Karimnagar is a city in the Indian state of Telangana. Karimnagar is a major urban agglomeration and fifth largest city in the state, it is governed by municipal corporation and is the headquarters of the Karimnagar district It is situated on the banks of Manair River, a tributary of the Godavari River. It is the fourth largest and fastest growing urban settlement in the state, according to 2011 census, it has registered a population growth rate of 45.46% and 38.87% over the past two decades between 1991 and 2011, highest growth rate among major cities of Telangana. It serves as a major educational and health hub for the northern districts of Telangana, it is a major business center and known for Granite and Agro-based industries. It is called as "City of Granites"It has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. During the Nizam era, the name Karimnagar was named for a village by an Elgandala Qiladar, Syed Karimuddin.
Kotilingala now in Jagtial district was the first capital of the Satavahana Kingdom. Known as Sabbinadu, inscriptions dating to the Kakatiya dynasty by kings Prola II and Prataparudra found at Karimnagar and Srisailam provide evidence of the area's rich history. Archaeological excavations in Pedda Bonkur and Kotilingalu show that the area was once ruled by the Satvahanas and Asaf Jahis, it was part of Hyderabad State before 1 November 1956, Andhra Pradesh state till 2 June 2014 and became the part of newly formed state of Telangana by Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014. Karimnagar has a population of 297,447 within its corporation limits, according to 2011 census, making it the fourth largest city in Telangana state. Karimnagar Urban Agglomeration comprising Municipal Corporation and Urban Development authority of 4,89,885. City out growths include Bommakal, Alugunur and Sitharampur. Besides these outgrowths, there are many sub-urban areas on the outskirts, which are merged into corporation limits.
It is the most densely populated city in Telangana, with a density of 11,114 persons per km2. Karimnagar city has a literacy rate of 85.82%, highest urban literacy rate in Telangana state. Karimnagar urban agglomeration has a literacy rate of 84.93%, equal to the National Urban average of 85%. The literacy rate for males and females for Karimnagar urban region stood at 91.06% and 78.69% respectively. Karimnagar experiences dry inland climatic conditions with cool winters; the city of Karimnagar gets most of its rainfall from the Southwest monsoon. The summer season is hot, but temperatures decline with the onset of the monsoons, the winter season is cool; the most popular tourist season is from November to February. The summer season can continue through early June. During this period temperatures range from a minimum of 27 °C to a maximum of 39 °C; the highest recorded temperature in the area is around 44 °C. Nights are much cooler, the humidity is around 50%. October and November experiences increased rainfall from the Northeast monsoon.
During this time, daytime temperatures average around 30 °C. The winter season lasts through February. During this time, temperatures range from a minimum of 20 °C to a maximum of 35 °C. Karimnagar Municipal Corporation is the civic body, it was constituted as a third grade municipality in the year 1952, as a second grade in 1959, first grade in 1984, special grade in 1996, selection grade in 1999 and upgraded to corporation in 2005. Despite of city growing in leaps and bounds, the area of the civic body remaining unaltered. Since the municipality was upgraded into corporation in 2005, the merger of adjoining villages on the outskirts with the Corporation was being met with wide opposition from local village authorities. Karimnagar has evolved into a major health centre at the beginning of the 21st century because it is centrally located to all the near by Districts and Talukas like Jagtial, Ramagundam,Peddapalli, Manthani, Jammikunta, Choppadandi and Gangadhara. Patients come from all over the surrounding districts.
Government Civil Hospital is the dominant medical institution. Telugu is the major language spoken in Karimnagar; the typical attire includes the traditional Chira and Pancha, modern dress styles. Karimnagar Silver Filigree is one of the local silverware handicrafts; the spring festival of Bathukamma is typical in this region. Other major Hindu festivals celebrated in the region include Ugadi, Sri Ramanavami, Vinayaka Chavithi, Sri Krishna Janmashtami, Deepavali and Maha Sivaratri. Muslims in this area celebrate Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Laylat al-Qadr, Isra and Mi'raj, Shab-e-barat, Milad-un-Nabi and Muharram; these are greeted with great pomp and ceremony. Christians in this area celebrate Good Friday. Raja Rajeshwara Swamy Temple at Vemulawada, Narasimha Temple at Dharmapuri, Jagtial District, Anjaneya Temple at Kondagattu, Jagtial District, Veerabhadra Temple at Kothakonda and Swayambhu Narasimha Swamy Temple at Nustulapur are some of the prominent and famous religious destinations. Sakinalu is one of the many traditional snacks made in Karimnagar for the Sankranti festival.
