Mohiniyattam spelled Mohiniattam, is one of the eight classical dances of India that developed and remain popular in the state of Kerala. The other classical dance form from Kerala is Kathakali. Mohiniyattam dance gets its name from the word Mohini – a mythical enchantress avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, who helps the good prevail over evil by deploying her feminine powers. Mohiniyattam's roots, like all classical Indian dances, are in the Natya Shastra – the ancient Hindu Sanskrit text on performance arts. However, it follows the Lasya style described in Natya Shastra, a dance, delicate, eros-filled and feminine, it is traditionally a solo dance performed by women after extensive training. The repertoire of Mohiniyattam includes music in the Carnatic style and acting a play through the dance, where the recitation may be either by a separate vocalist or the dancer herself; the song is in Malayalam-Sanskrit hybrid called Manipravalam. The earliest mention of the word is found in the 16th-century legal text Vyavaharamala, but the roots of the dance are older.
The dance was systematized in the 18th century, was ridiculed as a Devadasi prostitution system during the colonial British Raj, banned by a series of laws from 1931 through 1938, a ban, protested and repealed in 1940. The socio-political conflict led to renewed interest and reconstruction of Mohiniyattam by the people of Kerala the poet Vallathol Narayana Menon. Mohiniyattam referred to as Mohini-attam, is derived from "Mohini" – a famous female avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu in Indian mythology. Mohini refers to a "divine enchantress, supreme seductress", she appears in Hindu mythologies during a battle between Devas and Asuras, after the evil had won control of Amrita. Appearing in her youthful bloom, dressed rapturously she uses her charms to seduce the Asuras, who seeking her favors, give her the Amrita to distribute among the evil forces. Mohini after gaining the Amrita gives it to the good instead, depriving the evil from gaining immortality; the details of the Mohini story varies by the Purana and region, but she is an enchantress avatar of the supreme in Vaishnavism.
Aattam is a Malayalam language word, means rhythmic motion or dance. Mohiniyattam thus connotes "a dance of an enchantress, a beautiful woman". Mohiniyattam is a classical Indian dance, which by definition traces its repertoire to the foundational text Natya Shastra; the Natya Shastra text is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni. Its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE; the text describes the basic elements and the structure of two types of dance: the vigorous, high energy Tāṇḍava dance and the gentle, calmingly graceful Lāsyā dance. Mohiniyāttam aims of the Lāsyā dance in Natya Shastra. According to Reginald Massey, Mohiniyattam's history is unclear. Kerala, the region where this dance genre developed and is popular, has a long tradition of lasya style dances whose basics and structure may be at the root; the earliest evidence of Mohiniyattam, or a Mohiniyattam-like dance tradition is found in temple sculpture of Kerala.
The 11th century Vishnu temple at Trikodithanam, the Kidangur Subramanya temple, have several sculptures of female dancers in Mohiniyattam pose. The textual evidence from 12th century onwards suggest that Malayalam poets and playwrights included Lāsyā themes; the 16th century Vyavaharamala by Nambootiri contains the first known mention of the term Mohiniyattam, in the context of a payment to be made to a Mohiniyattam dancer. Another text, Gosha Yatra, from the 17th century too mentions the term; the 18th century Balarama Bharatam, a major secondary work on Natya Shastra composed in Kerala, mentions many dance styles including Mohini Natana. In the 18th and 19th century, Mohiniyattam grew as dance arts received patronage of competing princely states. In particular, the early 19th century sponsorship and building of a joint Mohiniyattam and Bharatanatyam team of artists by the Hindu king and music composer Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma contributed to the growth and systematization of modern Mohiniyattam.
With the spread of colonial British rule in the 19th century India, all classical dance forms of India were ridiculed and discouraged, leading to their decline. This was in part the result of the Victorian morality of sexual repressiveness along with Anglican missionaries who criticized Hinduism; the seductive gestures and facial expressions during temple dances were caricatured in The Wrongs of Indian Womanhood, published at the start of the 20th century, as evidence of "harlots, debased erotic culture, slavery to idols and priests" tradition, Christian missionaries demanded that this must be stopped, launching the "anti-dance movement" or "anti-nautch movement" in 1892. This movement affected all classical dances in India and contributed to their decline, including the stigmatization of Mohiniyattam in the princely states of Travancore and Cochin in the British Empire. According to Justine Lemos, the conventional stereotype has been to label the temple dancers as prostitutes and that Mohiniyattam was banned by the Maharaja under pressure from the British rule and his citizens, but an examination of historical evidence suggests that neither did any law or proclamation ban Mohiniyattam nor is there any evidence that dancing girls of Mohiniyattam were devadasis, temple prostitutes or menial servants of the temple.
