Liuwa Plain National Park
Liuwa Plain National Park is an 1,390-square-mile national park in Zambia's Western Province. "Liuwa" means "plain" in the local Lozi language, the plains served as a hunting ground for Lubosi Lewanika, the Litunga of the Lozi people. The area was designated as a protected area by Lubosi Lewanika in the early 1880s, as a national park in 1972, when Zambia's government took over management; the nonprofit conservation organization African Parks has managed Liuwa in partnership with the Department of National Parks and Wildlife and the Barotse Royal Establishment since 2003. The park's grasslands support a variety of large mammals, including tens of thousands of blue wildebeest, whose annual migration is Africa's second largest. Sighted large predators include the cheetah, spotted hyena, lion, the most famous of, a female resident called Lady Liuwa, the subject of a National Geographic documentary before she died of natural causes in 2017. Lady Liuwa was the only remaining lion in the area, following years of excess hunting, prior to African Parks' assuming management and introducing additional lions to encourage the reestablishment of a pride.
More than 300 bird species have been recorded in Liuwa, which has experienced limited tourism until recently. Animal populations have since stabilized, despite declines and local extinctions during the 1990s–2000s. Liuwa Plain lies within the Barotse Floodplain, is bounded by the Luambimba River to the north and Luanginga River to the south; the park is prominently made up of a grassland that measures 45 miles by 20 miles scattered with raffia palms and woodlands. Recorded grass species include Echinochloa stagnina and Vossia cuspidata, which are important for grazing herbivores, as well as Baikiaea plurijuga Guibourtia coleosperma, Peltophorum africanum, Terminalia sericea, various types of Hyphaene. Liuwa is home to a variety of mammals, including buffalo, common eland, common tsessebe, red lechwe, roan antelope, migrating blue wildebeest, which gather in the tens of thousands. Liuwa's wildebeest migration is the second-largest in Africa. A survey conducted in 1991 recorded population estimates of 30,000 blue wildebeest, 800 tsessebe, 1,000 zebra, 10,000 other large mammals, including buffalo, oribi, red lechwe and sitatunga.
Subsequent surveys suggested major population declines, with possible eradication of buffalo, Lichtenstein's hartebeest, roan antelope. However, improved protections since 2003 has stabilized populations. Predators include the cheetah, leopard and spotted hyena. According to the nonprofit conservation organization African Parks, all but one of the park's lions were eradicated during the 1990s due to poaching and trophy hunting. Liuwa's lone lioness, known as Lady Liuwa, was first reported to be present in the park in 2002; the organization has since led the introductions of several additional lions to reestablish a breeding pride in Liuwa, where there are seven lions, as of September 2017. Smaller omnivores in Liuwa include the banded side-striped jackal. Since 2005, the protected area is considered a Lion Conservation Unit. Lady Liuwa was the park's most prominent resident, was the subject of a National Geographic documentary released in 2010. According to folklore, the lioness was a reincarnation of Mambeti, a member of the Lozi tribe who lived and died in the park, a grandmother to several staff who were still working in the park, as of 2016.
Lady Liuwa was first reported to be present in the park in 2002, was said to have visited the woodlands where Mambeti was buried. In 2008, after no lions returned to the park African Parks attempted to introduce a male lion, but he died during the relocation. Two other males were reintroduced in 2009. Both of them mated with Lady Liuwa, but she was infertile; the two male lions made their way to Angola. Two lionesses were relocated from Kafue National Park to Liuwa in 2011. Sepo was captured, helicoptered back, placed in a boma with Lady Liuwa; the pair were released after two months. After mating with Nakawa, Sepo gave birth to one male and two female cubs in December 2013. Nakawa was killed from being poisoned. An unidentified lion was seen in the park in 2015. In September 2016, a collaborative project between African Parks, the Mushingashi Conservancy, the Zambia Carnivore Programme, Zambia's Department of National Parks and Wildlife introduced another male lion to Liuwa Plain from Kafue National Park.
