Crystal is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Crystal first appeared in Fantastic Four #45 and was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby. Within the Marvel Universe, Crystal is a member of a fictional subspecies of humanity known as Inhumans, who develop superhuman abilities when exposed to Terrigen Mist due to genetic modifications made by the Kree; the character possesses the ability to psionically control the four classical elements: earth, fire and water and, by extension, various other natural materials and phenomena such as metals and electricity. Crystal was the first character to be identified as an Inhuman, is one of the most prominent Inhuman characters. Crystal is sister of Medusa, Queen of the Inhumans, she appears with her canine companion, Lockjaw. The character has appeared as a main character in several comic book titles, including various incarnations of Inhumans as well as Fantastic Four and Avengers; the character is unique in her affiliation with all three of these groups.
She is associated, to a lesser extent, with the X-Men due to the character's previous marriage to Quicksilver, which resulted in their daughter, Luna. Crystal has appeared in various other Marvel media such as television series and video games, as well as merchandise such as trading cards and action figures, she made her live action debut in Marvel Cinematic Universe with the television series Inhumans, portrayed by Isabelle Cornish. Crystal first appeared in Fantastic Four #45, written by Stan Lee and illustrated by Jack Kirby, titled "Among Us Hide... The Inhumans"; when asked, "Who created the Inhumans, you or Stan Lee?" in a 1968 interview for Excelsior magazine, Jack Kirby replied, "I did." Like other early Fantastic Four characters, there is debate about how much Stan Lee and Jack Kirby each contributed to the characters' creation. Throughout her many appearances, Crystal has been depicted as brave and compassionate. While she is undoubtedly kind and emotional, this is in stark contrast to her remarkable power, she is more than capable of defending herself and others.
Crystal was first introduced, along with the rest of the Inhuman Royal Family and the Inhuman race as a whole, in the pages of Fantastic Four. Upon their first meeting and Johnny Storm were lovestruck by one another, a fact that led to her continued presence among the team. From this time, she would become a mainstay of the team for the duration of Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's stint on the series, she was the first character to join the Fantastic Four, outside of its original members, when she joined the team as a replacement for Sue Richards, pregnant with Franklin Richards. She remained a member of the team after Sue's return. During her time with the team, she became close to its members Ben Grimm and accompanied them on many adventures. Crystal was written out of Fantastic Four in issue #105, the first story arc after Jack Kirby's departure. At this time, the character returned to her family in Attilan due to her apparent inability to survive long-term in Earth's polluted atmosphere, her time with the team and her status as a friend and ally would continue to be part of her identity as a character, up to the present.
After her return to Attilan, Crystal falls in love with Quicksilver, Pietro Maximoff. During this time, Crystal is featured alongside Quicksilver in a number of different series including Inhumans and Vision and the Scarlet Witch, along with guest appearances in Fantastic Four and other titles. In addition to her marriage to Quicksilver, this time period saw the introduction of Luna, the daughter of Crystal and Pietro and the development of close friendship between Crystal and Pietro's twin sister, Scarlet Witch, her then-husband, Vision. In Steve Englehart's series and the Scarlet Witch Vol 2, Crystal has an affair with Vision and Wanda's "regular Joe" neighbor, Norm Webster. Crystal is purported to have committed this betrayal as a result of her mistreatment by Pietro. A few months in X-Factor Annual #2, it is revealed that the behavior exhibited by both Crystal and Pietro was the result of mind control orchestrated by Maximus. From 1987 to 1988, Crystal again rejoins the eponymous team in Fantastic Four, being written by Steve Englehart, at the time.
Crystal departs the team abruptly in Fantastic Four Annual #21 after being convinced to do so by her king and brother-in-law, Black Bolt. The artwork at the end of the issue features character pages for the Fantastic Four and many supporting characters. Despite this being Crystal's last issue, her character page reads "It's great to be back with the Fantastic Four! I'll never leave again!" Crystal has appeared as a member of the Avengers. She was a prominent member of the main Avengers team for the term of Bob Harras' time as writer for the title, but declined in prominence shortly after he left to become Editor-in-Chief of Marvel Comics. In addition to starring in Avengers, the character appeared in the solo books of her Avengers teammates during these years such as Captain America, Invincible Iron Man, The Vision. While serving on the team, the character lived in her nanny, Marilla. During this time period, the character would attempt to reconcile with Quicksilver off-and-on. Crystal was featured as an Avenger through many important storylines and events including Operation: Galactic Storm, Infinity War, Infinity Crusade, Bloodties and Heroes Return.