However, adds Lemos, there is evidence of rewards being given, scholarship being sponsored, payments being made to the dancers of Mohiniyattam, as well as laws enacted between 1931 and 1938
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for
Tāṇḍavam is a divine dance performed by the Hindu god Shiva. Shiva's Tandava is described as a vigorous dance, the source of the cycle of creation and dissolution. While the Rudra Tandava depicts his violent nature, first as the creator and as the destroyer of the universe of death itself, the Ananda Tandava depicts him as joyful. In Shaiva Siddhanta tradition, Shiva as Nataraja is considered the supreme lord of dance; the Tandavam takes its name from Tandu, the attendant of Shiva, who instructed Bharata in the use of Angaharas and Karanas modes of the Tandava at Shiva's order. Some scholars consider that Tandu himself must have been the author of an earlier work on the dramatic arts, incorporated into the Natya Shastra. Indeed, the classical arts of dance and song may derive from the mudras and rituals of Shaiva tradition; the 32 Angaharas and 108 Karanas are discussed by Bharata in the 4th chapter of the Natya Shastra, Tandava Lakshanam. Karana is the combination of hand gestures with feet to form a dance posture.
Angahara is composed of seven or more Karanas. 108 karanas included in Tandava could be employed in the course of dance and personal combats and in other special movements like strolling. The dance is a pictorial allegory of the five principle manifestations of eternal energy: Srishti - creation, evolution Sthiti - preservation, support Samhara - destruction, evolution Tirodhana - illusion Anugraha - release, grace Thus Tandava symbolizes the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction, as well as the daily rhythm of birth and death. Tandava, as performed in the sacred dance-drama of southern India, has brisk movements. Performed with joy, the dance is called Ananda Tandava. Performed in a violent mood, the dance is called Rudra Tandava. In the Hindu texts, at least seven types of Tandava are found: Ananda Tandava, Tripura Tandava, Sandhya Tandava, Samhara Tandava, Kali Tandava, Uma Tandava and Gauri Tandava. However, some people believe. "How many various dances of Shiva are known to His worshipers I cannot say.
No doubt the root idea behind all of these dances is more or less one and the same, the manifestation of primal rhythmic energy. Whatever the origins of Shiva's dance, it became in time the clearest image of the activity of God which any art or religion can boast of." - Ananda Coomaraswamy The dance performed by Shiva's wife Parvati in response to Shiva's Tandava is known as Lasya, in which the movements are gentle and sometimes erotic. Some scholars consider Lasya to be the feminine version of Tandava. Lasya has Jarita Lasya and Yauvaka Lasya; the Hindu scriptures narrate various occasions when other gods have performed the Tandava. When Sati jumped into the Agni Kunda in Daksha's Yajna and gave up her life, Shiva is said to have performed the Rudra Tandava to express his grief and anger; the Shivapradosha stotra says when Shiva performs the Sandhya Tandava, the other gods like Brahma, Sarasvati and Indra play musical instruments and sing Shiva's praises. Ganesha, the son of Shiva, is depicted as Ashtabhuja tandavsa nritya murtis in temple sculptures.