The lion bonded with another in a boma for two months, were released. Lady Liuwa died of natural causes on August 9, 2017. 334 bird species, including various species of birds of prey, cranes, pelicans and storks, have been recorded in Liuwa. Raptors include the bateleur, greater kestrel, martial eagle, palm-nut vulture, Pel's fishing owl, as well as African fish eagles. Recorded water birds include the marabou, open-billed, saddle-billed, yellow-billed stork, as well as the blacksmith lapwing, the grey heron, pygmy geese, the spur-winged goose, the three-banded plover; the black-winged pratincole, Denham's bustard, long-tailed widowbird, pink-billed lark, rosy-throated longclaw, secretary bird, sharp-tailed starling, swamp boubou, white-bellied bustard, white-cheeked bee-eater are present, as are clapper l
Senanga is the capital of the Senanga District, located in the Western Province of Zambia. The town is situated on the eastern bank of the Zambezi River, at the southern end of the Barotse Floodplain, it lies on the main road running parallel to the river from Livingstone and Sesheke to Mongu, which crosses the river by a pontoon ferry about 15 km south of Senanga. The Kaunga Lyeti Bridge was completed to cross the Kaunga Lyeti River near the junction to Sioma, traveling from Sesheke and Katima Mulilo. On top of the bridgework, recent road projects have improved travel conditions and inspired economic confidence and growth. In addition to the river and floodplain with its wildlife and fishing opportunities, Senanga is about 120 km from Sioma Ngwezi National Park and about 80 km from Ngonye Falls, it serves as a base for fishing tours by boat. A tall radio mast makes a prominent landmark in the town. Senanga's location, situated on the Zambezi River, is known for its plentiful fish populations.
Each year the town holds the Zambia Sport Fishing Competition, which attracts local and international participants. However, the area is prone to illegal fishing, having a major impact on important breeding grounds of nembwe and slidejaw. Kelowna, Canada
Mongu is the capital of Western Province in Zambia and was the capital of the formerly-named province and historic state of Barotseland. Its population is 179,585, it is the headquarters of Mongu District. Mongu is situated on a small blunt promontory of higher ground on the eastern edge of the 30-kilometre-wide Barotse Floodplain of the Zambezi River running north-south, which in the wet season floods right up to the town; the city is 15 kilometres from the river's main channel, to which its small harbour is connected in the dry season by a 35-kilometre route via a canal and a meandering channel. The whole region is flat and sandy, with the dry land no more than 50 m higher than the floodplain. Mongu is the home city of the Lozi people, who speak a language derived in part from that of the Makololo, related to the South African Sesotho language; the Lozi ruler, the Litunga, has a dry season palace 12 km north-west at Lealui on the floodplain, a flood season palace on higher ground at Limulunga, 17 km north.
The Kuomboka ceremony marks the court's transfer between the two locations. At the end of the 18th century, a significant number of Mbunda from Angola settled here; the area has an annual average rainfall of 945 mm falling in the rainy season from late October to April. The flood arrives by January, peaks in April and is gone by June, leaving a floodplain green with new grass on which a population of about 250,000 moves in to graze a similar number of cattle, catch fish and raise crops in small gardens. Mongu is hot from September to December, with a mean maximum for October of 35.4°C, cool from May to August, with a mean maximum in June of 26.9°C and a mean minimum of 10.3°C. Three ecoregions are represented in Mongu and its vicinity: the floodplain comprises Zambezian flooded grasslands, while the higher dry ground is a mosaic of Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands and Cryptosepalum dry forests. To the east the soil is sandy and there are many pans which dry out in the dry season, beyond the Lui River no surface water is available so this zone of scrubby miombo woodland is uninhabited as far east as the Luampa River.
Mongu lies at the end of the 610-km Great West Road from Lusaka -- 8 hours to drive. The road to Kalabo called Barotse Floodplain causeway has been finished in 2016; the city is known for carpet weaving. It produces the best mango and fish in the country the tiger fish. Mongu is the major rice growing region of Zambia, it is home to a cathedral and a water tower, while among the several shopping places and social places, the town has a large market and an airport. Mongu Airport is used by the Zambian Air Force and the United Nations to transport Angolan Refugees back to Angola; the town is the location of the Nayuma Museum. General references Camerapix. "Spectrum Guide to Zambia." Nairobi: Camerapix International Publishing. ISBN 1-874041-14-8. Terracarta/International Travel Maps, Vancouver Canada: "Zambia, 2nd edition", 2000. Google Earth has high-resolution photographs of Mongu. Http://www.barotseland.com/
The Zambezi is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa. The area of its basin is 1,390,000 square kilometres less than half of the Nile's; the 2,574-kilometre-long river rises in Zambia and flows through eastern Angola, along the north-eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses the country to empty into the Indian Ocean. The Zambezi's most noted feature is Victoria Falls. Other notable falls include the Chavuma Falls at the border between Zambia and Angola, Ngonye Falls, near Sioma in Western Zambia. There are two main sources of hydroelectric power on the river, the Kariba Dam, which provides power to Zambia and Zimbabwe, the Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique, which provides power to Mozambique and South Africa. There are additional two smaller power stations along the Zambezi River in Zambia, one at Victoria Falls and the other one near Kalene Hill in Ikelenge District.