Crystal proved invaluable to the team many times during her tenure and was well-loved by her teammates
Alicia Reiss Masters is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. She is depicted as a supporting character to the superheroes the Fantastic Four and Silver Surfer. Created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, she first appeared in The Fantastic Four #8. Alicia is a blind sculptor, able to create lifelike representations of real people by touch and memory alone. A caring, sensitive character, she has been a romantic interest and confidante of The Thing, a member of the Fantastic Four, ashamed of his monstrous appearance, she has helped explain human life and emotion to the alien Silver Surfer. Actress Kat Green played her in the unreleased The Fantastic Four film from 1994, Kerry Washington portrayed her in the 2005 film Fantastic Four and the 2007 sequel Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer. Alicia is introduced in Fantastic Four #8, along with her stepfather, the supervillain known as the Puppet Master, she aids him out of obedience in his first scheme against the Fantastic Four, though she senses the "gentle" and "sensitive" spirit of the Thing when she first feels his palpably monstrous face.
Alicia turns on her stepfather when she realizes that he is mad and power-hungry, accidentally causes him to fall to his apparent death out of a window. A subsequently published story explains that the Puppet Master had been responsible for her permanent blindness, caused by an explosion of radioactive clay during his fight with a rival. Alicia Masters was a recurring character in early issues of Fantastic Four as the love interest of the Thing, serving as a plot device to cause him to resist changing back to a normal human form, for fear that Alicia would not love him as "plain Ben Grimm." The physically vulnerable Masters was frequently used as a damsel in distress. The character plays an integral role in one of the most acclaimed comic book stories of the Silver Age, "The Coming of Galactus," in Fantastic Four #48–50. In that story arc, the Silver Surfer first comes to Earth as a herald to the powerful, world-destroying being Galactus, crashes into Alicia's apartment after fighting the Fantastic Four.
Her passionate pleading with him about the value of life convinces him to reject his master and defend the Earth from destruction. After the Thing chooses to remain on an alien planet where he could change back to human form, Alicia falls in love with the dashing Human Torch, another member of the Fantastic Four; the Thing returns to unhappily attend their wedding. In Fantastic Four #300, Johny Storm and Alicia have their wedding, but it is nearly foiled by the Mad Thinker, the Wizard, Alicia's stepfather, the Puppet Master; these three villains planned to attack the wedding, but at the last moment Puppet Master stopped them, with the help of Dragon Man. After several months, the Fantastic Four discovers that Alicia was kidnapped and replaced by Lyja, a Skrull espionage agent sent to infiltrate the Fantastic Four and set them up for her handler, Paibok the Power Skrull, to destroy them; the Fantastic Four defeats retrieves Alicia. She was taken before Ben broke up with her, her feelings for Ben never changed.
This makes things difficult for both Johnny. The two of them had months to resolve things between them. Now Johnny has to come to grips with the fact that the real Alicia never loved him and that Lyja is the woman he loves. Ben has to deal with having gotten over Alicia, only to have her back and in love with him. With her relationships with Ben and Johnny now complicated by Johnny's marriage to'Lyja' and Ben's prior attempts to resolve his old feelings for her after Lyja's marriage, Alicia subsequently becomes romantically involved with the Silver Surfer and leaves Earth with him, traveling through outer space at his side in an armored suit. Alicia is trusted as a babysitter for Franklin Richards, the son of Invisible Woman and Mr. Fantastic. During the year-long period in which the FF were missing, Alicia is seen as his primary caretaker. In a 2007 storyline set in the aftermath of an apparent assassination of Captain America, Alicia designed the memorial to him. Following the events of the 2008 "Secret Invasion" storyline, Alicia is made part of a support group for people replaced by the Skrulls, as she has firsthand knowledge of what it is like being replaced and returned after a long period of time.
After the Fantastic Four have disbanded following the collapse of the multiverse, Peter Parker purchases the Baxter Building to keep it safe until the team are ready to come back together, including a statue of the FF in the entrance hall, made by Alicia. Ben spends some time with the Guardians of the Galaxy, but after a failed attempt to find the Richards' family in the multiverse, he proposes to Alicia just before the Richards return to Earth; the two marry just as Galactus returns to Earth in Latveria, but Reed reveals that he has developed a pocket temporal generator that freezes time everywhere on Earth but a small bubble for four minutes, allowing the rabbi to complete the ceremony and marry Ben and Alicia before they depart to fight Galactus. In the alternate future of the 1999 miniseries Earth X, Alicia has married Ben Grimm, they have two children and Chuck, who have Ben's orange-rock skin. Like most of humanity, Alicia has been granted powers due to the release of a mutative agent.