They are made of rice flour and sesame seeds, fried in oil. Biryani is a common cuisine of the state. Sarvapindi is another traditional snack native to the T
Draksharama is a town in East Godavari district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The Bhimeswara Swamy temple in this town is one of the five temples of Shiva known as Pancharama Kshetras; the Manikyamba temple in this town is one of the eighteen temples of Maha Shakti Pithas in India. The town was known as Dhakshatapovana and Dhakshavatika; this is the place where Daksha head of all prajapatis did a yagna or yajna called "Nireeswara yaga" or "Nireeswara yagna". This place's present name is a derivative of "Daksha aaraama" which means "Abode of Daksha"; this place was referred to as Daksha vaatika by Jagadguru Shankaracharya/ Adi Shankara in maha shakti peetha sloka at "Maanikye Daksha vaatika" which points to "Maanikyamba devi of Draksharama". The place where Daksha performed "Nireeswara yagna" is still visited by pilgrims here. Daksha prajapati is grandson of Lord Vishnu, he becomes the head of all prajapatis with the help of trimurtis. After rising to power and attaining powers from Creator and Destroyers he starts getting arrogant.
Daksha asks Chandra to marry his 27 adopted daughters. Chandra accepts the proposal and marries all 27 stars but loves Rohini a lot and neglects all other 26 stars. Due to his negligence remaining 26 daughters of Daksha goes to Daksha and complains about the bad behavior of Chandra. After getting furious by deeds of Chandra, Daksha gives him a curse to get infected by tuberculosis and die. Chandra begs his mercy. Siva being a kind god promises Chandra to save him. Daksha comes to Siva asking not to save Chandra. Siva tells him that he will not break his promise of saving Chandra; this makes Daksha angry on Shiva. Lord Vishnu comes to rescue and makes Chandra undergo two transitions Sukla Paksha and Krishna Paksha. Chandra prays Siva to accept his living at Siva's feet. Siva lifts Chandra from the feet and places him on his head thus becoming "Chandra Mouleesawara"; this ego spat between Siva and Daksha worsens meanwhile. Daksha wants his Daughter Sati to get married and announces Swayamvara in the thought of insulting Siva, Daksha keeps a statue of Shiva at the gate as a gate keeper.
Sati choses that Siva statue as her husband. Siva takes Sati with him to kailasa after marrying her. Daksha grows enmity with Siva. After few years, Daksha announces yagna where he avoids inviting Siva and calls it "Nireeswara yagna". All devas warn him against the odds of not insulting Siva. Daksha gives them a cold shoulder and starts doing "Nireeswara Yagna". After knowing that her father is doing a great sin, Dakshayani/Sati wants to stop his father from doing that, she asks Siva to permit her to stop it. Siva warns her not to go. Sati wants to go at any cost and Siva accepts her request about going there. Sati reaches Daksha vaatika, asks her mother and sisters to stop yagna but they don't speak to her, she goes to all invitees and asks them to stop the yagna but they won't help her. She goes to her father and asks him to stop "Nireeswara yagna". Instead of stopping yagna Daksha starts abusing Sati humiliating her from every side. Due to the great insult happened to her and her husband Sati immolates herself at "Daksha aaraama".
Knowing about the immolation of Sati, Siva goes into deep anger. He dances like a maniac in anger. Plucks one of his matted dread locks and hits it to the ground from which a great warrior emerges. Siva names him "Vira Bhadra" the one who gives safety with bravery and asks him to go to "Daksha aaraama" and kill everyone. Vira Bhadra goes to "Daksha aaraama" defeats everyone in the battle and beheads "Daksha". By the request of Daksha's wife, Siva makes Daksha live again by fixing goats head to his body. With great grief Siva starts dancing. To control Siva's grief Vishnu cuts Sati's body into 18 parts and those parts gets fallen at different places in India; the place where Sati's body parts were fallen are called Shakti Peetas. Here at Draksharamam Navel area of Sati devi was fallen hence the consort of Siva was called "Maanikyaamba". Where Mani means navel in Sanksrit, goddess was named "Maanikyaamba", thus becoming "Bheemeswara and Maanikyaamba" of Drakshaarama. The Lingam here was so intensely powerful that the ṛiṣhis themselves were not able approach the Lord.
