fantasy drama film written and directed by Makoto Shinkai and produced by CoMix Wave Films. The film was produced with music composed by Radwimps. Your Name tells the story of a high school girl in rural Japan and a high school boy in Tokyo who swap bodies; the film stars the voices of Ryunosuke Kamiki, Mone Kamishiraishi, Masami Nagasawa and Etsuko Ichihara. Shinkai's novel of the same name was published a month before the film's premiere. Your Name was distributed by Toho, it premiered at the Anime Expo 2016 convention in Los Angeles, California on July 3, 2016, in Japan on August 26, 2016. It received widespread acclaim from critics, who praised the film for its animation and emotional impact, was a major commercial success, becoming the fourth-highest-grossing film of all time in Japan, the 8th-highest-grossing traditionally animated film, the highest-grossing anime and Japanese film and the 12th-highest-grossing non-English film worldwide, with a total gross of $358 million.
The film won the 49th Sitges Film Festival, 2016 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards, 71st Mainichi Film Awards for Best Animated Feature Film, as well as receiving a nomination for the 40th Japan Academy Prize for the Best Animation of the Year. A live action remake is in development. High school girl Mitsuha Miyamizu lives in the fictional town of Itomori in Japan's mountainous Hida region, she is bored with the country life, wishes to be a handsome boy in her next life. She begins switching bodies intermittently with Taki Tachibana, a high school boy in Tokyo when they wake up, they communicate by writing messages on paper, their phones, sometimes on each other's skin. Mitsuha causes Taki to develop a relationship with his coworker Miki, while Taki causes Mitsuha to become popular in school. One day, Taki, as Mitsuha, accompanies her grandmother and sister to leave the ritual alcohol kuchikamizake, made by Mitsuha, as an offering at the shrine on a mountaintop outside the town; the shrine is believed to represent the body of the village guardian god who rules human experiences and connections.
Mitsuha's latest note tells Taki about a comet expected to pass Earth on the day of her town festival. The next day, Taki wakes up in his body. After an unsuccessful date with Miki, he tries to call Mitsuha, but he cannot reach her, the body switching ends, he decides to visit Itomori, but he does not know its name, his memories of it are fading and Mitsuha's messages have disappeared. A restaurant owner in Hida recognizes Itomori from Taki's sketch and tells him when the comet Mitsuha told him about unexpectedly split into two, the larger piece kept moving, but the smaller one crashed onto Earth and destroyed the town. Taki finds Mitsuha's name in the records of fatalities and discovers the date of the disaster, realizing their timelines were separated by three years. Taki goes to the shrine to drink Mitsuha's kuchikamizake, hoping to reconnect with her body and warn her of the comet strike. Through a vision, Taki discovers that Mitsuha, having fallen in love with him, met his past self while trying to meet him personally.
He wakes in her body on the morning of the town festival. He convinces Mitsuha's friends Tessie and Sayaka to help evacuate the town by cutting the power and broadcasting a false emergency alert, but the plan fails, he goes back to find her. Mitsuha wakes up in Taki's body at the shrine; when Taki reaches the shrine as the sun sets they sense each other's presence, but are separated by three years. However, when twilight falls, they meet, they attempt to write each other's names on their hands so they will remember each other, but twilight passes and Mitsuha disappears before she can write hers. As Mitsuha races back to town to convince her estranged father, the Itomori mayor, to evacuate the town, her memories of Taki start to fade, she realizes. The comet piece crashes to Earth. Taki wakes up in his own time at the shrine. Five years Taki has graduated from university and is searching for a job, he senses he is missing something important and learns that inhabitants of Itomori survived by following the mayor's order.
