Gull Rock National Park
Gull Rock National Park is a small national park situated 25 km southeast of Albany in Western Australia. It was established in 2006, it is around 2,593 hectares in area. The area is backed by King George Sound to the south, Oyster Harbour to the west, Taylor Inlet to the east and farmland to the north; the park takes its name from a small island off Ledge Beach, not part of the park. Boiler Bay is at the eastern edge of Ledge Beach; the Mount Martin Botanical Reserve is adjacent to the western boundary and Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve is 10 kilometres to the east of the park. The area is an unspoilt example of coastal east Kalgan vegetation system. Composed of granite headlands separated by sandy beaches with lakes and interdunal wetlands, the area contains a number of specific ecosystems. Rocky granite areas exist, including Mount Taylor and Mount Martin, both of which are part of the Gardner Landform unit; the diverse landforms and soils support an array of different habitats and a large number of floral species.
A complex patchwork of forest, wetlands, granite shrublands and coastal heath is found within the park. Endangered species such as the noisy scrub-bird, western bristlebird and the western whipbird are known to inhabit the area; the endangered Western ringtail possum is frequently sighted in the area. Many rare plant species including Corybas limpidus, Adenanthos cunninghamii, Banksia verticillata and Stylidium plantagineum are found in the National Park. Areas of banksia woodland, sheoak forest, open heath and grassed dunes can all be found within the park. Notable flora include Banksia coccinea, Hakea elliptica, Allocasuarina trichodon, Agonis marginata and Dryandra formosa; the area is home to the most significant remaining stands of scarlet banksia, Banksia coccinea, in the region, however this community is threatened by Phytophthora dieback. Melaleuca striata coastal heath grows on the lower elevations of Mount Taylor. Melaleuca striata, Banksia attenuata and Banksia coccinea are present on the heath, but their growth is stunted by the salt laden air.
Anarthria scabra is predominant in the sedgeland, with Adenanthos cuneatus, Astroloma baxteri, Hypocalymma strictum, Hypolaena exsulca, Isopogon cuneatus, Lyginia barbata, Melaleuca thymoides, Petrophile rigida present. The rare and ancient Main's assassin spider listed as threatened, was found to inhabit the park during a survey conducted in 2008
The Helena River is a tributary of the Swan River in Western Australia. The river rises in country east of Mount Dale and flows north-west to Mundaring Weir, where it is dammed, it flows west until it reaches the Darling Scarp. It passes through the western edge of the Darling Scarp between Gooseberry Hill, Greenmount Hill before joining the Swan River at the southern edge of the historic town, now suburb, of Guildford. Many of the tributaries of the Helena River are unnamed due to their size. However, on the northern side of the catchment Nyaania Creek and on the southern side Piesse Brook are significant in their moving through built up areas which makes them susceptible to urban environment issues. Upper Helena catchment has on the north side of Lake C. Y. O'Connor a range of named creeks that occur in State Forest no 71 and 13: Manns Gully Chinaman Gully Jones Gully Michael Gully Chauncy Gully Middle Brook Helena Brook Hancock Brook Emu Brook Warin Brook In the higher ground the Helena River passes through State Forest or reserve.
This has been beneficial for some of the catchment area, as it has been an important buffer between the urban settlements in the Mundaring and Kalamunda areas. The flora of the Helena valley has been recognised as being of importance because of the relative richness, it is at Darlington, the locality of Helena Valley that there is housing and agriculture on its banks before it emerges out on to the Swan Coastal Plain. At Bellevue and Midland the river has passed hazardous industrial sites; this includes the Midland livestock sale yards. It is dammed in two places – the best known is the upper river dam known as Mundaring Weir, part of C. Y O'Connor's Goldfields Water Supply Scheme. Since the lower dam – known as the Lower Helena Pipehead Dam has been constructed in the 1970s, flooding of the lower Helena River has been reduced. Most of the water collected in the Pipehead Dam is pumped back into Mundaring Weir. Due to this, restrictions in the Helena River catchment have been made to not allow activities that affect the quality of the Pipehad Dam – despite being adjacent to the built up areas within the Shire of Mundaring on the north side of the Helena River catchment.
