Volgograd Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Volga region of Southern Russia. Its administrative center is Volgograd; the population of the oblast was 2,610,161 in the 2010 Census. Known as Stalingrad Oblast, it was given its present name in 1961, when the city of Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd as part of de-Stalinization. Volgograd Oblast borders Rostov Oblast in the southwest, Voronezh Oblast in the northwest, Saratov Oblast in the north, Astrakhan Oblast and the Republic of Kalmykia in the southeast, has an international border with Kazakhstan in the east; the two main rivers in European Russia, the Don and the Volga, run through the oblast and are connected by the Volga–Don Canal. Volgograd Oblast's strategic waterways have made it a popular route for shipping and for the generation of hydroelectricity. Volgograd Oblast is best known as the primary site of the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II regarded as one of the single largest and bloodiest battles in the history of warfare.
Borders length: 2,221.9 kilometers Volgograd Oblast borders with Saratov, Rostov and Voronezh Oblasts, as well as with Kalmykia of Russia and with Kazakhstan. Volgograd streams; the major ones include: The Volga River The Don River The Medveditsa River The Khopyor River Stalingrad Oblast was established on December 5, 1936 on the territory of former Stalingrad Krai. The oblast was given its present name on November 10, 1961. During the Soviet period, three people exercised oblast-level authority: the first secretary of the Volgograd CPSU Committee the chairman of the oblast Soviet the chairman of the oblast Executive Committee In 1991 the CPSU lost de facto power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Volgograd Oblast provides the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Volgograd Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body, the Oblast Government, includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day-to-day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 2,610,161 . Vital statistics for 2012Births: 30,252 Deaths: 35,021 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.46 | 2010 - 1.45 | 2011 - 1.44 | 2012 - 1.54 | 2013 - 1.53 | 2014 - 1.57 | 2015 1.59 | 2016 1.57 44,541 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. According to a 2012 survey 54.5% of the population of Volgograd Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to any church or are members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% are Muslims.
In addition, 18% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 12% is atheist, 6.5% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Governor of Volgograd Oblast is Anatoliy Brovko Both the flag and the coat of arms of Volgograd Oblast include an image of The Motherland Calls, an 85 meter tall statue located in Volgograd. Primary branches of economics are agriculture, food production, heavy industry and petroleum refining; the Volga Hydroelectric Station operates on the Volga River. The largest companies in the region include Volzhsky Pipe Plant, Volgogradenergosbyt, OJSC Kaustik, Volzhsky Orgsintez. List of Chairmen of the Volgograd Oblast Duma Volgograd floating landing Волгоградская областная Дума. №1-ОД 24 февраля 2012 г. «Устав Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №90-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 2 Устава Волгоградской области от 24 февраля 2012 г. №1-ОД». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №35, 29 февраля 2012 г.. Исполнительный комитет Волгоградского областного Совета депутатов трудящихся. "Волгоградская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 июля 1968 года". Нижне-Волжское книжное издательство. Волгоград, 1969. Official website of Volgograd Oblast Central Eurasian Information Resource: Images of Volgograd Oblast - University of Washington Digital Collections
The Don is one of the major Eurasian rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the Volga basin to the east, the Oka basin to the north; the Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula, flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh southwest to its mouth; the main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the Volga-Don river region was the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans c. 4000BC. The Don river functioned as a fertile cradle of civilization where the Neolithic farmer culture of the Near East fused with the hunter-gatherer culture of Siberian groups, resulting in the nomadic pastoralism of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers. In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotments of sons of Noah, that of Japheth to the north and that of Shem to the south.
During the times of the old Scythians it was known in Greek as the Tanaïs and has been a major trading route since. Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes. Pliny gives the Scythian name of the Tanais as Silys. According to Plutarch, the Don River was home to the legendary Amazons of Greek mythology; the area around the estuary is speculated to be the source of the Black Death. While the lower Don was well known to ancient geographers, its middle and upper reaches were not mapped with any accuracy before the gradual conquest of the area by Muscovy in the 16th century; the Don Cossacks, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named after the river. The fort of Donkov was founded by the princes of Ryazan in the late 14th century; the fort stood on the left bank of the Don, about 34 kilometers from the modern town of Dankov, until 1568, when it was destroyed by the Crimean Tatars, but soon restored at a better fortified location.
It is shown as Donko in Mercator's Atlas, Donkov was again relocated in 1618, appearing as Donkagorod in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Both Blaeu and Mercator follow the 16th-century cartographic tradition of letting the Don originate in a great lake, labelled Resanskoy ozera by Blaeu. Mercator still follows Giacomo Gastaldo in showing a waterway connecting this lake to Ryazan and the Oka River. Mercator shows Mtsensk as a great city on this waterway, suggesting a system of canals connecting the Don with the Zusha and Upa centered on a settlement Odoium, reported as Odoium lacum in the map made by Baron Augustin von Mayerberg, leader of an embassy to Muscovy in 1661. In modern literature, the Don region was featured in the work And Quiet Flows the Don by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a Nobel-prize winning writer from the stanitsa of Veshenskaya. At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, the Volga-Don Canal, connecting the two rivers, is a major waterway; the water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir.