As the lingam itself has a natural agni or fiery quality, the sapta ṛiṣhi’s installed seven lingams of a cooling nature associate with the moon. An eighth lingam was installed by the Sūrya, the Sun God, to bring a soothing lunar energy over Bhimeśwara Swami, thus covering all eight directions and making him approachable; the Saptaṛiṣhis and the Sun God were able to consecrate eight special Śiva Lingams with the cooling energy of moonlight in each of the eight directions surrounding Śrī Bhīmeśwara Swami. The Someśwara Lingams were placed in a network created by the great sages at distances ranging from 3 – 12 miles from Drākṣhārāmam; each lingam is associated various constellations and planets in the Vedic system of astrology. This location and name of the ṛiṣhi that performed each installation is shown below. To the Northeast, in Penumuru the Lingam has been installed by Jamadagni Mahāṛiṣhi. In the East, the pratiṣhṭa was carried out by Lord Sūrya in Kolanka; the Southeast Lingam was installed by Kaśyapa Mahāṛiṣhi in Dangeru Kṣhetram.
North in Vella, Vaśiṣhṭa Mahāṛiṣhi installed the Lingam. The South Lingam was installed by Atri Mahāṛiṣhi in Koṭipalli. To the Northwest, in Someśwaram, the lingam was consecrated by Gautama Mahāṛiṣ
States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Warangal is a city in the Indian state of Telangana. It is the district headquarters of Warangal Urban District. Warangal is the second largest and Metropolitan City in Telangana after Hyderabad, spreading across 471 km2 with a population of 819,406. Warangal City Development Plan is proposed to cover an area of 1805 sq.km with population of about 819,406 Along with 11 other cities in the country known for having a rich cultural heritage, it has been chosen for the HRIDAY – Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme by the Government of India. It was selected as a smart city in the "fast-track competition", which makes it eligible for additional investment to improve urban infrastructure and industrial opportunities under the Smart Cities Mission. Kakatiya Urban Development Authority was constituted by the local government for the planning and management of the Kakatiya Urban Development Area under the aegis of the Urban Areas Act of 1975 vide G. O. Ms. No. 1177 M. A. dated 6-11-1981.
KUDA is in the process of preparation of a Master Plan for the horizon year 2041. The region is spread over three districts – Warangal Rural, Warangal Urban and Jangaon in Telangana covering 19 Mandals and 181 Villages with a combined area of 1,805 square kilometres. Total population as per 2011 census is 819,406, with around 62% of the population living in urban areas; the Master Plan is being prepared in accordance with the provisions of Telangana Urban Areas Act, 1975. The KUDA/ Government of Telangana has appointed LEA Associates South Asia Pvt. Ltd. India, A LEA Group Company, for Preparation of Master Plan for the KUDA Area; the Plan is aimed to be prepared in 9 months duration starting from July 2017. Warangal served as the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, established in 1163; the monuments left by the Kakatiyas include fortresses, lakes and stone gateways which, in the present, helped the city to become a popular tourist attraction. The Kakatiya Kala Thoranam was included in the emblem of Telangana by the state government.
During the Kakatiya rule, Warangal was referred with various names like Orugallu, Ekasila Nagaram, or Omatikonda all these means a'single stone' referring to a huge granite boulder present in the Warangal fort. When the kakatiyan dynasty was defeated by Delhi Sultanate in 1323, ruler Juna khan conquered the city and renamed it as Sultanpur. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured warangal in 1336 A. D. and named it Orugallu again. Warangal was the ancient capital of kakatiya dynasty, it was ruled by many kings such as BetaRaja I, ProlaRaja I, BetaRaja II, ProlaRaja II, Mahadeva, Ganapathideva and Rani Rudrama Devi, the only woman to rule over Telugu region. Beta Raja I is the founder of Kakatiya Dynasty and ruled the kingdom for 30 years and was succeeded by his son Prola Raja I who shifted his capital to Hanamkonda. During the rule of Ganapathideva, the capital was shifted from Hanamkonda to Warangal. Kakatiya Period Inscriptions praised Warangal as best city within all of Telugu region up to shores of the Ocean.
The Kakatiyas left many monuments, including an impressive fortress, four massive stone gateways, the Swayambhu temple dedicated to Shiva, the Ramappa temple situated near Ramappa Lake. The cultural and administrative distinction of the Kakatiyas was mentioned by Marco Polo. After the defeat of Prataparudra II, the Musunuri Nayaks united 72 Nayak chieftains and captured Warangal from Delhi Sultanate and ruled for fifty years. After the demise of the Nayaks, Warangal was part of the Bahmani Sultanate and the Sultanate of Golconda; the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, it remained part of the Mughal empire until the southern provinces of the empire split away to become the state of Hyderabad in 1724, which included the Telangana region and some parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka. Hyderabad was annexed to India in 1948, became an Indian state called as Hyderabad state. In 1956 Hyderabad state was partitioned as part of the States Reorganisation Act, Telangana, the Telugu-speaking region of Hyderabad state, which includes Warangal, became part of Andhra Pradesh.
