Vaikom Chandrasekharan Nair
Vaikom Chandrasekharan Nair, popularly known as Vaikom, was an Indian writer and journalist who wrote primarily in Malayalam. He was born in Vaikom, a village in Kottayam district of Kerala and he started writing early in his life and became an activist of the communist party during his college days. Though by career he was a journalist, Vaikkom was a multi-faceted person – a poet, novelist, orator, singer and activist. He has been the editor of magazines such as Janayugam, Malayala Manorama, Kerala Bhooshanam, Pouraprabha, Chithrakarthika, Kumari. Some of his famous novels like Nakhangal and Madhavikkutty have been turned into movies, the play Jathugriham was given the Kerala Sahithya Academy award in 1980. He was chairman of Kerala Sangeetha Nadaka Academy from 1978 to 81, in 1999 he was given the Kerala Sahithya Academy Award for lifetime contribution
The inscription describes the gift of a plot of land to the Syrian Church at Tangasseri near Quilon, along with several rights and privileges to the Syrian Christians led by Mar Sapir Iso. The Tharisappalli copper plates are one of the important historical inscriptions of Kerala, the grant was made in the presence of important officers of the state and the representatives of trade corporations or merchant guilds. It throws light on the system of taxation that prevailed in early Venad, as several taxes such as a tax, sales tax. It testifies to the policy of religious toleration followed by the rulers of ancient Kerala. There are two sets of plates as part of document, and both are incomplete. The first set documents the land while the details the attached conditions. The signatories signed the document in the Hebrew, the Tharisappalli copper plates are kept at Poolatheen Aramana of Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church K. Sivasankaran Nair, Venadinte Parinamam, D C Books,2005
The Asramam Maidanam or Ashramam Maithanam is an urban park, or maidhanam, in the city of Kollam, in Kerala, India. At 72 acres, it is the largest open space within Kerala Municipal Corporation limits, the maidan is considered as one of the green lungs of the city and regularly hosts the citys main cultural and sports events. It holds an adventure park childrens park, picnic village, British Residency, Asramam Maidan was used as an aerodrome during the British Raj. Chartered flights, mainly using Avro aircraft, would land and take off from Quilon Aerodrome, the aerodrome was primarily used by VIPs from Madras en route to Thiruvananthapuram, who after landing at Quilon, would proceed to Thiruvananthapuram by car. Quilon Aerodrome was used for flying training, during one such training exercise, an aircraft hit a tree on the boundary of the aerodrome, killing the pilot and the trainee. Training operations were stopped after the accident, but civilian aircraft continued to use the aerodrome, because of the loose soil in the Asramam area, the landing and take-off areas were prepared by bringing huge quantities of red laterite soil from the hilly areas.
The aerodrome had strong barbed wire fencing round it, with two points, one at the south and the other at the north. There were no buildings in the aerodrome, not even a shed and it was here that the passengers alighted and boarded the plane. Planes used to land sometimes once in two months, the airport came under the control of Kerala Public Works Department. Residents of Asramam knew in advance about the arrival of planes, because the PWD authorities, on getting information about a coming arrival, after the commissioning of Thiruvananthapuram airport and its development, Quilon Aerodrome went into decline, and finally, planes stopped arriving there. The aerodrome remained fenced off for a long time, the fence was destroyed and its granite stumps pilfered. The only reason the maidan was not encroached upon was that it was a government property. Now there are two large helipads at the maidan, Kollam Fest Kollam Fest is an international event with focus on art, culture and tourism. The event, organised by the Kollam City Corporation, was aimed at presenting the history, Kollam Pooram Kollam Pooram is one of the most colorful festivals of Kerala, attracting a large number of people from all parts of the state.
The Kollam Pooram, organised in connection with the festival of the Asramam Sri Krishnaswamy Temple, is held annually at the Asramam Maidan in the month of April. The festival has now assumed the status of a national festival, Cricket matches Asramam Maidan is a regular ground for the Kerala Cricket Associations matches, which are held almost all year round. Following a preliminary inspection by a team of experts, in 2009 plans were drawn up for the construction of an airstrip, supporters of the project said that the school would increase the importance of the city. The government of Kerala has decided to preserve the Asramam Maidan, the Corporation of Kollam has been sanctioned Rs.52 lakhs in the 2017-18 financial years budget for constructing cycle track around the Asramam maidan
Estuaries of Paravur
The Paravur Estuaries are a group of estuaries in Paravur, near the South-Western coast of Kollam district, Kerala. Paravur is one among the 4 municipal towns in Kollam district, the place is known for its natural beauties, backwater locations, white-sand beaches and concentration of temples. Paravur is a land of beaches, backwaters & estuaries, the Paravur landmasss three sides are surrounded by water bodies - Paravur Lake, Nadayara Lake and the Arabian Sea. Paravur Lake is the body of water in the town area. The peninsula of Paravur is one of the most visited areas in Kollam district, both north and south tips of Paravur town have peninsulas and estuaries. Pozhikara is to the north and Thekkumbhagam is to the south of Paravur, one more estuary mouth is in Pozhikara, which is very close to Pozhikara Devi Temple, which has breached in 2014 under the supervision of Water Resources Department, after a long gap of 14 years. The estuaries can be reached by travelling through Kollam-Paravur Coastal Road, the 600 hectare Polachira Wetland is close to Paravur.