In the 2005 storyline "House of M", Alicia is part of the human resistance, struggling against the ruling class of mutants. She has spent some time as a sculptor, J. Jonah Jameson had commissioned one of himself for his home. In the
The Hulk is a fictional superhero appearing in publications by the American publisher Marvel Comics. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in the debut issue of The Incredible Hulk. In his comic book appearances, the character is both the Hulk, a green-skinned and muscular humanoid possessing a vast degree of physical strength, his alter ego Dr. Robert Bruce Banner, a physically weak withdrawn, reserved physicist, the two existing as independent personalities and resenting of the other. Following his accidental exposure to gamma rays during the detonation of an experimental bomb, Banner is physically transformed into the Hulk when subjected to emotional stress, at or against his will leading to destructive rampages and conflicts that complicate Banner's civilian life; the Hulk's level of strength is conveyed as proportionate to his level of anger. Portrayed as a raging savage, the Hulk has been represented with other personalities based on Banner's fractured psyche, from a mindless, destructive force, to a brilliant warrior, or genius scientist in his own right.
Despite both Hulk and Banner's desire for solitude, the character has a large supporting cast, including Banner's lover Betty Ross, his friend Rick Jones, his cousin She-Hulk, sons Hiro-Kala and Skaar, his co-founders of the superhero team the Avengers. However, his uncontrollable power has brought him into conflict with his fellow others. Lee stated that the Hulk's creation was inspired by a combination of Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Although the Hulk's coloration has varied throughout the character's publication history, the most usual color is green, he has two main catchphrases: "Hulk is strongest one there is!" and the better-known "Hulk smash!", which has founded the basis for numerous pop culture memes. One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the character has appeared on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectable items, inspired real-world structures, been referenced in a number of media. Banner and the Hulk have been adapted in live-action and video game incarnations.
The most notable of these were the 1970s The Incredible Hulk television series, in which the character was portrayed by Bill Bixby and Lou Ferrigno. The character was first played in a live-action feature film by Eric Bana, with Edward Norton and Mark Ruffalo portraying the character in the films The Incredible Hulk, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame of the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the Hulk first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #1, written by writer-editor Stan Lee, penciled and co-plotted by Jack Kirby, inked by Paul Reinman. Lee cites influence from Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the Hulk's creation: It was patently apparent that Thing was the most popular character in Fantastic Four.... For a long time I'd been aware of the fact that people were more to favor someone, less than perfect.... It's a safe bet that you remember Quasimodo, but how can you name any of the heroic, more glamorous characters in The Hunchback of Notre Dame?
And there's Frankenstein... I've always had a soft spot in my heart for the Frankenstein monster. No one could convince me that he was the bad guy.... He never wanted to hurt anyone. I decided I might as well borrow from Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as well—our protagonist would change from his normal identity to his superhuman alter ego and back again. Kirby, commenting upon his influences in drawing the character, recalled as inspiration the tale of a mother who rescues her child, trapped beneath a car. Lee has compared Hulk to the Golem of Jewish mythology. In The Science of Superheroes and Weinberg see the Hulk as a reaction to the Cold War and the threat of nuclear attack, an interpretation shared by Weinstein in Up, Up and Oy Vey; this interpretation corresponds with other popularized fictional media created during this time period, which took advantage of the prevailing sense among Americans that nuclear power could produce monsters and mutants. In the debut, Lee chose grey for the Hulk because he wanted a color that did not suggest any particular ethnic group.
Colorist Stan Goldberg, had problems with the grey coloring, resulting in different shades of grey, green, in the issue. After seeing the first published issue, Lee chose to change the skin color to green. Green was used in retellings of the origin, with reprints of the original story being recolored for the next two decades, until The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #302 reintroduced the grey Hulk in flashbacks set close to the origin story. An exception is the early trade paperback, Origins of Marvel Comics, from 1974, which explains the difficulties in keeping the grey color consistent in a Stan Lee written prologue, reprints the origin story keeping the grey coloration. Since December 1984, reprints of the first issue have displayed the original grey coloring, with the fictional canon specifying that the Hulk's skin had been grey. Lee gave the Hulk's alter ego the alliterative name "Bruce Banner" because he found he had less difficulty remembering alliterative names. Despite this, in stories he misremembered the character's name and referred to him as "Bob Banner", an error which readers picked up on.