For the next 130 kilometres below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock, Konstantinovsk Ship Lock, the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock. The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914–1919 and doubled in 2004–2008, is 7.5 kilometres below the fall of the Seversky Donets into the Don, 131 kilometres upstream of Rostov-on-Don, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets; this is presently the last lock on the Don. In order to improve shipping conditions in the lower reaches of the Don, the waterway authorities support the proposals for the construction of one or two more low dams with locks, in Bagayevsky District and also in Aksaysky District. Main tributaries from source to mouth: Krasivaya Mecha Bystraya Sosna Veduga Voronezh Tikhaya Sosna Bityug Black Kalitva Khopyor – 1,010 kilometres Medveditsa Ilovlya Chir Seversky Donets – 1,053 kilometres Aidar – 264 kilometres Sal Manych Aksay Temernik Don goat And Quiet Flows The Don Rostov railway drawbridge Don at GEOnet Names Server
Danilovsky District, Volgograd Oblast
Danilovsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Danilovsky Municipal District, it is located in the north of the oblast. The area of the district is 2,960.74 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the urban locality of Danilovka; as of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 16,908, with the population of Danilovka accounting for 31.4% of that number. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г.. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №973-ОД от 22 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Даниловского района и муниципальных образований в его составе».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №2, 11 января 2005 г
Cossacks were a group of predominantly East Slavic-speaking people who became known as members of democratic, self-governing, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper, Don and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Ukraine and Russia; the origins of the first Cossacks are disputed, though the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin. The emergence of Cossacks is dated to the 14th or 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Cossack Host; the Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Cossack state under Russian rule.
The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate. The Don Cossack Host, established by the 16th century, allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia and the Yaik and the Terek rivers. Cossack communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Cossacks. By the 18th century Cossack hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders; the expansionist ambitions of the Empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Cossacks, which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, self-rule, independence. Cossacks such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa and Yemelyan Pugachev led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolish slavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence; the empire responded with ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Cossack Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–08, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708, the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.
By the end of the 18th century Cossack nations had been transformed into a special military estate, "a military class". Similar to the knights of medieval Europe in feudal times or the tribal Roman auxiliaries, the Cossacks came to military service having to obtain charger horses and supplies at their own expense; the government provided only supplies for them. Cossack service was considered the most rigorous one; because of their military tradition, Cossack forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries, such as the Great Northern War, the Seven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, the Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Persian Wars, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Cossacks extensively to perform police service, they served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders. During the Russian Civil War and Kuban Cossacks were the first people to declare open war against the Bolsheviks.
By 1918 Russian Cossacks declared the complete independence and formed independent states, the Don Republic and the Kuban People's Republic. The Ukrainian State emerged. Cossack troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, Cossack republics became centers for the anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Cossack lands were subjected to Decossackization and the Holodomor. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Cossacks made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in post-Soviet conflicts. In Russia's 2002 Population Census, 140,028 people reported their ethnicity as Cossacks. There are Cossack organizations in Russia, Ukraine and the United States. Max Vasmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to the Old East Slavic word козакъ, kozak, a loanword from Cuman, in which cosac meant "free man", from Turkish/Turkic languages quazzaq rabble rouser, trouble maker, outcast rebel, from Tatar languages Kazak skinny bollard The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.
In modern Turkish it is pronounced as "Kazak". In written sources the name is first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century. In English, "Cossack" is first attested in 1590, it is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Mongols broke the power of the Cumans, who had assimilated the previous population on that territory, it is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks. However, Slavic settlements in southern Ukraine started to appear early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Oleshky, dating back to the 11th century. Early "Proto-Cossack" groups are reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weaker, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.
Some historians suggest that the Cossack people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Belarusians, Turks and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe. However some Turkologists arg
1st Guards Tank Army (Russia)
The 1st Guards Tank Army is a tank army of the Russian Ground Forces. The army traces its heritage back to the 1st Tank Army, formed twice in July 1942 and in January 1943 and converted into the 1st Guards Tank Army in January 1944; the army fought as part of the Red Army on the Eastern Front during World War II. The army was commanded throughout most of the war by Mikhail Katukov, it fought in the early defense during the Battle of Stalingrad, Operation Uranus participated at the Battle of Kursk, Proskurov-Chernovtsy Operation, Lvov-Sandomierz Operation, Vistula-Oder Offensive and the Battle of Berlin. After the war, the army was stationed in East Germany as part of the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. After the end of the Cold War and the resultant withdrawal of Soviet units in Germany, the army was relocated to Smolensk, disbanded in 1999; the army was reformed in 2014 as part of a Russian military expansion. The 1st Tank Army was first formed within the Stalingrad Front from 38th Army in July 1942, under the command of Major General Kirill Moskalenko.