One day and Mitsuha see each other when their trains draw parallel, are compelled to disembark and search for one another meeting on a staircase. Feeling they have met before, they ask for each other's name. In Makoto Shinkai's proposal sent to Toho in September 14, 2014, the film was titled Yume to Shiriseba, derived from a passage in a waka, or "Japanese poem", attributed to Ono no Komachi, its title changed to Kimi no Musubime and Kimi wa Kono Sekai no Hanbun before becoming Kimi no Na Wa. Inspiration for the story came from works including Shūzō Oshimi's Inside Mari, Ranma ½, the Heian period novel Torikaebaya Monogatari, Greg Egan's short story The Safe-Deposit Box. Shinkai cited Interstellar by Christopher Nolan as an influence. While the town of Itomori, one of the film's settings, is fictional, the film drew inspirations from real-life locations that provided backdrop for the town; such locations include the city of its library, Hida City Library. Yojiro Noda, the lead vocalist of the Japanese rock band Radwimps, composed the theme music of Your Name.
Junko Takeuchi is a Japanese actress and voice actress employed by Ogipro The Next Co. Inc. Taking a well-trod path by many voice actresses, she voices young male characters with very quirky and goofy personalities, her most notable roles are in Naruto, where she plays the main character, Naruto Uzumaki, in Digimon Frontier as Takuya Kanbara, in Medabots as Metabee and in Inazuma Eleven as Mamoru Endou, in the 1999 version of Hunter × Hunter as Gon Freecss. She is the Japanese voice of Gumball Watterson on The Amazing World of Gumball, she is the youngest of three children. As a child she studied piano for seven and a half years, she dropped out two years later. For several years she worked as shoe salesperson and gave piano lessons at a private school in Tokyo. In 1996 she joined BQ MAP Theater Company, she met fellow voice actor Kenji Hamada for the first time in 1999. The two were married in 2006, their first child was born in 2012 and the second in 2017. She owns three cats. 1997 Rurouni Kenshin – Honjō Kamatari Photon – Photon Earth1998 Beast Wars II: Super Life-Form Transformers – Moon1999 Super Life-Form Transformers: Beast Wars Neo – Break Digimon Adventure – Gomamon Hunter × Hunter – Gon Freecss Medabots – Metabee2000 Digimon Adventure 02 – Gomamon Medabots Damashii – Metabee Yu-Gi-Oh!
Duel Monsters – Mokuba Kaiba2001 Dennō Bōkenki Webdiver – Naoki Read or Die – Fabre Ask Dr. Rin! – Yue Konishi and Tenshin Captain Tsubasa – Takeshi Sawada and Hajime Taki 2002 Naruto – Naruto Uzumaki Digimon Frontier – Takuya Kanbara Hanada Shōnen-shi – Hanada Tokuko2003 Zatch Bell! – Maruss, Ted2004 Monster – Dieter Kakurenbo – Hikora Major – Okamura Trio2005 Onegai My Melody – Kuromi Absolute Boy – Wakkun2006 Futari wa Pretty Cure Splash Star – Kenta Hoshino Princess Princess – Kei/Megumi Yoshikawa Ouran High School Host Club – Shiro Takaouji Saru Get You -On Air- – Satoru Yonna in the Solitary Fortress – Piggott Katekyo Hitman Reborn! – Lambo2007 Naruto Shippudden – Naruto Uzumaki Yes! PreCure 5 – Rin Natsuki/Cure Rouge Claymore – Noel Gin Tama – Daigoro Kitaouji Sisters of Wellber – Tina Lawter2008 Inazuma Eleven – Mamoru Endo Kyo Kara Maoh! – Lindsey von Wincott Tamagotchi: Happiest Story in the Universe! – Kikitchi2009 Zoku Natsume Yūjin-Chō – Ishio Kai Jewelpet – Toor, Lapis, Mint2010 Digimon Xros Wars – Takuya Kanbara, Gomamon Inazuma Eleven – Kanon Endo Highschool of the Dead – Rika Minami2011 One Piece – Sabo Hoshi wo Ou Kodomo – Mimi Inazuma Eleven GO – Mamoru Endo, Mecha Endo2013 Pocket Monsters: The Origin – Red2015 Kyokai no RINNE – Youta Digimon Adventure tri.