The discrepancy was resolved by giving the character the official full name
Sharon Ventura known as She-Thing, is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. She has used the pseudonym Ms. Marvel and has served as a member of the Fantastic Four and the female wrestlers known as the Grapplers. Created by Mike Carlin and Ron Wilson, the character first appeared in Thing #27. Sharon Ventura met Thing at the time when he was involved with the Unlimited Class Wrestling Federation. Inspired by him, she signed up for the Power Broker's program in order to have her strength augmented and join the UCWF; the Power Broker, employed Dr. Karl Malus to create super-powered wrestlers for his competitions. Sharon was unaware of the criminal activities of Malus. While boosting their subjects' strength, the pair addicted the subjects to a drug, ensuring their obedience, it has been implied that she was raped while a prisoner of Malus, which caused her to temporarily develop an intense hatred and distrust of men. Sharon managed to break free before Malus administered the drug.
She adopted the costume which UCWF minder Ann Fraley had arranged for her, taking the name Ms. Marvel. Alongside the Thing, she battled the UCWF wrestlers, she battled the She-Hulk. Sharon was used by the Power Broker to determine if the augmentation could be reversed. Alongside Captain America, she battled the Power Broker. Sharon joined the Fantastic Four, alongside the Fantastic Four she battled Diablo. Shortly after joining the Fantastic Four, Sharon was mutated by cosmic rays and took on strength and appearance similar to that of Ben Grimm, a.k.a. the Thing. Although she never retired her Ms. Marvel moniker, she became more popularly known as the She-Thing and it is by this name she is most known to comic book fans, she first encountered Aron the Rogue Watcher, battled the She-Hulk. With She-Hulk, She-Thing battled Dragon Man. With the Fantastic Four and Frightful Four, she was captured by Aron, they defeated their clones. Sharon battled the Hulk. She-Thing was offered the chance to be human again by Doctor Doom while a then-powerless Ben Grimm chose to use one of Reed Richards' machines to revert to the Thing to save She-Thing.
Alongside the Fantastic Four, she battled the Time Variance Authority. She-Thing began working for Doctor Doom. Sharon claimed to be doing this, she was sent by Doctor Doom to spy on the Fantastic Four. With Mister Fantastic and the Thing, she was captured by Aron, but rescued by the Molecule Man and Doctor Doom. Alongside the Fantastic Four, she battled the Secret Defenders. Alongside the Fantastic Four and the Inhumans, she battled Doctor Doom; when she refused to betray her friends in the Fantastic Four to Doctor Doom, Doom spitefully mutated her into a much more monstrous form. After a bout of insanity, she joined the Frightful Four and battered Sue Storm Richards to within inches of her life. Years She-Thing had a guest appearance in Marvel Knights 4, a spinoff of the main Fantastic Four book; the appearance established that she was indeed alive and well in the Marvel Universe and her attire implied she was still residing with Wingfoot. Her absence was poked fun at. Sharon Ventura was seen again in her She-Thing form.
During the Secret Invasion storyline, a Skrull impersonating Sharon's "She-Thing" persona is killed by the Skrull Kill Krew. The real Sharon is recovered alive from a downed Skrull ship after the final battle of the invasion. Sharon attends a support group meeting with the others. Sharon has since been revealed as a prisoner in the Raft, with evidence suggesting that she is part of a plot to destabilize the Fantastic Four. In the post-Secret Wars Marvel Universe, Ms. Ventura has returned to her original human appearance, has been seen wrestling in her original outfit; as Ms. Marvel, Sharon had superhuman strength and endurance, thanks to augmentation of her physical attributes by Dr. Karl Malus on behalf of the Power Broker; the mutagenic effect due to exposure to cosmic radiation that turned her into the She-Thing greatly increased her physical attributes and durability. Sharon is proficient in hand-to-hand combat, skilled at various martial arts, including tae kwon do and American boxing, she is an expert stuntwoman, scuba diver, motorcyclist, mountain climber, lion tamer, wrestler.