The river rises in a black marshy dambo in dense undulating miombo woodland 50 kilometres north of Mwinilunga and 20 kilometres south of Ikelenge in the Ikelenge District of North-Western Province, Zambia at about 1,524 metres above sea level. The area around the source is forest reserve and Important Bird Area. Eastward of the source, the watershed between the Congo and Zambezi basins is a well-marked belt of high ground, running nearly east-west and falling abruptly to the north and south; this distinctly cuts off the basin of the Lualaba from that of the Zambezi. In the neighborhood of the source the watershed is not as defined, but the two river systems do not connect; the region drained by the Zambezi is a vast broken-edged plateau 900–1200 m high, composed in the remote interior of metamorphic beds and fringed with the igneous rocks of the Victoria Falls. At Shupanga, on the lower Zambezi, thin strata of grey and yellow sandstones, with an occasional band of limestone, crop out on the bed of the river in the dry season, these persist beyond Tete, where they are associated with extensive seams of coal.
Coal is found in the district just below Victoria Falls. Gold-bearing rocks occur in several places; the river flows to the southwest into Angola for about 240 kilometres is joined by sizeable tributaries such as the Luena and the Chifumage flowing from highlands to the north-west. It turns south and develops a floodplain, with extreme width variation between the dry and rainy seasons, it enters dense evergreen Cryptosepalum dry forest, though on its western side, Western Zambezian grasslands occur. Where it re-enters Zambia it is nearly 400 metres wide in the rainy season and flows with rapids ending in the Chavuma Falls, where the river flows through a rocky fissure; the river drops about 400 metres in elevation from its source at 1,500 metres to the Chavuma Falls at 1,100 metres, in a distance of about 400 kilometres. From this point to the Victoria Falls, the level of the basin is uniform, dropping only by another 180 metres in a distance of around 800 kilometres; the first of its large tributaries to enter the Zambezi is the Kabompo River in the northwestern province of Zambia.
A major advantage of the Kabompo River was irrigation. The savanna through which the river has flowed gives way to a wide floodplain, studded with Borassus fan palms. A little farther south is the confluence with the Lungwebungu River; this is the beginning of the Barotse Floodplain, the most notable feature of the upper Zambezi, but this northern part does not flood so much and includes islands of higher land in the middle. Thirty kilometres below the confluence of the Lungwebungu the country becomes flat, the typical Barotse Floodplain landscape unfolds, with the flood reaching a width of 25 km in the rainy season. For more than 200 km downstream the annual flood cycle dominates the natural environment and human life and culture. Eighty kilometres further down, the Luanginga, which with its tributaries drains a large area to the west, joins the Zambezi. A few kilometres higher up on the east the main stream is joined in the rainy season by overflow of the Luampa/Luena system. A short distance downstream of the confluence with the Luanginga is Lealui, one of the capitals of the Lozi people who populate the Zambian region of Barotseland in Western Province.
The chief of the Lozi maintains one of his two compounds at Lealui. The annual move from Lealui to Limulunga is a major event, celebrated as one of Zambia's best known festivals, the Kuomboka. After Lealui, the river turns to south-south-east. From the east it continues to receive numerous small streams, but on the west is without major tributaries for 240 km. Before this, the Ngonye Falls and subsequent rapids interrupt navigation. South of Ngonye Falls, the river borders Namibia's Caprivi Strip; the strip projects from the main body of Namibia, results from the colonial era: it was added to German South-West Africa expressly to give Germany access to the Zambezi. Below the junction of the Cuando River and the Zambezi the river bends due east. Here, the river is broad and shallow, flows but as it flows eastward towards the border of the great central plateau of Africa it reaches a chasm into which the Victoria Falls plunge; the Victoria Falls are considered the boundary between the middle Zambezi.