Paravur backwaters on both the north and south ends have Pozhi, both meet the Arabian Sea in the districts beach faces. There is an artificial tidal-regulator in the bridge at Pozhikara estuarine area. Paravur Lake is a lake in Paravur, India, although it is small, with an area of only 6.62 km², it is the end point of the Ithikkara River and part of the system of lakes and canals that make up the Kerala Backwaters. It has been connected to Edava and Ashtamudi Kayal as part of the Trivandrum - Shoranur canal system since the late 19th century
Kollam Port is one of Indias 20 major ports situated 4 kilometres from Downtown Kollam. It is the second largest port in Kerala by volume of cargo handled, located on the south west coast of India, under the name of Quilon Port it became one of the countrys most important trade hubs from the ninth to the seventeenth centuries. It was founded by Mar Abo at Thangasseri in 825 as an alternative to reopening the inland sea port near Backare, known as Nelcynda and Tyndis to the Romans and Greeks and Thondi to the Tamils. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822, the Chinese traders were one of the oldest foreign communities to settle in Kollam. That was the period when Kollam evolved as a trade center. In January 2014, the port trust discovered thousands of Chinese coins and stone age weapons at Kollam Port, revealing the historic background and this was the first discovery of such a quantity of artifacts at a port in India. Archaeologists believe that a city lies on the seabed of current Kollam Port.
Today, ships frequently anchor at the port for shipping operations as well for urgent repairs when required, chief Minister Oommen Chandy launched the Coastal Shipping Project at Kollam Port on 9 November 2013 while passenger ships began operations in 2014. The first container ship, MV Suryamukhi arrived at Kollam port as part of the coastal shipping project on 18 January 2014, major shipping companies are now showing interest in the port to commence shipping operations. The companies have plans to choose the port as an intermediate base, at present, about four companies have assured their frequent presence at the port. Sooryamukhi, the ship of Kerala State Maritime Development Corporation has sailed to Mudra Port in Gujarat to load tiles. The Great Sea Shipping Company will berth at the port soon, after modernization of the port, the first foreign ship anchored in the port on 4 April 2014. Now it is proven that huge ships can easily operate from Kollam Port. The tugs MT Chaliyar and MT Kerala along with a new German made Rs.12 crore crane are used for the operations in the port.
The wharf at Kollam Port is 177 metres in length and 12 metres wide with a draught of 6.5 metres. The wharf is protected from the waves by a 2,100 metres seaboard breakwater, the length of the wharf will be increased to 200 metres in due course. In 2007, Kollam Port handled about 500,000 tonnes of cargo, several major modernization projects have been proposed for Kollam with Maladives port in order to transform it into the port city of Kerala. Projects already planned are some of the largest ever mooted for the state, a face lift of the Maruthadi-Iravipuram area will be carried out by the government as part of the Kollam Port City project and will include facilities for sports, fishing and entertainment
O. Madhavan was an Indian theatre director and actor. He was one of the members of the Communist Party of India in Kerala. He is considered as one of the masters of the theatre. He was the founder of the drama company Kalidasa Kala Kendram. He won the Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor in 2000 for his role in the film Sayahnam and his wife, Vijayakumari, is an actress herself and his son Mukesh an actor. He has two daughters, Sandhya Rajendran and Jayasree, sandhyas Husband, E. A. Rajendran is a film and television actor. 2000 Kerala State Film Award for Best Actor - Sayahnam Kalam Marunnu Viyarppinte Vila Doctor Kattupookkal, lonachan Oru Sundariyude Kadha Sayahnam Actor O. Madhavan passes away
Ashtamudi Lake, in the Kollam District of the Indian state of Kerala, is the most visited backwater and lake in the state. It possesses a unique ecosystem and a large palm-shaped water body. Ashtamudi means eight coned in the local Malayalam language, the name is indicative of the lakes topography with its multiple branches. The lake is called the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is well known for its houseboat. Ashtamudi Wetland was included in the list of wetlands of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention for the conservation, along both banks of the lake and its backwater canals, coconut groves and palm trees interspersed with towns and villages are seen. Kollam, is an important historic city located on the right bank of the lake. Boat cruises are operated by the Kollam Boat Club from Kollam to Alappuzha providing transport access to other towns. Luxury houseboats operate on the lake, the boat journey is an 8-hour trip, winds through lakes and water bound villages, and gives complete exposure to the beauty of the backwaters of Ashtamudi Lake.
