Pindaya is a town in the Shan State of Burma. It is located in the west of the state in Pindaya Township in Taunggyi District. Famous for its limestone caves called Pindaya Caves where thousands of Buddha images have been consecrated for worship over the centuries, it is one of the towns that host an itinerant market every fifth day. According to local legend, the term Pindaya is a corruption of the word Pinguya, which translates to Taken the Spider in Burmese; the name arose from the legend that there was once a large spider which resided in the caves and it had captured a local princess. The princess was rescued when the giant spider was slain by a prince using a arrow; when the spider was killed, the prince was said to have exclaimed that he had taken the spider, to kill it. Thus, the exclamation became the name of the region, from it Pindaya received its name; the Pindaya Caves, a mild 45 minute walk away from the town, are the most famous attraction the town has to offer. Another lesser known attraction is the PlanBee Beekeeping Center.
Visitors can test and buy pure organically made local honey and other bee products while enjoying a cup of coffee and the gorgeous view of Pone Taloke Lake. Land of Harmony, Spirit of Grace: A Journey through Pindaya Debbie Jefkin-Elnekave, December 2003, PSA Journal Flickr photos
Hsipaw Township is a township of Kyaukme District in the Shan State of eastern Burma. The main town is Hsipaw
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
Lieutenant General Smith Dun MC was the commander-in-chief of the Burmese Army from 4 January 1948 to 1 February 1949. Dun enlisted in the Indian Army on 8 November 1924 with the 10th battalion 20th Burma Rifles and after training served with the 2nd battalion 20th Burma Rifles, seeing service in Burma during the rebellion of 1930-32, he was commissioned a Viceroy's Commissioned Officer on 10 January 1931. He attended the Kitchener College and from there was selected to attend the Indian Military Academy and earned the first Sword of Honour, given to the best cadet of each year’s class, he was commissioned on 1 February 1935, his senority being antedated to 4 February 1934. For a year after commissioning he was attached to the 2nd battalion the Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry at Agra. On 24 February 1936 he was admitted to the Indian Army and appointed to the 2nd battalion the 1st Punjab Regiment on 9 March 1936, he was promoted Lieutenant on 4 May 1936. His battalion was involved in fighting on the North West Frontier during 1936-37.
During his time at the Indian Military Academy, Dun was selected as part of the first batch of cadets. Called "The Pioneers", his class produced Sam Maneckshaw and Muhammad Musa, future commanders-in-chief of India and Pakistan, respectively, he was serving attached to the Burma Military Police when the Japanese invaded in 1941. For his services on the retreat from Burma he was Mentioned in Despatches, he attended the Staff College at Quetta and saw further service in Burma, receiving another Mention in Despatches and was awarded the Military Cross as a temporary Major attached the Burma Intelligence Corps. He was promoted to war-substantive lieutenant-colonel in the Indian Army and retired from the Indian Army on 3 January 1949 as an honorary brigadier. In a move to build confidence in the Burmese Union that would include all ethnic groups, Dun, a Karen, was appointed commander-in-chief of the Burmese army and of the police forces when Burma gained its independence from Britain following World War II.
However, in 1949 when the Karen began their war for independence from Burma, Dun was removed from his position. Dun was a loyal leader of the Burmese Army while maintaining a strong sense of his Karen ethnicity. Known as the "four-foot colonel" for his small stature, he kept his Karen soldiers disciplined although suspicion of his ethnic roots lingered after his dismissal. Indian Army Military of Myanmar Dun, Smith. Memoirs of the Four-Foot Colonel. Ithica, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, 1980
Aungban is a town located in the Southern Shan State. It is located in Kalaw Township, part of Taunggyi District, it lies at the elevation of 4219 feet above sea level. As of September 2017, its population was recorded 30313, it is a junction town and thus majority of agricultural products from nearby towns and villages are collected there by traders and distributed to other parts of country to Yangon, Mandalay and Mon States. As a trade hub in the region, more than half a dozen of banks are being operated; as a logistically important place, most of the biggest companies in the country set up branch offices there, creating much employment opportunities for local people. Job opportunities vary from lorry-drivers to mid-level management officers; the town plays a strategic role for military works that it has become an army base. 700-bedded military hospital started its operation in 2000s, providing healthcare service not only to military personnels but to wider public. Aungban-Loikaw railroad was constructed in 1992.
Condition of motorway from Aungban to Loikaw was improved over the past few years and local people no longer rely on train services nowadays. Recent boom in tourism industry of Kalaw as a popular hiking spot and hill station has brought some impact to Aungban as well. There are more than 5 hotels offering hundreds of rooms to visitors; the town get urbanized during President U Thein Sein´s term. Despite earning much municipal taxes from local businesses and people, township administrative parties were focusing on Kalaw that the town grew double in size without proper civil planning. No public amenities for the population it host and private business sector starts to take chance by developing swimming pools, football pitches, etc around the town. There is a small lake,namely Mingalar Lake in Bahtoo Park. Once it was a collection of drain water discharged from living quarters and restoration works for the park and the lake was carried out by the chairman of KBZ bank and now it becomes a recreational place for the locals.
The motorway passing through Aung Ban is upgraded to 4-lane way recently. Buildings fall under motorway´s zoning undergone demolition. Captain Ba Htoo's Memorial Monument was build back in the Ba Htoo park. Controversials and criticisms arose around the country for complete demolimishment without considering for relocation; the town´s 100-years-anniversary clock-tower at the Pindaya junction was removed as well. Upgrade will be finished by April 2019 and now the town got newer look. However, common use of motorway for town´s own traffic and speedy expressway vehicles is to lead accidents unless proper traffic offence penalty is practiced. Satellite map at Maplandia.com
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Heho is a small town in Kalaw Township, Taunggyi District, Shan State of Myanmar. It is the primary air gateway to tourist areas such as Inle Lake. Heho is connected by NH4 to Taunggyi, the capital of the Shan State in the east. A dirt road northwest from Heho leads to the old silver-lead mines of Maw Son, it was a small village of Danu people. The village grew into a town in the 1920s when the single-line railway line was extended from Aungban to Shwenyaung, Heho was determined to be a convenient intermediate stop and transfer point. An airport was built, 4 km northwest of the town; the airport served as an airbase both for the Allies and the Japanese during World War II. The airbase was bombed by the Allies. Evidence of aircraft bunker revetments and bomb craters can still be seen on the southern end of the airfield noticeable from the air