Romani people in Bosnia and Herzegovina
According to the 1991 census, there were 8,864 Romani in Bosnia and Herzegovina or 0.2 percent of the population. Yet, the number was much higher. The BiH Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees conducted in 2010 a process of registration, recording a number of 17,000 Roma. The MHRR estimates that there are at least 25,000 to 30,000 Roma resident in BiH, according to the Ministry, around 42 percent of the Romani population in BiH is below 19 years old. The OSCE estimates the whole Romani population in Bosnia and Herzegovina at 40, estimates for the whole Roma population living in Bosnia and Herzegovina range between 65,000 and 70,000. Kali Sara and other local Roma NGOs put the number of Roma in BiH at between 80,000 and 100,000, the Romani people originate from Northern India, presumably from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi and it shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali.
Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India, in February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora, there have been Romani people in Bosnia and Herzegovina for more than 600 years. Roma are deemed to have arrived in the territory of todays Bosnia and Herzegovina by the 14th–15th centuries, already then, Roma were stigmatised and had to live in settlements outside city boundaries. Rousseau, the French consul in Bosnia and Herzegovina, estimated in 1866 a number of 9,965 or 1.1 percent of the population were Romani. Johann Roskiewicz estimated in 1867 the number of the Gypsies in Bosnia at 9,000 and in Herzegovina at 2,500, attitudes towards Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina hardened during the Austro-Hungarian forty-years rule, due to rumours that Roma lived off immoral earnings.
The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica mentions 18,000 Romani in Bosnia, the worst period for Bosnian Roma came with World War Two, when Bosnia and Herzegovina was included in the Nazi-aligned Independent State of Croatia. It is estimated that 28,000 Roma perished in the conflict, in Socialist Jugoslavia, the situation of Roma improved considerable, as they became officially recognised as a “national minority”, and came to enjoy a large degree of security and welfare. During the war in Bosnia of 1992–1995, the Roma suffered mistreatment by all parties, being often considered as agents of the enemy. Over 30,000 Bosnian Roma were expelled based on ethnic cleansing, Roma were subject to inhumane conditions in concentration camps and entire communities were destroyed. Important communities are living in Brčko, Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Prijedor and Teslić. The largest number of Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina live in the Tuzla Canton, of which a sizeable proportion in the municipality of Tuzla, as well as in Živinice, the Sarajevo Canton hosts around 7,000 Roma families, mostly in the municipality of Novi Grad
Romani people in Romania
Romani people in Romania, constitute one of the countrys largest minorities. According to the 2011 census, they number 621,573 people or 3. 08% of the total population, the Romani people originate from the northern India, presumably from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi and it shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India, in February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora, in Romani, the native language of the Romani, the word for people is pronounced or depending on dialect. Starting from the 1990s, the word has officially used in the Romanian language.
There are two spellings of the word in Romanian and rrom, the first spelling is preferred by the majority of Romani NGOs and it is the only spelling accepted in Romanian Academys Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române. The two forms reflect the fact that for some speakers of Romani there are two rhotic phonemes, /r/ and /ʀ/, in the government-sponsored writing system /ʀ/ is spelt rr. The final i in rromi is the Romanian plural, the traditional and colloquial Romanian name for Romani, is țigani. The Romanian government supported the move on the grounds that many countries in the European Union use a variation of the word Țigan to refer to their Gypsy populations, the Romanian upper house, rejected the proposal. In combination with the Mongol invasion of Europe the first Romani had reached the territory of present-day Romania around the year 1241, at the beginning of the 14th century, when the Mongols withdrew from Eastern Europe, the Romani who were left were taken as prisoners and slaves.
According to documents signed by Prince Dan I the first captured Romani in Wallachia dates back to year 1385, in fact, the Romani people, and the Romani language, have their origin in northern India. The presence of the Roms within the territory of present-day Romania dates back to the 14th century, the population of Roms fluctuated depending on diverse historical and political events. Until their liberation on February 20,1856, most Roms lived in slavery and they could not leave the property of their owners. Around the year 1850, about 102,000 Romani lived in the Danubian Principalities, after their liberation in 1856, a significant number of Roms left Wallachia and Moldavia. In 1886 the number of Roms was estimated at around 200,000, the 1899 census counted around 210,806 others, of whom roughly half were Romani. In Bessarabia, annexed by the Russian Empire in 1812, the Roms were liberated in 1861, many of them migrated to other regions of the Empire, while important communities remained in Soroca and the surroundings of Cetatea Albă, Chișinău, and Bălți.
The 1918 union with Transylvania, Banat and Bessarabia increased the number of ethnic Romani in Romania, the first census in interwar Romania took place in 1930,242,656 persons were registered as Gypsies
Romani people in Bulgaria
Romani people in Bulgaria constitute one of the countrys largest ethnic minorities. The Romani are the third or second largest ethnic group, depending on the data, the 2011 census recorded a lower figure than that in 2001. While Romani have the highest birth rate in Europe and are considered the fastest growing group, and they tend to have high death and immigration rates. The Romani people in Bulgaria speak Bulgarian, Turkish or Romani, depending on the region, the Romani people have darker pigmentation than most of Bulgarias ethnic groups as a result of their Indian descent. They are not concentrated in regions, but are rather spread throughout the country in similar frequencies. However, there are villages with Romani majority, in Bulgaria, Romani are most commonly referred to as Tsigani, an exonym that some Romani resent and others embrace. The form of the endonym Roma in Bulgarian is romi, in Bulgaria Roma are discriminated, 59% to 80% of non-Roma have negative feelings towards Roma. They are emancipated social group, having higher crime, birth and poverty rates, though most live in poverty, the Romani are represented in Bulgarian mafia and rich Romani crime bosses deal with drug trade and prostitution.
Though most of them are unemployed, they have a high rate of child sex workers. Roma constitute the majority of population according to self-identification of inmates. According to 2002 data, the poverty rate among Romani is 61. 8%, in 1997, 84% of Bulgarian Romani lived under the poverty line, compared with 32% of ethnic Bulgarians. In 1994, the poverty rate of Romani was estimated at 71. 4%, they enjoy more financial aid than other citizens, especially for children, which may have prompt the higher birth rates of the Romani. Many live with humanitarian aid without working, in 2011 the share of Romani with university degree reached 0. 3%, while 6. 9% have secondary education, the same share was 22. 8%/47. 6% for Bulgarians. The Turks are more negative towards the Romani than the Bulgarians, with 30-50% rejecting various interactions and friendship with Romani. Although only 25% of Romani parents object to their children to be married with a Bulgarian, Romani are avoided by the majority traditionally, especially for marriage, there are ethnically mixed people with Gypsy and Bulgarian parents who are called жоревци zhorevtsi.
The rights of the Romani people in the country are represented by political parties and cultural organizations, the Romani people originate from Northern India, presumably from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi and it shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India, in February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India
The Ursari or Richinara are the traditionally nomadic occupational group of animal trainers among the Romani people. The Ursari form an important part of the Roma community in Romania and they form a sizable part of the Roma present in Serbia and Western European countries such as the Netherlands and Italy. The word Ursari may refer to a dialect of Balkan Romani, as spoken in Romania and Moldova, although it is estimated that most Ursari, like the Boyash, speak Romanian as their native language. There is no consensus on whether Ursari belong to the Sinti subgroup of the Roma people or to the other half of the Roma population. A Romanian poll conducted in 2004 among 347 Roma found that 150 referred to themselves as Ursari, the Coşniţari group, present on both sides of the Danube, is believed to be a segment of the Ursari. In decades, they were probably among the people referred to as Egyptians. The Ursari formed part of the population in the Danubian Principalities before the abolitions of the 1840s and 1850s.