– Gomamon2016 Nyanbo! - Mike2017 Boruto: Naruto Next Generations - Naruto Uzumaki Little Witch Academia - Croix Meridies2019 Pocket Monsters: Sun & Moon - Hapu Dororo - Sukeroku Mainichi Seiten! – Mayumi Obinata Soul Eater – Maka Albarn The Day of Revolution – Kei/Megumi Yoshikawa Yours For An Hour - Haru Hinomoto Street Fighter Zero 3 – R. Mika Garou: Mark of the Wolves – Hokutomaru Naruto video games – Naruto Uzumaki Radiata Stories – Jack Russell Ape Escape 3 – Satoru Quantum Leap Layzelber – Chyota Inazuma Eleven – Mamoru Endo A Lot like Love – Emily Friehl Cop Car – Travis Frailty – young Fenton The Amazing World of Gumball – Gumball Watterson W. I. T. C. H. – Taranee Cook Zootopia – Dawn Bellwether "Oh! Enka!" "Life Goes On" "Naruto's Neko Song" "Gyu-ru-ru" "Touki ~Fighting Spirits~" "Naruto Ondo" "Distance" "Tsubomi" "Salamander" Secret Rendezvous "Muteki na Bataashi" "Sora wo Kurooru "Chie to Yuuki da! Medarotto" Kaze no Muki ga Kattara Tobira Hunter Ondo GONtte yatsu wa ONNAtte subarashii Tabidachi Taisetsuna koto Te o Tsunaide Futari Tomo Yo Kuroi Hitomi Kuromi Rondo Kuromi Punk Lambo-san's Ambition Gyouza Gyuudon no Uta Yakusoku no Bashou A fun song Tatta Latta (with Li Mei Chan, Yuuna Inamura, Askesaka Satomi and Hitomi Yoshida Mirai no Oozora e Mata ne no Kisetsu - 7th ending to Inazuma Eleven Mamotte Miseru!
- Dakara Zettai Daijoubu - as Endou Mamoru Maji de Kansha Reversible - Jounetsu - Okaerinasai - Nakagami, Yoshikatsu et al. "Voice Actress Spotlight". Newtype USA. Pp. 112–1
Dan Green (voice actor)
James Hadley Snyder, known professionally as Dan Green, is an American voice actor, voice director and script adapter who has worked for 4Kids Entertainment, DuArt Film and Video, NYAV Post, Central Park Media. He is best known as the voice of Yugi Muto from Yu-Gi-Oh!, Trudge from Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's, Knuckles the Echidna from Sonic X and Sonic the Hedgehog video games from 2005 to 2010. Green has worked on script adaptations of Kurokami: Mobile Suit Gundam Unicorn, he teaches voice-over at Edge Studio in New York. Green attended Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, studied acting at the Juilliard School in New York City. In 2008, he married Michal Lura Friedman, a singer and fellow voice actress who used the name Michal the Girl. On November 25, 2011, she died from complications after a C section; the twins she carried were delivered and fans initiated charity efforts to provide for the children, a son named Jackson James Snyder and a daughter named Reverie Vivian Snyder. Angel's Friends - Gas Astonishing X-Men: Gifted - Colossus Chaotic - Mezzmarr, Tangath Toborn, Codemaster Imthor and Tartarek Cubix: Robots for Everyone - Graham, Professor Nemo, Flash Lightning the Meteorologix G.
I. Joe Sigma 6 - Lt. Stone Kikoriki - Jumper Hammerboy - Moonk Kappa Mikey - Additional Voices Pat & Stan - Pat Polar Krush - PK The Polar Bear, Gordon the Gorilla and Maurice the Mammoth Robotomy - Additional Voices Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - Mortu, Commander Mozar, The Professor The Boy Who Wanted To Be A Bear - Father Bear, Additional Voices Turtles Forever -'87 Leonardo, Additional Voices Viva Piñata - Hudson Horstachio, King Roario Thumb Wrestling Federation - Ring Announcer, Tom Cat, Sick Vick Vampirina - Grandpop Pokémon - Professor Birch, Treecko and Additional Voices Kirby: Right Back at Ya! - NME Salesman, Sir Arthur, Princess Rona's father Descendants of Darkness - Asato Tsuzuki The Legend of Snow White - Prince Richard Shaman King - Silva, Lee Pai-Long Sonic X - Knuckles the Echidna Ultimate Muscle - Robin Mask, Hydrozoa The King of Braves GaoGaiGar - Koutaro Taiga One Piece - Johnny, Monkey D. Dragon and Mr. 4 Dinosaur King - Jonathan Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters - Yugi Muto/Yami Yugi Yu-Gi-Oh!
GX - Yugi Muto, Guardian of the Labyrinth Yu-Gi-Oh! 5D's - Testu Trudge, Guard Robot Yu-Gi-Oh! Zexal - Tombo Tillbitty Incredible Crash Dummies - Crash Winx Club - Sky Beautiful Hunter - Man 7 The Bondage Master - Shiro Cutie Honey - Black Claw Close Your Eyes and Hold Me - Amane Exte: Hair Extensions - Kiyomi's Boyfriend The Machine Girl - Yusuke Magic in the Water - Radar Naughty Guide to Tokyo Nightlife - Tsuruta Scorpion's Revenge - Jimmy Yoshioka Ultraman Tiga - Daigo Madoka Zero Woman: The Accused - Detective Ape Escape 2 - The Professor, Spike One Piece: Grand Adventure - Shura PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale - Professor Shaman King video games - Silva, Lee Pai-Long Shaman King: Power of Spirit - Ashcroft, Mysterious Mask Shaman King: Master of Spirits - Store Clerk Shaman King: Master of Spirits 2 - Store Clerk Sonic the Hedgehog - Knuckles the Echidna Shadow the Hedgehog Sonic Riders - Storm the Albatross Sonic'06 - Mephiles the Dark Sonic Rivals Sonic and the Secret Rings - Sinbad the Sailor Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games - Vector the Crocodile Sonic Rivals 2 - Vector the Crocodile Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity - Storm the Albatross Sonic Unleashed - Professor Pickle, Ice Cream Man Sonic and the Black Knight - Sir Gawain Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games - Vector the Crocodile Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles video games - Mortu, Commander Mozar Battle Nexus Mutant Nightmare The Bureau: XCOM Declassified - Dr. Scott, Major Nigrosh Ultimate Muscle: Legends vs.
New Generation - Robin Mask, Warsman Yu-Gi-Oh! Video games - Yami Yugi Yu-Gi-Oh! Destiny Board Traveler - Yugi Muto Yu-Gi-Oh! Capsule Monsters Coliseum - Yugi Muto Duel Terminals - Trudge Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Links - Yugi Muto, Officer Tetsu Trudge Power of Chaos: Yugi the Destiny Yu-Gi-Oh! Reshef of Destruction - Yugi Muto Astonishing X-Men: Gifted Iron Man: Extremis Jungle Emperor Leo Knight Hunters Eternity Mobile Suit Gundam Unicorn Phoenix Samurai Deeper Kyo Shura no Toki: Age of Chaos The Gokusen Domain of Murder Knight Hunters Eternity Kurokami: The Animation Mobile Suit Gundam Unicorn Phoenix Queen's Blade Revolutionary Girl Utena Seven of Seven Shura no Toki: Age of Chaos G. I. Joe: Sigma 6 Iron Man: Extremis Dan Green on IMDb Dan Green at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Dan Green @ BehindTheVoiceActors Dan Green convention appearances on AnimeCons.com
Kitsune is the Japanese word for the fox. Foxes are a common subject of Japanese folklore. Stories depict them as intelligent beings and as possessing paranormal abilities that increase with their age and wisdom. According to Yōkai folklore, all foxes have the ability to shapeshift into human form. While some folktales speak of kitsune employing this ability to trick others—as foxes in folklore do—other stories portray them as faithful guardians, friends and wives. Foxes and humans lived close together in ancient Japan. Kitsune have become associated with Inari, a Shinto kami or spirit, serve as its messengers; this role has reinforced the fox's supernatural significance. The more tails a kitsune has—they may have as many as nine—the older and more powerful it is; because of their potential power and influence, some people make sacrifices to them as to a deity. Conversely foxes were seen as "witch animals" during the superstitious Edo period, were goblins who could not be trusted. Japanese fox myths had their origins in Chinese mythology.
Chinese folk tales tell of fox spirits called húli jīng. Many of the earliest surviving stories are recorded in the Konjaku Monogatarishū, an 11th-century collection of Chinese and Japanese narratives; the nine-tailed foxes came to be adapted as a motif from Chinese mythology to Japanese mythology. Smyers notes that the idea of the fox as seductress and the connection of the fox myths to Buddhism were introduced into Japanese folklore through similar Chinese stories, but she maintains that some fox stories contain elements unique to Japan; the full etymology is unknown. The oldest known usage of the word is in the 794 text Shin'yaku Kegonkyō Ongi Shiki. Other old sources include Nihon Ryōiki and Wamyō Ruijushō; these oldest sources are written in Man'yōgana which identifies the historical spelling as ki1tune. Following several diachronic phonological changes, this becomes kitsune. Many etymological suggestions have been made, though there is no general agreement: Myōgoki suggests that it is so called because it is "always yellow".
Early Kamakura period Mizukagami indicates that it means "came to bedroom" due to a legend that a kitsune would change into one's wife and bear children. Arai Hakuseki in Tōga suggests that ki means "stench", tsu is a possessive particle, ne is related to inu, the word for "dog". Tanikawa Kotosuga in Wakun no Shiori suggests that ki means "yellow", tsu is a possessive particle, ne is related to neko, the word for cat. Ōtsuki Fumihiko in Daigenkai proposes that the word comes from kitsu, onomatopoeia for the bark of a fox, ne, which may be an affix or an honorific word meaning a servant of an Inari shrine. Nozaki suggests that the word kitsune was onomatopoetic. Kitsu came to be the general word for fox. -Ne signifies an affectionate mood. Kitsu is now archaic. One of the oldest surviving kitsune tales provides a known folk etymology of the word kitsune. Unlike most tales of kitsune who become human and marry human males, this one does not end tragically: Ono, an inhabitant of Mino, spent the seasons longing for his ideal of female beauty.
He married her. With the birth of their son, Ono's dog was delivered of a pup which as it grew up became more and more hostile to the lady of the moors, she begged her husband to kill it. At last one day the dog attacked her so furiously that she lost courage, resumed vulpine shape, leaped over a fence and fled."You may be a fox," Ono called after her, "but you are the mother of my son and I will always love you. Come back when you please; because the fox returns to her husband each night as a woman but leaves each morning as a fox she is called Kitsune. In classical Japanese, kitsu-ne means come and sleep, ki-tsune means always comes. Kitsune are believed to possess superior intelligence, long life, magical powers, they are a type of yōkai. However, this does not mean that kitsune are ghosts, nor that they are fundamentally different from regular foxes; because the word spirit is used to reflect a state of knowledge or enlightenment, all long-lived foxes gain supernatural abilities. There are two common classifications of kitsune: The zenko are benevolent, celestial foxes associated with Inari.
Local traditions add further types. For example, a ninko is an invisible fox spirit that human beings can only perceive when it possesses them. Physically, kitsune are noted for having as many as nine tails. A greater number of tails indicates an older and more powerful fox. One, five and nine tails are the most common numbers in folk stories; when a kitsune gains its ninth tail, its fur becomes gold. These kyūbi no kitsune gain the abilities to hear anything happening anywhere in the world. Other tales
Planzet is a 2010 Japanese computer animated film written and directed by Jun Awazu. In 2047, an unknown, alien life-form, codenamed FOS, attacks Earth, destroying the world’s major cities in one fell swoop; the survivors unite to fight back, three years they erect a world shield, the Diffuser, to stop further invasions. Now in 2053, a last, desperate counterattack is being mounted against the FOS. Taishi Akejima, a soldier in the Planetary Defense Forces Alliance, would like nothing better than a shot at the aliens responsible for his father’s death six years ago. However, the new offensive requires a powerful weapon to be deployed and the Diffuser to be disabled, leaving the entire planet vulnerable once more. Will humanity regain the stars or lose everything in the final, ultimate gamble? In the different language versions, some of the character's names were changed. Character name: Taishi Akejima, Hiroshi Akishima, Hiroshi Voiced by: Mamoru Miyano. Official website Planzet at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Planzet on IMDb Sentai Filmwork's Official Planzet Website
Oni are a kind of yōkai, supernatural demon, ogre, or troll in Japanese folklore. They are portrayed as hulking figures with one or more horns growing out of their heads. Stereotypically, they are conceived of as red or blue-colored, wearing loincloths of tiger pelt, carrying iron kanabō clubs, they are popular characters in Japanese art and theatre, appear as stock villains in the well-known fairytales of Momotaro, Issun-bōshi, Kobutori Jīsan. Depictions of oni vary but portray them as hideous, gigantic ogre-like creatures with a single horn or multiple horns emerging from their heads, with sharp claws and wild hair, they are depicted wearing tiger-skin loincloths and carrying iron clubs called kanabō. This image leads to the expression "oni with an iron club", that is, to be invincible or undefeatable, their skin may be any number of colors, but red and green are common. They may sometimes be depicted as black-skinned, or yellow-skinned, they may be depicted with a third eye on their forehead, or extra fingers and toes.
An old etymology for "oni" is that the word derives from on, the on'yomi reading of a character meaning "to hide or conceal", due to oni having the tendency of "hiding behind things, not wishing to appear". This explanation is found in the 10th century dictionary Wamyōshō, which reveals that the oni at the time had a different meaning, defined as "a soul/spirit of the dead"; the character for oni, 鬼 in Chinese means a dead or ancestral spirit, not an evil specter. Accordingly, Chinese origins for the concept of oni has been proposed by Takahashi Masaaki; the oni was syncretized with Hindu-Buddhist creatures such as the man-devouring yaksha and the rakshasa, became the oni who tormented sinners as wardens of Jigoku, administering sentences passed down by Hell's magistrate, King Yama. The hungry ghosts called gaki has been sometimes considered a type of oni; some scholars have argued that the oni was a concept of Buddhist mythology. According to Chinese Taoism and esoteric Onmyōdō, the ways of yin and yang, the northeasterly direction is termed the kimon and considered an unlucky direction through which evil spirits passed.
Based on the assignment of the twelve zodiac animals to the cardinal directions, the kimon was known as the ushitora, or "Ox Tiger" direction. One theory is that the oni's bovine horns and tiger-skin loincloth developed as a visual depiction of this term. Temples are built facing that direction, for example, Enryaku-ji was deliberately built on Mount Hiei, in the kimon direction from Kyoto in order to guard the capital, Kan'ei-ji was built towards that direction from Edo Castle. However, skeptics doubt this could have been the initial design of Enryaku-ji temple, since the temple was founded in 788, six years before Kyoto existed as a capital, if the ruling class were so feng shui-minded, the subsequent northeasterly move of the capital from Nagaoka-kyō to Kyoto would have been taboo. Japanese buildings may sometimes have L-shaped indentions at the northeast to ward oni away, for example the walls surrounding the Kyoto Imperial Palace have notched corners in that direction The traditional bean-throwing custom to drive out oni is practiced during Setsubun festival in February.
It involves people casting roasted soybeans indoors or out of their homes and shouting "Oni wa soto! Fuku wa uchi!". This custom has grown from the medieval ritual of tsuina or oni-yarai, an year-end rite to drive away oni. Regionally around Tottori Prefecture during this season, a charm made of holly leaves and dried sardine heads are used as guard against oni. There is a well-known game in Japan called oni gokko, the same as the game of tag that children in western countries play; the player, "it" is instead called the "oni". Oni are featured in Japanese children's stories such as Momotaro, Issun-bōshi, Kobutori Jīsan. In more recent times, oni have lost some of their original wickedness and sometimes take on a more protective function. Men in oni costumes lead Japanese parades to dispel any bad luck, for example. Japanese buildings sometimes include oni-faced roof tiles called onigawara, which are thought to ward away bad luck, much like gargoyles in Western tradition. Many Japanese idioms and proverbs make reference to oni.
For example, the expression oya ni ninu ko wa oni no ko means "a child that does not resemble its parents is the child of an oni", may be used by a parent to chastise a misbehaving child. Citations Bibliography
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word