The army was encircled and destroyed, was disbanded as a result in August 1942, its headquarters becoming the Southeastern Front headquarters. The 1st Tank Army was formed a second time on 30 January 1943 from the headquarters of the 29th Army, under the command of famous armoured troops commander Lieutenant General of Tank Troops Mikhail Katukov appointed by Stalin; the army was transferred to the North-Western Front. 3rd Mechanised Corps and 6th Tank Corps joined it on formation, served with the army throughout the war. It was transferred to Voronezh Front for the defense of the Kursk salient's southern shoulder, it was awarded a Guards title and became the 1st Guards Tank Army in April 1944, Katukov was promoted to Colonel General. On 1 January 1945, the Army's principal combat formations were: 8th Guards Mechanized Corps 19th Guards Mechanized Brigade 20th Guards Mechanized Brigade 21st Guards Mechanized Brigade 1st Guards Tank Brigade 48th Guards Separate Tank Regiment 353rd Guards Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 400th Guards Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 265th Guards Mortar Regiment * 405th Guards Mortar Battalion * 358th Guards Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment 8th Guards Motorcycle Battalion 11th Guards Tank Corps 40th Guards Tank Brigade 44th Guards Tank Brigade 45th Guards Tank Brigade 27th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade 399th Guards Heavy Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 362nd Guards Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 1454th Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 350th Light Artillery Regiment 270th Guards Mortar Regiment * 53rd Guards Mortar Battalion * 1018th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment 9th Guards Motorcycle Battalion Army Troops 64th Guards Tank Brigade 11th Guards Separate Tank Regiment 19th Light Self-Propelled Artillery Brigade 197th Light Artillery Brigade 79th Guards Mortar Regiment * 17th Motorised Engineer Brigade 191st Guards Liaison Aviation Regiment 6th Motorcycle Regiment 12th Guards Motorcycle Regiment* Guards Mortar Regiment was the overt designation used for Katyusha rocket launcher units.
It participated in the Battle of Kursk, the Lvov-Sandomierz Operation, the Vistula-Oder Offensive, the Battle of Berlin. The 1st Guards Tank Army was awarded the Order of the Red Banner postwar, became part of the Soviet occupation force in Germany, known as Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, with its headquarters in Dresden. In 1968, it, along with the 11th Guards Tank and 20th Guards Motor Rifle Divisions, took part in the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, but immediately returned to their respective garrisons. In the late 1980s the Army included the 20th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 9th Tank Division, 11th Guards Tank Division; the headquarters was withdrawn to Smolensk, in the Moscow Military District in the early 1990s, lost the'Tank' from its title in 1995. In its last period within the Russian Army it comprised the 4th Guards'Kantemir' Tank Division and the 144th Motor Rifle Division, it was disbanded in 1998. 9th Red Banner Order of Suvorov Babruysk-Berlin Tank Division, Riesa. Withdrawn to Smolensk 11th Red Banner Order of Suvorov Carpathian-Berlin Guards Tank Division, Dresden.
Withdrawn to Slonim 20th Red Banner Order of Suvorov Carpathian-Berlin Guards Motor Rifle Division, Grimma. Withdrawn to Volgograd After a 15-year break, the Army was reconstituted in November 2014 on 13 November 2014; the army was formed as the main ground forces manoeuvre and reserve operational formation of the Western Military District in addition to the 6th Combined Arms Army and the 20th Guards Combined Arms Army. It is considered the elite of the Russian Ground Forces; the army carries on the traditions of the chronologically first army of the Soviet Union to reach'Guards' status. Further it has the 2nd Motor Rifle and the 4th Tank guards divisions, which are considered the elite formations of their respective combat arms; the most decorated divisions of the Soviet Army, they were garrisoned the closest to Moscow. Due to their proximity to the capitol their personnel was put to extra scrutiny, they were considered a prestigious posting, received the latest hardware and thus known as the'household' divisions of the Soviet Army.
Their loyalty to the regime was demonstrated by their involvement in the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt. The divisions retained their elite status wit
Chernyshkovsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Chernyshkovsky Municipal District, it is located in the southwest of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,079.96 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the urban locality of Chernyshkovsky. Population: 16,873 ; the population of the administrative center accounts for 32.0% of the district's total population. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г.. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №976-ОД от 22 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Чернышковского района и муниципальных образований в его составе».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №3, 12 января 2005 г
Kalachyovsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kalachyovsky Municipal District, it is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 4,200 square kilometers, its administrative center is the town of Kalach-na-Donu. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 58,524, with the population of Kalach-na-Donu accounting for 46.0% of that number. The district was established in 1928 within Lower Volga Krai; when Lower Volga Krai was split into Stalingrad and Saratov Krais in 1934, the district remained a part of the former. In 1936, Stalingrad Krai was transformed into Stalingrad Oblast, renamed Volgograd Oblast in 1961. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г.. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №994-ОД от 20 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Калачевского района и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №1453-ОД от 28 апреля 2007 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Волгоградской области от 20 января 2005 г. №994-ОД "Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Калачевского района и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №13, 26 января 2005 г