Below them the river continues to flow due east for about 20
Lewanika was the Lozi Litunga of Barotseland from 1878 to 1916. A detailed, although biased, description of King'Lubossi' can be found in the Portuguese explorer Alexandre de Serpa Pinto's 1878–1879 travel narrative Como eu atravessei a África. In December 1882 the missionary Frederick Stanley Arnot reached Lealui, the capital of Barotseland, after traveling across the Kalahari Desert from Botswana. King Lewanika kept him for the next eighteen months allowed him to move on, but in a westward direction rather than eastward as he had planned. While detained, Arnot undertook some evangelism. Arnot was present when Lewanika received a proposal from the Ndebele for an alliance to resist the white men. Arnot may have helped Lewanika to see the advantages of a British protectorate in terms of the greater wealth and security it would provide. Arnot left Bulozi in 1884 to escape a brewing rebellion against Lewanika; when Lewanika crushed the rebellion, George Westbeech described the scene: "The flat from Lia-liue to Mongu, a distance of twelve miles without a bush, is now covered with skeletons and grinning skulls...."
Before this event, his name had been Lubosi. Lewanika brought Barotseland, now part of Zambia, under British control in 1890, when he agreed with Cecil Rhodes for the region to become a protectorate under the British South Africa Company. However, he felt deceived by the BSAC terms as they worked in practice, he appealed, unsuccessfully, to the British Crown. Lewanika told Dr James Johnston how he had written to the British asking that his kingdom should be made a British Protectorate, he had waited years for a reply and men had arrived with papers claiming that they had the power to make this happen. The King was reassured as the local missionary. Monsier Coillard, was his interpreter at the meeting and the King was reassured by Coillard's confidence in these men. Lewanika had been thankful that his wish had been granted and he had sent two enormous elephant ivory tusks as a present for Queen Victoria. Lewanika was incensed to find that the men were from a South African company and that the ivory tusks were not with Queen Victoria but as ornaments in the directors board room.
Johnston assisted Lewanika in writing a letter of protest. Lewanika was to prove a great help to Johnston as he was able to command assistance for Johnston from nearby subordinate chiefs. In 1902, Lewanika visited London for the coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, where he was treated with respect and had an audience with King Edward and an informal meeting with the Prince of Wales; when asked what he would discuss with the British sovereign, he said "When we kings meet we always have plenty to talk about". Lewanika's eldest son was named Litia, succeeded as Yeta III on his father´s death, his third son Imwiko succeeded his brother in 1945, but died three years and was succeeded by a third brother, Mwanawina III. On his death in 1968, a fourth brother Mbikusita reigned as Litunga from 1968 to 1977 as Lewanika II. A newspaper-article from 1902 mentioned two sons and Lubasci, who were educated in the UK at the time, a son-in-law called Ishi-Kambai. One of his daughters worked as a teacher in his capital.
The Lewanika name continues to be used as part of a family name, for instance by Lewanika II's children Akashambatwa Mbikusita-Lewanika, a Zambian statesman and Inonge Mbikusita-Lewanika, an ambassador of the Republic of Zambia in the United States
Barotseland is a region between Namibia, Zimbabwe and Angola. It is the homeland of the Lozi people or Barotse, or Malozi, who are a unified group of over 20 individual diverse tribes related through kinship, whose original branch are the Luyi, assimilated northern Sotho tribe of South Africa known as the Makololo; the Barotse speak Silozi, a language most related to Sesotho. Barotseland covers an area of 126,386 square kilometres, but is estimated to have been twice as large at certain points in its history. Once an empire, the kingdom stretched into Namibia and Angola and included other parts of Zambia, including its central Copperbelt Province, south-west of the Democratic Republic of Congo's Katanga Province. Under the British colonial administration, Barotseland enjoyed relative autonomy from the late 19th-century; the Litunga, the Lozi word for the king of Barotseland, had negotiated agreements, first with the British South African Company, with the British government that ensured the kingdom maintained much of its traditional authority.
Barotseland was a nation-state, a protectorate within the larger protectorate of Northern Rhodesia. In return for this protectorate status, the Litunga gave the BSAC mineral exploration rights in Barotseland. In 1964, Barotseland became part of Zambia. However, some people claim that Zambia has violated the Barotseland Agreement 1964, seek independence from Zambia. In 2012, a group of traditional Lozi leaders, calling itself the Barotseland National Council, called for independence, its heartland is the Barotse Floodplain on the upper Zambezi River known as Bulozi or Lyondo, but it includes the surrounding higher ground of the plateau comprising all of what was the Western Province of Zambia. In pre-colonial times, Barotseland included some neighbouring parts of what are now the Northwestern and Southern Province as well as Caprivi in northeastern Namibia and parts of southeastern Angola beyond the Cuando or Mashi River. Before the advent of European explorers such as David Livingstone the Barotse had no written history, so the history was passed down by word of mouth.