With the Boyash, the Kalderash, and groups of Roma smiths, Ursari formed the category of lăieşi, by the early decades of the 19th century, most of the state-owned Roma were lăieşi, as opposed to private-owned ones. Ursari people and the Boyash-proper traditionally accompanied the Kalderash on their travels to Rumelia, according to Thouvenel, Ursari were known for veterinary skills, which, he argued, the superstition of people in the countryside attributes to the possession of a magic art. In addition to handling, the community would occasionally trade in wild animals. Female members of the community were known for their practice of fortune-telling, as early as the rule of Domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza, they formed a staple of such spectacles, alongside the music-playing Lăutari, the Căluşari, and freak shows. At around the time, they included a section of zavragii. Also during the late 19th century, the Ursari came to be attested in Imperial Russian-ruled Bessarabia, a similar move originated in Serbia, around Kragujevac, with Boyash and Ursari moving into northern and central Italy.
In time, a significant number of Ursari joined circuses, while others began manufacturing and trading bone objects and leather. The bears were taught to make dancing moves to a tambourine, or trained to walk upright and perform such as leaning on canes. It has been reported that bear training involved burning the paws of cubs to the rhythm of music, the official explanation for the measure was that such patterns of movement were helping to spread typhus. Over the following years, under Ion Antonescus regime, members of the Ursari community were among the Roma people deported to Transnistria, interdictions on performing with bears were legislated throughout the Eastern Bloc. In April–June 1991, following the Revolution of 1989, Ursari in several localities of Romanias Giurgiu County — Bolintin Deal, Ursari people were chased away, and many of their lodgings were burned to the ground
Romani people in Ukraine
The presence of a Romani minority in Ukraine was first documented in the early 14th century. Romani maintained their social organizations and folkways, shunning non-Romani contacts and values, often as a reaction to anti-Romani attitudes and persecution. They adopted the language and faith of the dominant society being Orthodox in most of Ukraine, Catholic in Western Ukraine and Transcarpathia, during World War II the Nazis and their allies implemented their policies of the extermination of the Romani people in Ukraine. By July 1943 the Romanian authorities transported 25,000 nomad Romani from Romania to Transnistria, along the Bug river, in Ukraine it is estimated that 12,000 were killed by the Nazis in Babi Yar in Kiev. Other World War II massacres took place in Crimea, Podilia and Volhynia. Census 1887,12,000 Romani in Russian Ukraine Census 1922,60,000 Romani in Ukrainian SSR Census 1959,28,000 Romani in Ukrainian SSR Census 1970,30,100 Romani in Ukrainian SSR. Census 1979,34,500 Romani in Ukrainian SSR Census 2001,47,600 Romani in Ukraine, the estimate of the World Romani Union and the Council of Europe is considerably higher.
The Romani organizations estimate the number at over 400,000 persons, Romani are scattered throughout Ukraine, but their largest concentration is in Transcarpathia. 35% consider Romani their mother tongue, material culture has not differed from the dominant society except in dress. They have a folk tradition. Romani themes can be found in Ukrainian literature, the term Rom/Roma is not generally used, accepted or understood in Ukraine, even by the Romani themselves. They are referred to by the generic term Tsyhany Krimi, or Crimean Romani, migrated from the Balkans to Crimea, further sub-groups include Audzhi and others. During World War II Nazis killed 800 Crymy Roma in Simferopol, stalin evicted Tatars and Romani to Central Asia in 1944. Gurbeti, The gypsy communities in Crimea in the 19th century were divided by locals, the Gurbeti, lived mainly in the towns and steppe regions. They traded horses and products out of horse meat. The Krimurja in Crimea incorporated small numbers of Gurbeti through marriage and their small number likely prevented them from an own community.
Their Romani language and nomadic lifestyle determined their separation to the Daifa, in spite of intermarriage between the Gurbeti and Krimurja, a distinct origin is remembered, and an internal separation to some extent has been preserved. In modern times, local Crimeans claim that the chingene deny their gypsy origin, servitka Roma Romani people Encyclopedia of Ukraine Vol.2 Toronto,1988 УКРАЇНСЬКІ ЦИГАНИ
Romani music is the music of the Romani people, who have their origins in Northern India, but today live mostly in Europe. Historically nomadic, though now largely settled, the Romani people have acted as entertainers. In many of the places Romanies live they have known as musicians. It is difficult to define the parameters of a unified Romani musical style, as there are differences in melodic, rhythmic. Lyrics to Romani songs are sung in one or more dialects of the Romani language. The quintessentially Spanish flamenco is to a large extent the music of the Romani people of Andalusia. Apart from Romani music for use, in Eastern Europe a separate Romani music originated for entertainment at parties. This music drew its themes from Hungarian, Russian, on it gained popularity in Western Europe, where many Romani orchestras were active, playing sophisticated melodies of East European origin. Probably the most influential Romani musician was Django Reinhardt, original Romani folksongs - not derived from the countries where the Romani live - are relatively rare.
This particular folk music is vocal and consists of slow plaintive songs. The fast melodies are accompanied with tongue-clacking, hand-clapping, mouth-basses, clicking of wooden spoons, most Romani music is based on the folk music of the countries where the Romani went through or settled. Local music is adopted and performed – usually instrumental – and, slowly, it is transformed into Romani styles, in its turn, Romani music has greatly influenced the local music. Among these the Hungarian versions have become best known, although examples of Romani music in other countries endure, the Romani people of Spain have contributed significantly to the Andalusian musical tradition known as flamenco. Although it is not, strictly speaking, Romani music, Flamenco is closely associated to this ethnicity, due to Romani population in Bulgaria, this ethnic groups music is very popular. Chalga music, played by Romani musicians in Bulgaria, the Lăutari were traditional Romani musicians, playing at various events The manele genre which is very popular in Romania is supported by Romani ethnic musicians, too.
A gypsy choir in Russia was the Sokolovsky gypsy choir, Romani people are known throughout Turkey for their musicianship. Their urban music brought echoes of classical Turkish music to the public via the meyhane or taverna, romanis have influenced the fasıl itself. Played in music halls, the music required at the end of each fasıl has been incorporated with Ottoman rakkas or belly dancing motifs
Romani people in France
Romani people in France, generally known in spoken French as gitans, tsiganes or manouches, are an ethnic group which originated in Northern India. The exact numbers of Romani people in France are not known, at least 12,000 Romani are estimated to live in unofficial urban camps throughout the country, with French authorities often attempting to close down these encampments. In 2009, the French government sent more than 10,000 Romani back to Romania and Bulgaria, the Romani people originate from Northern India, presumably from the northwestern Indian states Rajasthan and Punjab. More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi and Punjabi and it shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali. Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India, the term Romanichel is considered pejorative, and Bohémien is outdated. The French National Gendarmerie tends to refer to MENS, a term meaning Travelling Ethnic Minorities. This term is not considered neutral or correct, because broadly a majority of French Romani have homes like other minorities, the exact numbers of Romani people in France are not known, with estimates varying from 20,000 to 400,000.
The French Romani rights group FNASAT reports that at least 12,000 Romani, French authorities often attempt to close down these encampments. In 2009, the government sent more than 10,000 Romani back to Romania and Bulgaria, in 2009, the European Committee of Social Rights found France had violated the European Social Charter in respect to Romani population from foreign countries. In 2010 and 2011, the French government organized repatriation flights to send Romani back to Romania, on 12 April a chartered flight carrying 160 Romani left northern France for Timisoara. As in the 2010 deportations, the French government gave those Romani leaving France €300 each, the Romani on the 12 April flight had each signed declarations that they would never return to France. On 9 August, the city of Marseille in southern France forcibly evicted 100 Romani people from their camp near Porte dAix. A chartered flight carrying approximately 150 Romani to Romania left the Lyon area on 20 September, france’s goal for 2011 was to deport 30,000 Romani to their home country.