Shiva Tandava Stotram is a stotra that describes Shiva's beauty. The Bhagavata Purana talks of Krishna dancing his Tandava on the head of the serpent Kaliya. According to Jain traditions, Indra is said to have performed the Tandava in honour of Rishabha on the latter's birth. One Hundred and Eight Shiva Thandavam Manohar Laxman Varadpande. History of Indian Theatre. Abhinav. ISBN 978-81-7017-278-9. Description of the Class Dance, Chapter IV of the Nāṭyaśāstra
Yogi Gorakhnath was a Hindu yogi and saint, the founder of the Nath tradition. He is considered as one of the two notable disciples of Matsyendranath, his followers are found in India at the place known as Garbhagiri, in Ahmednagar in the state of Maharashtra. These followers are called yogis, Darshani or Kanphata; the details of his biography are unknown and disputed. He was one of nine saints known as Navnath and is popular in Maharashtra, India. Hagiographies describe him as more than a human teacher and someone outside the laws of time who appeared on earth in different ages. Historians state Gorakhnath lived sometime during the first half of the 2nd millennium CE, but they disagree in which century. Estimates based on archaeology and text range from Briggs' 15th- to 12th-century to Grierson's estimate of the 14th-century. Gorakhnath is considered a Maha-yogi in the Hindu tradition, he did not emphasize a specific metaphysical theory or a particular Truth, but emphasized that the search for Truth and the spiritual life is a valuable and normal goal of man.
Gorakhnath championed Yoga, spiritual discipline and an ethical life of self-determination as a means to reaching samadhi and one's own spiritual truths. Gorakhnath, his ideas and yogis have been popular in rural India, with monasteries and temples dedicated to him found in many states of India in the eponymous city of Gorakhpur. Historians vary in their estimate on. Estimates based on archaeology and text range from Briggs' 11th- to 12th-century to Baba Farid documents and Jnanesvari manuscripts leading Abbott to connect Gorakhnath to the 13th-century, to Grierson who relying on evidence discovered in Gujarat suggests the 14th-century, his influence is found in the numerous references to him in the poetry of Kabir and of Guru Nanak of Sikhism, which describe him as a powerful leader with a large following, thereby suggesting he lived around the time these spiritual leaders lived in India. Historical texts imply that Gorakhnath was a Buddhist in a region influenced by Shaivism, he converted to Hinduism championing Shiva and Yoga.
Gorakhnath led a life as a passionate exponent of ideas of Kumarila and Adi Shankara that championed the Yoga and Advaita Vedanta interpretation of the Upanishads. Gorakhnath considered the controversy between dualism and nondualism spiritual theories in medieval India as useless from practice point of view, he emphasized that the choice is of the yogi, that the spiritual discipline and practice by either path leads to "perfectly illumined samadhi state of the individual phenomenal consciousness", states Banerjea; the hagiography on Gorakhnath describe him to have appeared on earth several times. The legends do not provide a time or place where he was born, consider him to be superhuman. North Indian hagiographies suggest. Other hagiographies on Gorakhnath in and Bihar suggest; these hagiographies are inconsistent, offer varying records of the spiritual descent of Gorakhnath. All name Matsyendranath as two teachers preceding him in the succession. Though one account lists five gurus preceding Adinath and another lists six teachers between Matsyendranath and Gorakhnath, current tradition has Adinath identified with Lord Shiva as the direct teacher of Matsyendranath, himself the direct teacher of Gorakhnath.
The legends in the Nath tradition assert that he traveled across the Indian subcontinent, accounts about him are found in some form in several places including Nepal, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Bengal, Kathiawar, Maharashtra and Sri Lanka. The Nath tradition states that its traditions existed before Gorakhnath, but the movement's greatest expansion happened under the guidance and inspiration of Gorakhnath, he produced a number of writings and today is considered the greatest of the Naths. It has been purported. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakhnath spent time in meditation. According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine of Gorakhnath is at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about one kilometer from Ganeshpuri, India. According to legends Gorakhnath and Matsyendranath did penance in Kadri Temple at Mangalore, Karnataka, they are instrumental in laying Shivlingam at Kadri and Dharmasthala. The temple of Gorakhnath is situated on hill called Garbhagiri near Vambori, Tal Rahuri.