Chinese fishing nets, called cheena vala in Malayalam, are used by local fisherman and are a common sight along the waterway, the lake is the source of livelihood for people living close by from fishing, coconut husk retting for coir production and inland navigation services. In 2014, Clam Governing Council of Ashtamudi lake became the first Marine Stewardship Council certified fishery in India for their sustainable clam fishing, the lake and the life on its shores have inspired many artists and writers. It has been the subject of poems by the renowned poet Thirunalloor Karunakaran who was born. Quilon or Kollam and inevitably the Ashtamudi lakes importance is claimed to be dated to the days of the Phoenicians, ibn Batuta, during his 24-year sojourn in the 14th century, is reported to have mentioned about the Quilon port as one of the five ports for Chinese trade. Links with Persia, Chinese mandarin in 1275 AD, Portuguese in 1502 AD, velu Thampi is credited with organizing the rebellion against the British from this place.
National Highway 47 passes through the lake not only from Quilon. Southern Railways network of metre gauge and broad gauge lines connects with Quilon, the metre gauge train journey from Quilon to Chennai via Madurai is stated to offer a picturesque journey. Ferry services operate daily to Alleppey and boats operate to all villages located in the canals of the backwater system, the boat jetty is located at about 3 km away from the railway station. Famous Paravur estuary and backwaters are just 21 kilometer away from Ashtamudi, Kallada River is a major river discharging into the Ashtamudi Lake. The Kallada river, which originates near Ponmudi from the Kulathupuzha hills Western Ghats is formed by the confluence of three rivers, with a maximum depth of 21 ft at the confluence, it is Kerala’s deepest estuary
Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Quilon or Kollam is the first Catholic diocese in India in the state of Kerala. The diocese, which covers an area of 1,950 km². and it was first erected on 9 August 1329, and was re-erected on 1 September 1886. It belongs to the province of Trivandrum. As of 2013 the bishop was Stanley Roman, according to tradition, St. Thomas the Apostle established seven churches along the southern part of west coast of India, and Quilon is the second in the list of the above seven churches. John of Monte Corvino, a member of the Societas Peregrinantium Pro Christo on his way to China, landed in Quilon in 1291, the Venetian traveller Marco Polo who visited India in 1292 testified to the presence of a Christian community in Quilon. Since the latter half of the 13 th century, Quilon became the centre of missionary expeditions. Franciscan and Dominican Missionaries in the 13 th and 14 th centuries visited Quilon, by a separate bull, tah goes Venerabili Fratri Jordano, the same Pope, on 21 August 1329 appointed the French or Catalan Dominican friar Jordanus Catalani as the first Bishop of Quilon.
The ancient diocese of Quilon had extensive jurisdiction over modern nations of India, Afghanistan, Burma, Jordanus Catalani arrived in Surat in 1320. After his ministry in Gujarat he reached Quilon in 1323 and he not only revived Christianity but brought hundreds to the Christian fold. He might have come again to Quilon as the bishop in 1330 to build the church at Quilon, George happened to be the patron saint of the Catalans, besides being popular among other Christian communities on the Malabar coast. His book Mirabilia Descripta is a work on plants and the people of India and of other countries in Asia. This book is considered to be a chronicle of its time written around 1327. The first Latin Bishop of Quilon was received with jubilation by the faithful of Quilon. He brought a message of good wishes from the Pope to the local rulers, as the first bishop in India, he was entrusted with the duty of spiritual nourishment of the Christian community in Calicut, Mangalore and Baruch. In the year 1348 John De Marignoli, the Papal Legate to China on his way back to Rome sojourned here for 14 months, with the martyrdom of the first Latin Bishop, the See of Quilon remained vacant.
There was a gap with regard to ecclesiastical administration in India till the Portuguese landed here in 1498 AD. It follows from the Friar Jordanus tradition that Catholicism – not just Christianity – is deep rooted in Quilon and it is now settled that Latin Catholicism was brought to Kerala in the early fourteenth century by this Catalan or Occitan speaking Dominican. It is now evident that while Bishop Jordanus introduced Latin Catholicism, in the 1340s, an Italian friar called Marignolli called on Kollam and still found a Catholic church that he mentions as Saint George of the Latins, probably built by Jordanus
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning action, which is derived from I do, the two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia was the Muse of comedy, while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the mode has been contrasted with the epic. The use of drama in a narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example and it is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe drama as a genre within their respective media. Radio drama has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production, the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception.
The early modern tragedy Hamlet by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama, a modern example is Long Days Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill. Closet drama describes a form that is intended to be read, in improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance, performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience. Western drama originates in classical Greece, the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama, tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of celebrating the god Dionysus. The competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BCE, tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was officially recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BCE, five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia, each offering a single comedy.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between old comedy, middle comedy and new comedy, following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BCE, Rome encountered Greek drama. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, from the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments. The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BCE, five years later, Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived, by the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed