Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Kalaoa is a census-designated place in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 9,644 as of the 2010 census, up from 6,794 residents at the 2000 census. Kalaoa is located on the west side of the island of Hawaii at 19°43′23″N 156°0′17″W, it is bordered to the south by Kailua-Kona, Waimea is 33 miles to the northeast. Kalaoa sits on the lower western slopes of the Hualalai volcano and extends west to the Pacific Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 45.6 square miles, of which 39.2 square miles are land and 6.4 square miles, or 14.13%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,794 people, 2,402 households, 1,724 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 172.1 people per square mile. There were 2,541 housing units at an average density of 64.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 49.34% White, 0.35% African American, 0.52% Native American, 13.39% Asian, 10.35% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 25.27% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.95% of the population. There were 2,402 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.19. In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $53,024, the median income for a family was $56,461. Males had a median income of $35,082 versus $27,130 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $24,179. About 3.0% of families and 6.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.
Mokulele Airlines, a small inter-island commuter airline, is headquartered in the CDP, on the grounds of Keahole at Kona Int'l Airport. Keahole at Kona International Airport is located in the lower Kalaoa CDP, serves the western side of the Big Island, including Kailua-Kona, Keauhou, Captain Cook, Waikoloa and the Kohala Coast; the Kalaoa area is served by lower routes of Hawaii Belt Road. The upper section is known as Mamalahoa Highway/Route 190, the lower, more utilized coastal route, is known as Queen Ka'ahumanu Highway, but it is known by its nickname as The Queen K/Route 19. Keahole Point Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Mount Hualalai
Hawaii County, Hawaii
Hawaiʻi County is a county in the U. S. state of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands. It is coterminous with the Island of Hawaiʻi called the "Big Island" to distinguish it from the state as a whole; as of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County; the Hilo Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi County has a mayor-council form of government. Hawaii County is the largest county in the state in terms of geography; the mayor of Hawaii County is Harry Kim, who took office in 2016. Legislative authority is vested in a nine-member Hawaii County Council. Hawaii County is one of seven counties in the United States to share the same name as the state they are in. Hawaiʻi County has a total area of 5,086.70 square miles. The county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States. Route 11 Route 19 Route 130 Route 132 Route 137 Route 190 Route 200 Route 250 Route 270 Route 2000 Maui County - northwest As of 2010, the island had a resident population of 185,079.
There were 64,382 households in the county. The population density was 17.7/km². There were 82,324 housing units at an average density of 8/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 34.5% White, 0.7% African American, 22.6% Asian, 12.4% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 29.2% from two or more races. The largest ancestry groups were: Executive authority is vested in the mayor of Hawaii County, elected for a four-year term. Since 2004, the election by the voters has been on a nonpartisan basis. In 2016, Harry Kim was elected mayor. Legislative authority is vested in a nine-member County Council; each member represents a geographical region of the island, which correlates to one of the nine tax map districts of Hawaiʻi County. Members of the County Council are elected on a nonpartisan basis to two-year terms, with the latest election occurring in November 2016; as of December 2016, Hawaii County Council has a female supermajority for the first time, with six women and three men. Administrative districts were based on the traditional land divisions called Moku of Ancient Hawaii.
Some more populated districts have since been split into North and South districts to make them more comparable on a population basis. The number following each district is the Tax Map Key number, used to locate state property information, they are assigned in a counter-clockwise order beginning on the eastern side of the island. County council districts do not directly match the property tax districts because of the variation in the population density of voters in urban areas to rural areas. Several government functions are administered at the county level that are at the state or municipal level in other states. For example, the county has its own office of liquor control. Hawaii Department of Public Safety operated the Kulani Correctional Facility in Hawaii County, on the Island of Hawaii. In 2009, the Hawaii Department of Public Safety announced that Kulani Correctional Facility would close. Ahualoa Hakalau Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Honokōhau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park Kona Forest National Wildlife Refuge Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site According to the County's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the county are: Hawaii County has 10 sisters: Hualien City, Taiwan La Serena, Chile Legazpi City, Philippines Nago City, Japan Izu Ōshima, Japan Sao Miguel Island, Portugal Shibukawa, Japan Sumoto, Hyōgo, Japan Tasmania, Australia Yurihama, Japan Official Hawaii County website Volcanoes National Park Economic background from the Revision of the Hawaii County General Plan Media related to Hawaii at Wikimedia Commons
Area code 808
The 808 telephone area code covers the inhabited and uninhabited areas of the Hawaiian Islands out to Midway Island and Wake Island. 808 was issued as Hawaii's area code in 1957, not long before its statehood in August 1959. Over 1.3 million people live in Hawaii. Despite the state's rapid growth and the proliferation of cell phones, a single area code is projected to be enough to serve the state until at least the third quarter of 2029. Marcus Mariota, quarterback for the Tennessee Titans football team and 2014 Heisman Trophy winner, had a special facemask honoring the 808 area code while playing with the University of Oregon. List of NANP area codes North American Numbering Plan NANPA Area Code Map of Hawaii List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 808 Area Code
Hawaiian Acres, Hawaii
Hawaiian Acres is a census-designated place in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States located in the District of Puna. The population was 2,700 at the 2010 census, up from 1,776 at the 2000 census. Hawaiian Acres is located on the eastern side of the island of Hawaii at 19°32′56″N 155°3′21″W, it is bordered to the east by Ainaloa and Orchidlands Estates, to the north by Kurtistown, to the northwest by Mountain View, to the west by Fern Acres. To the south is the Puna Forest Reserve; the community is 15 miles south of Hilo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 19.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,776 people, 698 households, 423 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 92.3 people per square mile. There were 843 housing units at an average density of 43.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 51.01% White, 1.41% African American, 0.62% Native American, 9.85% Asian, 8.67% Pacific Islander, 1.35% from other races, 27.08% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.85% of the population. There were 698 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.3% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.22. In the CDP the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,039, the median income for a family was $35,726. Males had a median income of $30,385 versus $24,375 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,242. About 22.5% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.0% of those under age 18 and 22.0% of those age 65 or over.
Hawaiian Acres Community Association
Star of the Sea Painted Church
The Star of the Sea Painted Church in Kalapana, Hawai'i was built in 1927-1928 under the direction of the Belgian Catholic missionary priest Father Evarist Gielen, who painted the upper section of the church interior. In 1990, the church was moved to its present location just ahead of an advancing lava flow, it is located on Highway 130 between mile marker 19 and 20, is open to the public without charge seven days a week from 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM. It is on the National Register of Historic Places