As of 2012, France sent about 8,000 Romani back to Romania and Bulgaria in 2011, the actions prompted controversy and calls for greater inclusion of Romani people. Cascarots, a group of Romani in the Basque Country, erromintxela, a group of Romani in the Basque Country with their own language
Romani society and culture
The Romani people have similar value systems and worldviews. Linguistic and phonological research has traced the Roma peoples first place of origin to places in the Indian subcontinent, many report in extracts from popular literature that Romani emerged from the North-west regions of India, rather than from Central India. Features of phonological developments which emerged during the transition stage from Old to Middle Indic prove that the history of Romani began in Central India. Other factors such as groups and unwritten customs suggest Central Indian origins of the Roma. The Roma find issues with recalling their own exact origin due to a lack of records left by ancestors. Their history however is retold by clan family customs, such as singing and storytelling, the Romani people are today found in many countries. Typically, Romani adopt given names that are common in the country of their residence, seldom do modern Romani use traditional names from their own language, such as Papush, Patrin, etc.
Being the only Indo-Aryan language that has been spoken exclusively around Europe since the Middle Ages and they generally refer to their language as řomani čhib translated as ‘the Romani language’, or řomanes, ‘in a Rom way’. The English term, has been used by scholars since the 19th Century, the traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Marriage in Romani society underscores the importance of family and demonstrates ties between different groups, often transnationally, traditionally an arranged marriage is the desired set up, with the parents of each family looking for an ideal partner for their child. Parents rarely force a particular spouse on their child, although being married by your mid twenties is generally regarded as the norm, other marriages, and events are a popular environment for finding a prospective spouse, however they should be supervised by an adult. With the emergence of social media such as Facebook and mobile phones, in some Roma groups, for example the Finnish Roma, the idea of marriage is ignored altogether.
Men and women often marry young, the Romani practice of child marriage has generated controversy in many countries. In 2003, one of the many self-styled Romani kings, Ilie Tortică, a Romani patriarch, Florin Cioabă, ran afoul of Romanian authorities in late 2003 when he married off his youngest daughter, Ana-Maria at the age of twelve, well below the legal marriageable age. Bride kidnapping is thought to be a traditional Romani practice, girls as young as twelve years old may be kidnapped for marriage to teenage boys. This practice has been reported in Ireland, the Czech Republic, kidnapping has been seen as a way to avoid a bride price or a way for a girl to marry a boy she wants but that her parents do not want. The traditions normalisation of kidnapping puts young women at risk of becoming victims of human trafficking. The practices of kidnapping and child marriage are not universally accepted throughout Romani culture
Archaeology of the Romani people
The Romani people has a long history, and most likely hails from the Indian subcontinent. Throughout said history, the highly diverse Roma population has faced significant persecution – antiziganism – in many parts of the world, in modern times, even when this issue gradually being resolved in some areas, the field of Romani archaeology remains virtually unexplored. This is especially the case in Sweden and Norway, where the Norwegian, two sites in particular have gone through several stages of excavation, with a third excavation project beginning in 2015. One is Snarsmon, a Romani village close to the Norwegian border in Tanum Municipality which was active as a sanctuary from the 1860s until the first years of the 20th century, surveys began in 2003, with yearly excavations between 2004 and 2007. The second Swedish site is Krämarstaden, likewise a Romani village, the village was established in the first years of the 20th century, and abandoned in the beginning of the 1920s. In August 2015, excavations began at a Romani campsite outside of Stockholm, the camp was built in 1959 by the Swedish state as a temporary solution, until apartments could be arranged for the Romani, who had just been given full civic rights.
The camp soon became permanent as the process was dragged out, its inhabitants – about thirty people – living in tents, caravans. It will result in a book and a report, in addition to certain finds forming part of the Swedens History exhibition at the Swedish History Museum. One of these, Tattardalen in Kungälv Municipality, is a ruined farmstead dating back to the 1600s, another example of possibly Romani-related archaeology is a June 2010 excavation of the Caird’s Cave in Rosemarkie, Scotland, a site possibly inhabited by Scottish Gypsy and Traveller groups. In addition to archaeology directly relating to Romani sites, there have some research done into the archaeogenetics. Contemporary archaeology Ethnoarchaeology Timeline of Romani history