She attended a military academy. As part of Ben Grimm's Fantastic Four, she demonstrated her intelligence by solving complicated situations with her intuition and cunning. Sharon Ventura's Ms. Marvel appearance appears as an alternate costume for Ms. Marvel in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance. Sharon Ventura at Marvel.com
Iron Man is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was co-created by writer and editor Stan Lee, developed by scripter Larry Lieber, designed by artists Don Heck and Jack Kirby; the character made his first appearance in Tales of Suspense #39, received his own title in Iron Man #1. A wealthy American business magnate and ingenious scientist, Anthony Edward "Tony" Stark suffers a severe chest injury during a kidnapping; when his captors attempt to force him to build a weapon of mass destruction, he instead creates a powered suit of armor to save his life and escape captivity. Stark develops his suit, adding weapons and other technological devices he designed through his company, Stark Industries, he uses successive versions to protect the world as Iron Man. Although at first concealing his true identity, Stark declared that he was, in fact, Iron Man in a public announcement. Iron Man was a vehicle for Stan Lee to explore Cold War themes the role of American technology and industry in the fight against communism.
Subsequent re-imaginings of Iron Man have transitioned from Cold War motifs to contemporary matters of the time. Throughout most of the character's publication history, Iron Man has been a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers and has been featured in several incarnations of his own various comic book series. Iron Man has been adapted for several animated TV films; the Marvel Cinematic Universe character is portrayed by Robert Downey Jr. in the live action film Iron Man, a critical and box office success. Downey, who received much acclaim for his performance, reprised the role in a cameo in The Incredible Hulk, two Iron Man sequels Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3, The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War and will do so again in Avengers: Endgame in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Iron Man was ranked 12th on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes" in 2011, third in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012. Iron Man's Marvel Comics premiere in Tales of Suspense #39 was a collaboration among editor and story-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, story-artist Don Heck, cover-artist and character-designer Jack Kirby.
In 1963, Lee had been toying with the idea of a businessman superhero. He wanted to create the "quintessential capitalist", a character that would go against the spirit of the times and Marvel's readership. Lee said, I think, it was the height of the Cold War. The readers, the young readers, if there was one thing they hated, it was war, it was the military... So I got a hero, he was a weapons manufacturer, he was providing weapons for the Army, he was rich, he was an industrialist... I thought it would be fun to take the kind of character that nobody would like, none of our readers would like, shove him down their throats and make them like him... And he became popular, he set out to make the new character a wealthy, glamorous ladies' man, but one with a secret that would plague and torment him as well. Writer Gerry Conway said, "Here you have this character, who on the outside is invulnerable, I mean, just can't be touched, but inside is a wounded figure. Stan made it much an in-your-face wound, you know, his heart was broken, you know broken.
But there's a metaphor going on there. And that's, I think, what made that character interesting." Lee based this playboy's looks and personality on Howard Hughes, explaining, "Howard Hughes was one of the most colorful men of our time. He was an inventor, an adventurer, a multi-billionaire, a ladies' man and a nutcase." "Without being crazy, he was Howard Hughes," Lee said. While Lee intended to write the story himself, a minor deadline emergency forced him to hand over the premiere issue to Lieber, who fleshed out the story; the art was split between Heck. "He designed the costume," Heck said of Kirby, ``. The covers were always done first, but I created the look of the characters, like Tony Stark and his secretary Pepper Potts." In a 1990 interview, when asked if he had "a specific model for Tony Stark and the other characters?", Heck replied "No, I would be thinking more along the lines of some characters I like, which would be the same kind of characters that Alex Toth liked, an Errol Flynn type."
Iron Man first appeared in 13- to 18-page stories in Tales of Suspense, which featured anthology science fiction and supernatural stories. The character's original costume was a bulky gray armored suit, replaced by a golden version in the second story, it was redesigned as sleeker, red-and-golden armor in issue #48 by that issue's interior artist, Steve Ditko, although Kirby drew it on the cover. As Heck recalled in 1985, "he second costume, the red and yellow one, was designed by Steve Ditko. I found it easier than drawing that bulky old thing; the earlier design, the robot-looking one, was more Kirbyish."In his premiere, Iron Man was an anti-communist hero, defeating various Vietnamese agents. Lee regretted this early focus. Throughout the character's comic book series, technological advancement and national defense were constant themes for Iron Man, but issues developed Stark into a more complex and vulnerable character as they depicted his battle with alcoholism and other personal difficulties.