The bridges design and strength were relevant to higher water flow prior to the construction of the pipehead dam, as significant flooding occurred in the early and mid twentieth century. The main bridges are at: – Mundaring - Below Mundaring Weir, constructed: 1965, structure type: reinforced concrete, superstructure: solid flat slab, length: 48.76 metres, width: 9.12 metres. Helena Valley - Scott Street, constructed: 1933, structure type: timber, superstructure: round timber: length: 44 metres, width: 10.77 metres. Helena Valley – Roe Highway, constructed: 1985, structure type: prestressed concrete, superstructure: integral beam & slab, length: 54 metres, width: 17.64 metres. Midland – Military Road, constructed: 1952, structure type: timber, superstructure: round timber: length: 55.92 metres, width: 8.7 metres. Woodbridge – Amherst Road, constructed: 1969, structure type: prestressed concrete, superstructure: inverted t-beam, length: 73.4 metres, width: 11.6 metres. East Guildford – Water Street, named: Morrison Bridge, constructed: 1964, structure type: prestressed concrete, superstructure: solid flat slab, length: 70.12 metres, width: 10.54 metres.
Guildford – Great Eastern Highway / Johnson Street, constructed: 1935, structure type: timber, superstructure: round timber: length: 92.95 metres, width: 11.8 metres
Kalbarri National Park
Kalbarri National Park is located 485 km north of Perth, in the Mid West region of Western Australia. The major geographical features of the park include the Murchison River gorge which runs for nearly 80 km on the lower reaches of the Murchison River. Spectacular coastal cliffs are located on the coast near the mouth of the Murchison River and the town of Kalbarri. Kalbarri National Park preserves the inland desert regions of red and white striped Tumblagooda sandstone east of the town of Kalbarri the lower reaches of the Murchison River and its gorge, as well as the mouth of the river by Meanarra Hill; the western edge of the park protects the coastline south of the town which features cliffs more than 100 m high. The coastal area contains several wind and water eroded rock formations including a sea stack and a natural bridge; the park is open all year round though temperatures can be high from December through April. The park lies in the northernmost limits of the transition zone between a Mediterranean and a semi-arid climate.
Winters are warm with moderate precipitation. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures that exceed 40 °C in the inland part of the park. Inland areas can be more than 10 °C higher than along the coast and in town. Monthly precipitation levels are low with most rain falling from May through August. Heavy rainfalls may cause the roads to the gorge to be closed; the Kalbarri area is known for its extent of wildflowers. More than 800 species of wildflowers bloom from late winter through early summer with peak times in August and September. Twenty-one plant species are found only in the coastal cliff tops and gorge country predominantly in the National Park. One of the best known local plants is the Kalbarri catspaw, a small yellow or red plant, seen on burnt country from August to September. Several orchids can only be seen in and near the park, including the Kalbarri spider orchid and the Murchison hammer orchid; the small-petalled Beyeria or short-petalled Beyeria, once thought to be extinct, was re-discovered in the park in 1994.
The population in the park is one of only three known populations. The park area has observation records for about 200 different animal species in the interior of the park along the Murchison River. More than 400 species have been recorded around the town of Kalbarri; the threatened tammar wallaby was observed in the area but not lately. 150 bird species have been observed including the emu, wedge-tailed eagle and Australian pelican. Some of the recorded mammal species in the interior include the western grey kangaroo, short-beaked echidna and spinifex hopping mouse; the only observed bat in the park is the Finlayson's cave bat. The recorded reptile species include the thorny devil, western bearded dragon and central netted dragon; the only observed amphibian is Günther's toadlet. About 30 different arthropods have been recorded including a dragonfly called the Pilbara tiger and the savanna black tree ant; the most popular activities are sightseeing, fishing and bushwalking. Other activities include abseiling in the gorge and horseback riding, as well as scuba diving, snorkelling and swimming in the Indian Ocean at Red Bluff Beach and the small beach at Pot Alley.
From Kalbarri there are scenic cruises along the Murchison River and flights over Kalbarri National Park. There are no other accommodations and no water available within the park boundaries. All overnight visitors must use the facilities in the town unless they are on a multi-day bushwalk or boat tour. Coastal part, starting from the town of Kalbarri and moving south: Red Bluff Mushroom Rock Rainbow Valley Pot Alley Eagle Gorge Shellhouse and Grandstand Island Rock Natural BridgeInland part, along the Murchison River Gorge: Nature's Window The Loop Z Bend Hawks Head Ross Graham Lookout Protected areas of Western Australia EveryTrail travel site's guide for Kalbarri
Corymbia calophylla is a species of tree, common in the southwest of Australia. Described as a species of Eucalyptus, it is named as marri in preference to red gum. A large tree, or mallee in poor soil, which grows to a height of 40 metres, but can reach 60 metres; the trunk of the tree may become up to two metres wide, the branches becoming large and rambling. It has rough tessellated grey-brown to red-brown bark that extends over the length of the trunk and branches. Adult leaves are disjunct, green and concolorous with a broad lanceolate to ovate shape, basally tapered or basally rounded; the leaf blade is 25 to 40 millimetres wide. The leaf petioles are 15 to 20 mm long, it blooms between May, producing white to pink flowers. The terminal compound conflorescence composed of three to seven flowered regular umbellasters on terete or angular peduncles. Buds form that are clavate and 7 to 14 mm in length and with a diameter of 7 to 10 mm with a calyptrate calyx; the fruits or gumnuts form and can remain on the tree for a year or more.
They are ovoid to urceolate in shape, 30 to 50 mm long with a 25 to 40 mm diameter. The large nuts produced carry large seeds which are an important food source for native bird species such as cockatoos; the tree propagates from seeds. It is distinctive among bloodwoods for its large buds and fruit, colloquially known as honky nuts, in Western Australia; the first accepted description of the species was published by John Lindley in Edwards Botanical Register, from specimens in Robert Brown's collection near King George Sound in 1801. The species name was published in 1831 by Brown, but without an adequate description it was deemed to be nomen nudum. Brown used a specimen grown at Kew to classify its family as Myrtaceae, gave the specific epithet calophylla for what he regarded as the most beautiful leaves of a eucalypt, leaf venation reminiscent of Calophyllum, a tropical genus; the botanist Ferdinand Mueller placed the species with a series of'bloodwoods' in 1884, based on characteristics of the bark.
The 1920 work by J. H. Maiden, Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus, supported this arrangement; the current placement with the genus Corymbia resulted from a revision by K. D. Hill and L. A. S. Johnson in 1995. In 2009, Carlos Parra-O and colleagues published a combined analysis of nuclear rDNA and morphological characters published to clarify relationships within the genus Corymbia. C. calophylla was found to form a natural group with two other Western Australian species C. ficifolia and C. haematoxylon. They classified the group as section Calophyllae within the subgenus Corymbia, it is related and somewhat similar to Corymbia ficifolia, a red flowered species endemic to the same region. C. calophylla differs in being larger, having much larger buds and fruit, flowers that are white—occasionally pink—instead of red. However, in some areas hybridisation makes identification difficult. Common names include marri and Port Gregory gum, a long-standing usage has been red gum due to the red sap effusions found on trunks.
Red gum was recorded as a name in use by the Swan River colonists in 1835. Other species of Corymbia were referred to as'red gum', so to avoid ambiguity the Forestry Department of the Western Australian government nominated the extant name marri in the 1920s. Corymbia calophylla is still known as a'eucalypt', despite the transfer to the new genus; the Noongar peoples know the tree as gardan, mahree, nandap or ngora. Marri is distributed in the Southwest region of Western Australia, from north of Geraldton to Cape Riche, inland beyond Narrogin, it is found displaying its adaptability to the different environments on the Swan Coastal Plain and the Darling Scarp. Where the soil type is appropriate it will dominate as the upper story in woodland, to within a few kilometres from the coast; the species will grow on comparatively poor soil, but good specimens are considered an indicator of the better agricultural soils. Found in a variety of terrains including Flats, breakaways, fringing salt marches and beside drainage lines it is able to grow in red-brown clay loams, orange-brown sandy clays and grey sandy soils over limestone, granite or laterite.
The marri range and population has increased and decreased with recent environmental changes, urban development, land clearing, intensive agriculture and altered fire regimes. A common species, though its population has been subject to large fluctuations due to change in land use in its region. A dominant tree of several vegetation types when in favourable soils and climates, with rich and sometimes intimate associations to other species; the fruit and seeds are consumed by avian species, is a staple in the diet of long-billed black cockatoo and red-capped parrot. Both species prise marri seeds out of their woody capsule by manipulating it with the foot and lower mandible, inserting the point of the upper mandible at openings in the seed-dispersing valve; the marks left by the lower mandible on the marri's nut distinguish the species of parrots and cockatoos. Plant species associated with Corymbia calophylla in the mid-story include the tall shrub or tree Persoonia longifolia and Kingia australis in jarrah-marri woodland, where it dominates the canopy with Eucalyptus marginata.