There is a famous temple of Gorakhnath in the state of Odisha. The Gorakhnath Math is a monastery of the Nath monastic group named after the medieval saint, Gorakhnath, of the Nath sampradaya; the math and town of Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh is named after him. The monastery and the temple perform various cultural and social activities and serve as the cultural hub of the city; the monastery publishes texts on the philosophy of Gorakhnath. Some scholars associate the origins of Hatha yoga with the Nath yogis, in particular Gorakhnath and his guru Matsyendranath. According to British indologist James Mallinson, this association is false. In his view, the origins of hatha yoga should be associated with the Dashanami Sampradaya of Advaita Vedanta, the mystical figure of Dattatreya, the Rāmānandīs. While the origins of Hatha yoga are disputed, according to Guy Beck – a professor of Religious Studies known for his studies on Yoga and music, "the connections between Goraknath, the Kanphatas and Hath
Cobra is the common name of various elapid snakes, most of which belonging to the genus Naja. All of the known cobras are venomous and many are capable of rearing upwards and producing a hood when threatened. All members of the genus Naja, the "true" cobras and produce hoods. Other "cobra" genera and species are as follows: The rinkhals, or ring-necked spitting cobra, Hemachatus haemachatus, so called for its neck band as well as its habit of rearing and spreading its hood when disturbed The king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah The two species of tree cobra, Goldie's tree cobra and black tree cobra The two species of shieldnose cobras, Cape coral snake and Aspidelaps scutatus The two species of black desert cobra, desert black snake and Walterinnesia morgani, neither of which rears or produces a hood The so-called American cobra, the eastern coral snake, which does not rear or produce a hoodThe false water cobra, Hydrodynastes gigas, is the only "cobra", not a member of the Elapidae, it does not rear, produces only a slight flattening of the neck, is only mildly venomous
Manipuri dance known as Jagoi, is one of the major Indian classical dance forms, named after the region of its origin – Manipur, a state in northeastern India bordering with Myanmar, Assam and Mizoram. It is known for its Hindu Vaishnavism themes, exquisite performances of love-inspired dance drama of Radha-Krishna called Raslila. However, the dance is performed to themes related to Shaivism and regional deities such as Umang Lai during Lai Haraoba; the roots of Manipuri dance, as with all classical Indian dances, is the ancient Hindu Sanskrit text Natya Shastra, with influences and the culture fusion between various local folk dance forms. According to the traditional legend, the indigenous people of the Manipur valley were the dance-experts revered as Gandharvas in the Hindu epics, suggesting a dance tradition has existed in Manipur since antiquity. With evidence of Vishnu temples in the medieval era, the dance arts have been passed down verbally from generation to generation as an oral tradition.
The first reliably dated written texts describing the art of Manipuri dance are from the early 18th-century. The Manipuri dance is a team performance, with its own unique costumes, aesthetics and repertoire; the Manipuri dance drama is, for most part, marked by a performance, graceful, sinuous with greater emphasis on hand and upper body gestures. It is accompanied with devotional music created with many instruments, with the beat set by cymbals and double-headed drum of sankirtan. Manipuri dance is a religious art and its aim is the expression of spiritual values. Aspects of this performance art is celebrated during Hindu festivals and major rites of passage such as weddings among the Manipuri people in the ethnic majority of Bishnupriya Manipuri & Meitei people; the dance drama choreography shares the plays and stories of'Vaishnavite Padavalis', that inspired the major Gaudiya Vaishnava-related performance arts found in Assam and West Bengal. According to tradition of the Manipuri people in the Himalayan foothills and valleys connecting India to Burma, they are the Gandharvas in the Vedic texts, historic texts of Manipuri people calls the region as Gandharva-desa.
The Vedic Usha, the goddess of the dawn, is a cultural motif for Manipuri women, in the Indian tradition, it was Usha who created and taught the art of feminine dance to girls. This oral tradition of women's dance is celebrated as Chingkheirol in the Manipuri tradition; the ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata epic mentions Manipur, where Arjuna meets and falls in love with Chitragada. Dance is called Jagoi in a major Meitei language of the region and it traces a long tradition in Manipur. Lai Haraoba dance has ancient roots and shares many similarities with dance postures of Nataraja and his legendary disciple called Tandu; as does the dance related to commoner Khamba and princess Thoibi – who perform as pan-Indian Shiva and Parvati, in the legendary tragic love story of Khamba-Thoibi found in the Manipuri epic Moirang Parba. Historical texts of Manipur have not survived into the modern era, reliable records trace to early 18th century. Theories about the antiquity of Manipuri rely on the oral tradition, archaeological discoveries and references about Manipur in Asian manuscripts whose date can be better established.