It is believed that the Barotse state was founded by Queen Mbuywamwambwa, the Lozi matriarch, over 500 years ago. Its people were migrants from the Congo. Other ethnic groupings that constitute the current Barotse kingdom migrated from South Africa, Zimbabwe and Congo; the Barotse reached the Zambezi River in the 17th Century and their kingdom grew until it comprised some 25 peoples from Southern Rhodesia to the Congo and from Angola to the Kafue River. At the time, Barotseland was a monarchy. A detailed investigation into the history of the Barotse was carried out in 1939 in connection with the Balovale Dispute, see below. In 1845 Barotseland had been conquered by the Makalolo from Lesotho –, why the Barotse language, Silozi, is a variant of Sesotho; the Makololo were in power when Livingstone visited Barotseland, but after thirty years the Luyi overthrew the Kololo king. Barotseland's status at the onset of the colonial era differed from the other regions which became Zambia, it was the first territory north of the Zambezi to sign a minerals concession and protectorate agreement with the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes.
This was prompted by Lewanika's fears of an invasion by the Matebele under Lobengula. By 1880, the kingdom was stabilised and King Lewanika signed a treaty on 26 June 1889 to provide the kingdom international recognition as a State. After the discovery of diamonds, King Lewanika began trading with Europe; the first trade concession was signed on 27 June 1889 with Harry Ware, in return King Lewanika and his kingdom were to be protected. Ware transferred his concession to Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company. Seeking the improvement of the military protection and with the intention to sign a treaty with the British Government, King Lewanika signed on 26 June 1890 the Lochner concession putting Barotseland under the protection of the British South Africa Company. At that time, there was European administration in Southern Rhodesia, in Nyasaland further East, the beginnings of European administration in what was called North-Eastern Rhodesia and North-Western Rhodesia - Barotseland; these two were administratively combined as "Northern Rhodesia" divided up in five Provinces and Barotseland, treated differently from the rest.
Lewanika protested to London and to Queen Victoria that the BSAC agents had misrepresented the terms of the concession, but his protests fell on deaf ears, in 1899 the United Kingdom proclaimed a protectorate and governed it as part of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia. In the 1930s, there was trouble between the Barotse and the Balovale and Balunda tribes who occupied the land to the north of the land occupied by the Barotse; the Barotse claimed. The Government set up a Commission to adjudicate, the Barotse lost. On 18 May 1964, the Litunga and Kenneth Kaunda Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia signed the "Barotseland Agreement 1964" which established Barotseland's position within Zambia in place of the earlier agreement between Barotseland and the British Government; the agreement was based on a long history of close social and political interactions, but granted significant continued autonomy to Barotseland. The Barotseland Agreement granted Barotse authorities local self-governance rights and rights to be consulted on specified matters, including over land, natur
Angola the Republic of Angola, is a west-coast country of south-central Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. Although inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, what is now Angola was molded by Portuguese colonisation, it began with, was for centuries limited to, coastal settlements and trading posts established starting in the 16th century. In the 19th century, European settlers and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior; the Portuguese colony that became Angola did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist–Leninist People's Republic of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba.
The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, supported by the United States and South Africa, lasted until 2002. The sovereign state has since become a stable unitary, presidential constitutional republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world since the end of the civil war. Angola's economic growth is uneven, with most of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population. Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Southern African Development Community. A multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups and traditions. Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church; the name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, which appeared as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter.
The toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century. Modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations; the Khoi and San peoples hunter-gatherers. They were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, most of whom originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria and southern Niger. Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and the Luanda plain. Hendese Bantu established a number of political entities, it established trade routes with other city-states and civilisations up and down the coast of southwestern and western Africa and with Great Zimbabwe and the Mutapa Empire, although it engaged in little or no transoceanic trade. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was sometimes known as Dongo.
Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the area in 1484. The previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south; the Portuguese established their primary early trading post at Soyo, now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave. Paulo Dias de Novais founded São Paulo de Loanda in 1575 with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Benguela was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617; the Portuguese established several other settlements and trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan slaves for Brazilian plantations. Local slave dealers provided a large number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe; this part of the Atlantic slave trade continued until after Brazil's independence in the 1820s. Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much of the country's vast interior was minimal.
In the 16th century Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of wars. Life for European colonists was progress slow. John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of Angola from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years. During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company occupied the principal settlement of Luanda in 1641, using alliances with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings elsewhere. A fleet under Salvador de Sá retook Luanda in 1648. New treaties with the Kongo were signed in 1649.