After the Telangana movement, Telangana state was formed on 2 June 2014, warangal became part of Telangana State. Warangal is located at 18.0°N 79.58°E / 18.0. It has an average elevation of 302 metres, it is settled in the eastern part of Deccan Plateau made up of granite rocks and hill formations which left the region barren making the cultivation dependent on seasonal rainfall. There are no major rivers flowing near the city, making it reliant on the Kakatiya Canal which originates from Sriram Sagar Project to meet the city's water requirements. Located in the semi-arid region of Telangana, Warangal has a predominantly dry climate. Summer starts in March, peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C range; the monsoon lasts until September with about 550 mm of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in October and lasts until early February, when there is little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C range. Many hill rocks and lakes are located around warangal. Padmakshi hill, mettu gutta, hanumathgiri gutta, ursu gutta and Govinda Rajula Gutta are famous hills with temples.
Bhadrakali Lake, Dharmasagar lake and Waddepally Lake are the three famous lakes which adds scenic beauty and are the major sources of drinking water. Greater Warangal Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city, which oversees the civic needs. Established in 1899, it is one of the oldest urban local bodies in India; the GWMC covers an area of 406.87 square kilometres. City planning is governe
Telangana is a state in India situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital, its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, Andhra Pradesh to the east and south; the terrain of Telangana region consists of hills, mountain ranges, thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km. As of 2019, the state of Telangana is divided into 33 districts. Throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages, the region now known as Telangana was ruled by multiple major Indian powers such as the Cholas, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Golconda Sultanate.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the region was ruled by the Mughals. The region is known for its Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb. During the 18th century and the British Raj, Telangana was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 1823, the Nizams lost control over Northern Circars and Ceded Districts, which were handed over to the East India Company; the annexation by the British of the Northern Circars deprived Hyderabad State, the Nizam's dominion, of the considerable coastline it had, to that of a landlocked princely state with territories in Central Deccan, bounded on all sides by British India. Thereafter, the Northern Circars were governed as part of Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947, after which the presidency became India's Madras state; the Hyderabad state joined the Union of India in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana was merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.
A peasant-driven movement began to advocate for separation from Andhra Pradesh starting in the early 1950s, continued until Telangana was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014. The economy of Telangana is the eighth-largest state economy in India with ₹8.43 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹181,000. The state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software and services sector; the state is the main administrative centre to a large number of Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation and Defence Research and Development Laboratory. The cultural hearts of Telangana and Warangal, are noted for their wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple and the Bhongir Fort in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district; the historic city Golconda during the Kakatiya reign was once known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, Hope Diamond, Daria-i-Noor, Regent Diamond, Nassak Diamond and Noor-ul-Ain.
Religious edifices like the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, Medak Cathedral are several of its most famous places of worship. A popular etymology derives the word "Telangana" from Trilinga desa, a region so called because three important Shaivite shrines were located here: Kaleshwaram and Draksharama. According to Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, a former director of Andhra Pradesh Oriental Manuscripts Library and Research Centre, the name Telangana is of Gondi origin. Rao asserts that it is derived from "Telangadh", which according to him, means "south" in Gondi and has been referred to in "Gond script dating back to about 2000 years". One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul, called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana, he was the commander of the Warangal Fort. A 16th-century travel writer, recorded in his book: During the just reign of Ibrahim Kootb Shah, like Egypt, became the mart of the whole world.
Merchants from Toorkistan and Persia resorted to it. The greatest luxuries from foreign parts daily abounded at the king's hospitable board; the word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded. Telangana was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Vakataka dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Kakatiya Dynasty, the Musunuri Nayaks the Delhi Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Empire and Asaf Jahi Dynasty; the Satavahana dynasty became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari
Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus river and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks' or Islam
Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple
Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple is a Hindu temple located in Kaleshwaram, Telangana, India. It is the site of a temple of the Hindu god Lord Shiva; the temple is significant because of the two Shiva Lingas. These Linga are named Lord Yama. Collectively, they known as Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy. Kaleshwaram is one of three Shiva temples mentioned in Trilinga Desham, or "Land of Three Lingas." The holy place draws tourists during the Karthika Month of the Indian Calendar, 16 November – 15 December. Holy baths are held during 6-17 of December. People who bathe here first visit Lord Ganesha pray to Lord Yama and to Lord Shiva; the temple is open from 4:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m. and 3:30-9:00 p.m. Access to Laksha Bilwapatri Pooja is by request to Dewasthanam officials at least one month in advance. Two types of prasadam are inside the temple: Pulihora and Laddu; this place is popular for after funeral events like kashi. People believe that this is second kashi in India