The text Bamon Khunthok, which means "Brahmin migration", states Panniker, states that Vaishnavism practices were adopted by the king of Manipur in the 15th century CE, arriving from Shan kingdom of Pong. Further waves of Buddhists and Hindus arrived from Assam and Bengal, after mid 16th-century during Hindu-Muslim wars of Bengal Sultanate, were welcomed in Manipur. In 1704, the King Charai Rongba adopted Vaishnavism, declared it to be the state religion. In 1717, the King Gareeb Niwaz converted to Chaitanya style devotional Vaishnavism, which emphasized singing and religious performance arts centered around Hindu god Krishna. In 1734, devotional dance drama centered around Hindu god Rama expanded Manipuri dance tradition. Maharaja Bhagyachandra of Manipur State adopted Gaudiya Vaishnavism and codified the Manipuri dance style, launching the golden era of its development and refinement, he composed three of the five types of Ras Lilas, the Maha Ras, the Basanta Ras and the Kunja Ras, performed at the Sri Sri Govindaji temple in Imphal during his reign and the Achouba Bhangi Pareng dance.
He designed an elaborate costume known as Kumil. The Govinda Sangeet Lila Vilasa, an important text detailing the fundamentals of the dance, is attributed to him. King Bhagyachandra is credited with starting public performances of Raas Lila and Manipuri dances in Hindu temples. Maharaja Gambhir Singh composed two parengs of the tandava type, the Goshtha Bhangi Pareng and the Goshtha Vrindaban Pareng. Maharaja Chandra Kirti Singh, a gifted drummer, composed at least 64 Pung choloms and two parengs of the Lasya type, the Vrindaban Bhangi Pareng and Khrumba Bhangi Pareng; the composition of the Nitya Ras is attributed to these kings. In 1891, the British colonial government annexed Manipur into its Empire, marking an end to its golden era of creative systematization and expansion of Manipuri dance; the Manipuri dance was thereafter ridiculed as immoral and old-fashioned, like all other classical Hindu performance arts. The dance and artists survived only such as in Imphal's Govindji temple. The
Arundo is a genus of stout, perennial plants in the grass family. Arundo is native to southern Europe, North Africa, much of temperate Asia as far east as Japan, they grow to 3–6 m tall to 10 m, with leaves 30–60 cm long and 3–6 cm broad. SpeciesArundo collina Ten. Arundo donax L. – Giant cane, Spanish cane Arundo formosana Hack. – Nansei-shoto, Philippines Arundo mediterranea Danin – Mediterranean Arundo micrantha Lam. – Mediterranean Arundo plinii Turra – Pliny's reed – Greece, Albania, Croatiaformerly includedover 200 species once considered part of Arundo but now regarded as better suited to other genera: Achnatherum, Ammophila, Arthrostylidium, Austroderia, Bambusa, Calammophila, Chionochloa, Cinna, Dendrocalamus, Dupontia, Gigantochloa, Gynerium, Indocalamus, Miscanthus, Muhlenbergia, Phalaris, Poa, Rytidosperma, Schizostachyum, Stipa, Trisetaria. List of Poaceae genera Douce, R. 1994. The biological pollution of Arundo donax in river estuaries and beaches. Pp. 11–13 In: Jackson, N. E. et al.
Arundo donax workshop. Dudley, T. and B. Collins. 1995. Biological invasions in California wetlands: the impacts and control of non-indigenous species in natural areas. Pacific Institute for SIDES, Oakland, CA. Frandsen. P. 1994. Team Arundo: a model for inter-agency cooperation. Pp. 35–40 In: Jackson, N. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Frandsen, P. and N. Jackson. 1994. The impact of Arundo donax on endangered species. Pp. 13–16 In: Jackson, N. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Hoshovsky, M. 1988. Element stewardship abstract: Arundo donax; the Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, CA. Iverson, M. Pp19–26 In: Jackson, N. E. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Scott, G. D. 1994. Fire threat from Arundo donax. Pp. 17–18 In: Jackson, N. et al. Arundo donax workshop. Germplasm Resources Information Network: Arundo Erowid Arundo Donax vault