The Darling Scarp referred to as the Darling Range or Darling Ranges, is a low escarpment running north-south to the east of the Swan Coastal Plain and Perth, Western Australia. The escarpment extends north of Bindoon, to the south of Pemberton; the adjacent Darling Plateau goes easterly to include Mount Bakewell near York and Mount Saddleback near Boddington. It was named after the Governor of New South Wales Lieutenant-General Ralph Darling; the feature was first recorded as General Darling Range by Charles Fraser, Government Botanist with Captain James Stirling aboard HMS Success in March 1827. Maps from the 1830s show the scarp labelled "General Darlings Range". There is a tendency to identify the locations on or to the east of the scarp as being in the "Perth Hills"; the earliest traverses by British settlers in the Swan River Colony occurred in the 1830s. The best known of these is the expedition of Ensign Robert Dale, who appears to have gone from a point near Guildford, to the south side of Greenmount Hill and up through the Helena Valley.
The Darling Scarp originated as the local expression, in the Perth area, of the extensive Darling Fault, a major and ancient geological discontinuity separating the Archaean Yilgarn Craton in the east from the younger Pinjarra Orogen and overlying Phanerozoic Perth Basin to the west. The Darling Fault is exposed for over 1,000 kilometres, from the area east of Shark Bay, to the southern coast of Western Australia east of Albany; the location of the scarp must once have coincided with the location of the fault, but the scarp has since eroded about 15 kilometres eastwards. The original location of the scarp is indicated in places by an unusual landform known as the Ridge Hill Shelf; the Darling Plateau is covered by lateritic materials. The Archaean granites and gneisses of the Yilgarn Craton form the high ground of the Perth Hills and can be observed in road cuts, with good examples in the Mundaring Weir area; the only exposed sediments of the Perth Basin, west of the fault, are of Cenozoic age, comprise the material such as sandy limestone and dune sand on which the city of Perth is built, including sand dunes of Pleistocene age formed during the last glacial period.
This area is a distinct physiographic section of the larger Yilgarn Block province, which in turn is part of the larger West Australian Shield division. The Bureau of Meteorology identifies different weather for "the hills" in comparison to that of the Swan Coastal Plain. In traditionally hot summers, strong easterly winds travelling across the scarp have presented serious issues for planes using the Perth Airport because of the alignment of the runways. A documented accident in 1999 involving wind shear from the scarp is at the Perth Airport article. In addition, orographic uplift is produced when rain clouds move over the hills, giving higher rainfalls in settlements in the ranges compared with their coastal neighbours; the Darling escarpment has been exploited for stone quarries and bauxite mining. Extensive timber railways and timber mills and the supporting communities existed along the escarpment because of the high quality jarrah forests. In the early twentieth century, most of the main rivers flowing off the escarpment had been used for dams for water supply for metropolitan Perth.
The dams on the scarp include: Mundaring Weir Serpentine Dam and Pipehead Wungong Dam Churchman's Brook Dam North Dandalup Dam South Dandalup Dam Canning Dam The only free flowing water from the Darling Range in the Peel Region is the Dirk Brook in Keysbrook and the Murray River. The scarp defines the easternmost limit of the various aquifers present in the Perth Basin sediments, most notably the Southwest Yarragadee Aquifer; the scarp forms a divide between the hypersaline groundwaters typical of the Yilgarn Craton basement from the fresh ground waters of the Perth Basin. Some dams along the scarp are contaminated by seepage of saline water from the granite into the base of the dam's water column and must be periodically flushed to preserve water quality. In the early to mid-twentieth century numerous rock quarries existed on the edge of the escarpment - visible and affecting both the aesthetics and the environment of the escarpment. In the area where the Helena River emerges from its valley to the sandplain, there are still four quarries evident, despite being unused as quarries for fifty years or more.
Mountain and Stathams quarries are now managed as rock climbing locations. Bluestone quarry known as Greenmount Quarry, at Greenmount Hill on the west side of Greenmount National Park. Mountain Quarry, south of Greenmount Hill, which ceased operation in 1963. Byford brickworks. Fremantle Harbour Works Quarry, now Hudman Road Amphitheatre at edge of Darlington - Boya localities border, operated from the 1900s to the 1930s. Statham's Quarry at Gooseberry Hill at northern edge of the Kalamunda Zig Zag formation. Armadale brickworks, Bedfordale Hill, shale scar visible from 20th century quarrying, with an underground rail bypassing the South Western Highway to transport the ore. There have been visible quarries on the scarp in the Gosnells and Herne Hill areas. Legislative restrictions upon such developments were
Karijini National Park
Karijini National Park is a national park centred in the Hamersley Ranges of the Pilbara region in the northwestern section of the Australian state of Western Australia. The park is located just north of the Tropic of Capricorn 1,055 kilometres from the state's capital city, Perth. Known as Hamersley Range National Park, the park was renamed in 1991. At 627,422 hectares, Karijini is the second largest national park in Western Australia with Karlamilyi National Park being the largest park; the park is physically split into a northern and a southern half by a corridor containing the Hamersley & Robe River railway and the Marandoo iron ore mine. The park is served by the Solomon Airport, located 15 kilometres westwards. A party led by explorer F. T. Gregory explored the area in 1861, he named the Hamersley Range. The park is located in the Pilbara region, is tropical semi-arid climate. In summer and cyclones are common, bringing 250–350 mm of rain annually. Temperatures on summer days exceed 40 degrees Celsius, while winter nights can bring frost.