From issue #59 to its final issue #99, the anthological science-fictio
Thundra is a fictional character, an anti-heroine appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. She is aligned with the Fantastic Four, she is a powerful, red haired, amazon-like warrior, or Femizon, from a matriarchal, technologically advanced future timeline where men have been subjugated by women. Thundra was created by Roy Thomas and John Buscema, first appeared in Fantastic Four #129. Thundra is a warrior time traveler from an alternate future 23rd century. In the future society she hails from, planet Earth is now known as Femizonia and is ruled by amazon-like female overlords who have conquered and enslaved the diminished male population; the former United States is now the'United Sisterhood Republic', Thundra hails from the megalopolis of Greater Milago, located in the United Sisterhood's Midwestern Republic. Thundra is renowned as the United Sisterhood's most formidable warrior, having been physically enhanced by genetic engineering and trained from childhood in combat, the martial arts, military strategy.
She is sent to the 20th century to challenge Fantastic Four member the Thing to a bout of one-on-one combat, believing him to be the strongest male of all time. By beating the Thing in combat, she feels she can prove once and for all that women were superior to the male gender, end a stagnant war between Femizonia and the warlike, male dominated planet of Machus, where the female population had been subjugated by its ruler Mahkizmo. Thundra is recruited into the evil group of supervillains known as the Frightful Four by the Wizard, they battled the Fantastic Four, she has no real interest in the group. She battled the Thing in personal combat, wound up switching sides and helping the Fantastic Four defeat the Frightful Four after she quits that group, she battled the Hulk, possessing the Thing's body at the time. Thundra assisted the Fantastic Four against the Frightful Four again, assisted the Fantastic Four against Namor the Sub-Mariner, her time travel from 23rd Century Femizonia, an alternate future ruled by women, to prevent the formation of Machus, an alternate future ruled by men, was revealed.
Alongside the Fantastic Four, she battled Mahkizmo. She remained in the 20th Century after a dimensional interface of Femizonia and Machus occurred, she assisted the Fantastic Four and Tigra against the Frightful Four, assisted the Fantastic Four and the Impossible Man against the Brute, Mad Thinker, Annihilus. Thundra met wrestling promoter Herkimer Oglethorpe, on his advice she became a professional wrestler training with the Grapplers, a group of female wrestlers who possess cybernetic-endowed superpowers. In a fixed wrestling match with one Grappler member, Thundra is secretly drugged by her opponent, causing her to black out and lose the match; when she awakens, it was revealed that the Grapplers were agents working for the Roxxon Oil Company, a multinational petroleum company, covertly involved in developing advanced technology and weaponry for sinister motives. The Grapplers were assigned to trick Thundra into helping them sabotage Project Pegasus, a prison/research facility built for housing supervillains.
They were employed the smuggle the Nth Projector out of Project Pegasus. As a result of the deception by Roxxon and the Grapplers, Thundra came to blows with the Thing. Alongside the Thing, Giant-Man, the Aquarian, she fought the Nth Man, she encountered the duplicate Hyperion and the Avengers, battled Ms. Marvel, she is allied with the duplicate Hyperion while still in service to Roxxon, with him stole the Nth Projector from the Nth Command, before she returned to an alternate Femizonia which did not interface with Machus. Sometime Thundra was revealed as the Empress of Femizonia, she teamed with the Thing to battle Machan rebels. She abducted the Avengers and Fantastic Four to the future to enlist their aid in defending Femizonia from the extra-dimensional warlord Arkon and his warriors from Polemachus, she fought Arkon in personal combat, became romantically inclined toward him. However, Thundra has a special place in her heart for Ben Grimm/the Thing. In addition to her amorous advances, the two have been involved in numerous superheroic adventures.