Several gorges that flow north out of the park—including Dales, Kalamina and Yampire Gorges—provide notable displays of the rock layers: Banded iron formation - Brockman iron formation Dolomite - Wittenoom dolomite Shale - Mount McRae Shale The park is most notable for its many gorges containing slot canyons and water holes with visitors sometimes swimming in the cold pools of water. Hamersley Gorge is located in the northwestern region of the park, while Range Gorge is in the north, Munjina Gorge is in the east, Hancock, Knox and Weano Gorges converge in the park's center. While the park is open to the public, visitors are warned to exercise due caution when walking in and around the vicinity of Yampire and Wittenoom Gorges near the northern boundary of the park due to the presence of blue asbestos—a known cancer-causing agent when inhaled—which occurs in a number of the rock formations; the park's wildlife includes red kangaroos, wallaroos, geckos, bats, legless lizards and a large variety of birds and snakes, including pythons.
List of protected areas of Western Australia Padgett, Allan Karijini National Park - description of some of the more remote gorges. Landscope, Vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 16–21 Media related to Karijini National Park at Wikimedia Commons Archived PDF park guide A tourist's park photos
John Forrest National Park
John Forrest National Park is a national park in the Darling Scarp, 24 km east of Perth, Western Australia. It was the first national park in Western Australia and the second in Australia after Royal National Park; as early as 1898, the land was reserved for recreation. Two years it was named Greenmount National Park, It was still being identified as National Park in the late 1930s, it was not until 1947 that the name change occurred to commemorate Sir John Forrest, the first Premier of Western Australia; the park is on the edge of the Darling Scarp east of Perth, north of the Great Eastern Highway. The suburb to the west is known as Swan View with Pechey Road as a natural western boundary. To the south of the Great Eastern Highway the suburbs adjacent are Glen Forrest. To the east Hovea is the adjacent suburb, it was dissected by the Eastern Railway when it was constructed in the 1890s and rail traffic passed through until 1966, when the line was closed due to the opening of the Avon Valley route.
The alignment through the Swan View Tunnel and through the park was known as the'National Park' railway line. During the Great Depression of the 1930s many features near the main park buildings were built as part of relief employment; some have been restored. It was a popular railway excursion location while the railway was in existence. Hovea was the nearest railway station but in 1936 the National Park railway station was built. Photographed were National Park Falls, the Hovea Falls. After the railway line was closed and removed the formation became part of the Railway Reserves Heritage Trail vested in the Mundaring Shire Council; the section within the park is now known as the John Forrest Heritage Trail. There are the Glen Brook Walk Trail and the Eagle View Walk Trail within the park. While larger kangaroos remain, significant populations of smaller marsupials have been devastated by foxes, feral cats and dogs in this park. Drought and dieback have affected the jarrah forest within the park.
At the edges of the park, introduced species of weed and problematic vegetation threaten the integrity of the park. In some areas wildflowers remain a feature to the edge of the internal roads despite the changesAlso with rationalising of staff within the Department of Environment and Conservation management, earlier levels of staffing on parks such as this one have been reduced to minimal levels. Significant damaging bushfires occurred in the western and northern sections of the park in the 1990s and early 2000s. In November 2010 a bushfire, believed to have been deliberately lit, damaged a significant area of the park including part of the Eagle's View trail. At various stages parts of the park have been accessed by mountain bike activity. John Forrest Wildflower Tavern and Restaurant was opened in 1978, it is centrally located within the park just uphill from the ranger's office. It has become a landmark for events such as orienteering clubs; the outside court yard has become a popular tourist attraction as native birds and kangaroos, seeking food, approach close to the building.
List of protected areas of Western Australia John Forrest National Park page at the Department of Parks and Wildlife website