After defeating the android, Grimm informed Thundra that they could never be together, expressing his love for Alicia Masters. Thundra allowed him to return to the 20th century. Medusa and Crystal infiltrate Thundra's present-day homeland in order to retrieve part of a device required to rescue Black Bolt from the Skrulls intent on weaponizing him; as tensions between the two disguised women boil over, Thundra appears and compels them to undertake the ritual combat required of the society to resolve the disagreement. Thundra is convinced to hand over the Skrull intelligence agent after Crystal makes an impassioned speech. Thundra, Sue Storm and Valkyrie team up with She-Hulk and her Skrull partner Jazinda in order to forcibly distribute stagnating aid in the corrupt country of Marinmer; the Red Hulk battles the Lady tricks them into believing they caused him to pass out. Red Hulk kidnaps Thundra, offers her an alliance after deducing she was the only one of the group, willing to kill him. After agreeing to the alliance, Thundra becomes a subordinate o
American comic book
An American comic book is a thin periodical originating in the United States 32 pages, containing comics content. While the form originated in 1933, American comic books first gained popularity after the 1938 publication of Action Comics, which included the debut of the superhero Superman; this was followed by a superhero boom that lasted until the end of World War II. After the war, while superheroes were marginalized, the comic book industry expanded and genres such as horror, science fiction and romance became popular; the 1950s saw a gradual decline, due to a shift away from print media in the wake of television and the impact of the Comics Code Authority. The late 1950s and the 1960s saw a superhero revival and superheroes remain the dominant character archetype in the 21st century; some fans collect comic books. Some have sold for more than US $1 million. Comic shops cater to fans, selling comic books, plastic sleeves and cardboard backing to protect the comic books. An American comic book is known as a floppy comic.
It is thin and stapled, unlike traditional books. American comic books are one of the three major comic book schools globally, along with Japanese manga and the Franco-Belgian comic books; the typical size and page count of comics have varied over the decades trending toward smaller formats and fewer pages. In recent decades, standard comics have been about 6.625 inches × 10.25 inches, 32 pages long. While comics can be the work of a single creator, the labor of making them is divided between a number of specialists. There may be a separate writer and artist, or there may be separate artists for the characters and backgrounds. In superhero comic books, the art may be divided between: a writer, who creates the stories. A penciller, who lays out the artwork in pencil. An inker, who finishes the artwork in ink. A colorist, who adds color to the comics a letterer, who adds the captions and speech balloons; the process begins with the creator coming up with an idea or concept working it into a plot and story, finalizing the preliminary writing with a script.
After the art production, letters are placed on the page and an editor may have the final say before the comic is sent to the printer. The creative team, the writers and artists, may work with a comic book publisher for help with marketing and other logistics. A distributor like Diamond Comic Distributors, the largest in the U. S. helps to distribute the finished product to retailers. Another part of the process involved in successful comics is the interaction between the readers/fans and the creator. Fan art and letters to the editor were printed in the back of the book until the early 21st century when various Internet forms started to replace them. Comic specialty stores did help encourage several waves of independently-produced comics, beginning in the mid-1970s; some of the early example of these - referred to as "independent" or "alternative" comics - such as Big Apple Comix, continued somewhat in the tradition of underground comics, while others, such as Star Reach, resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artist.
The "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify, with a number of small publishers in the 1990s changing the format and distribution of their books to more resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an more limited audience than the small presses; the development of the modern American comic book happened in stages. Publishers had collected comic strips in hardcover book form as early as 1842, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, a collection of English-language newspaper inserts published in Europe as the 1837 book Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer; the G. W. Dillingham Company published the first known proto-comic-book magazine in the U. S; the Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats, in 1897. A hardcover book, it reprinted material—primarily the October 18, 1896 to January 10, 1897 sequence titled "McFadden's Row of Flats"—from cartoonist Richard F. Outcault's newspaper comic strip Hogan's Alley, starring the Yellow Kid.
The 196-page, square-bound, black-and-white publication, which includes introductory text by E. W. Townsend, measured 5×7 inches and sold for 50 cents; the neologism "comic book" appears on the back cover. Despite the publication of a series of related Hearst comics soon afterward, the first monthly proto-comic book, Embee Distributing Company's Comic Monthly, did not appear until 1922. Produced in an 8½-by-9-inch format, it reprinted black-and-white newspaper comic strips and lasted a year. In 1929, Dell Publishing published The Funnies, described by the Library of Congress as "a short-lived newspaper tabloid insert" and not to be confused with Dell's 1936 comic-book series of the same name. Historian Ron Goulart describes the 16-page, four-color periodical as "more a Sunday comic section without the rest of the newspaper than a true comic book, but it did offer all original material and was sold on newsstands". The Funnies ran for 36 issues, published Saturdays through October 16, 1930. In 1933, salesperson Maxwell Gaines, sales manager Harry I.
Wildenberg, owner George Janosik of the Waterbury, Connecticut company Eastern Color Printing—which printed, among other things, Sunday-paper comic-strip sections – produced Funnies on Parade as a way to keep their presses running. Like The Funnies, but only eight pages, this appeared as a newsprint magazine