Bengali science fiction
Bengali science fiction is a part of Bengali literature containing science fiction elements. Science fiction in the Bengali language is known as "kalpabigyan". Bengali writers wrote various science fiction works in the 19th and early 20th centuries during the British Raj, before the partition of India. Isaac Asimov’s assertion that "true science fiction could not exist until people understood the rationalism of science and began to use it with respect in their stories" is true for the earliest science fiction written in the Bengali language; the earliest notable Bengali science fiction was Jagadananda Roy's Shukra Bhraman. This story is of particular interest to literary historians, as it described a journey to another planet, their bodies were covered with dense black fur. Their heads were larger in comparison with their bodies, limbs sported long nails and they were naked." This story was published a decade before H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds in which Wells describes the aliens from Mars.
Some specialists credit Hemlal Dutta as one of the earliest Bengali science fiction writers for his Rohosso. This story was published in two installments in 1882 in the pictorial magazine Bigyan Dorpon. In 1896, Jagadish Chandra Bose, considered to be the father of Bengali science fiction, wrote Niruddesher Kahini; this tale of weather control, one of the first Bengali science fiction works, features getting rid of a cyclone using a little bottle of hair oil. He included the story with changes in the collection of essays titled Abyakto as Palatak Tufan. Both versions of the story have been translated into English by Bodhisattva Chattopadhyay. Roquia Sakhawat Hussain, an early Islamic feminist, wrote Sultana's Dream, one of the earliest examples of feminist science fiction in any language, it depicts a feminist utopia of role reversal, in which men are locked away in seclusion, in a manner corresponding to the traditional Muslim practice of purdah for women. The short story, written in English, was first published in the Madras-based Indian Ladies Magazine in 1905, three years appeared as a book.
Premendra Mitra wrote Kuhoker Deshe. Hemendra Kumar Ray wrote Meghduter Morte Agomon. After Qazi Abdul Halim's Mohasunner Kanna was the first modern East Bengali science fiction novel. After independence Humayun Ahmed wrote Tomader Jonno Valobasa, it was published in 1973. This book is treated as the first full-fledged Bangladeshi science fiction novel, he wrote Tara Tinjon, Anonto Nakshatra Bithi, Fiha Somikoron, other works. Bengali science fiction is considered to have reached a new level of literary sophistication with the contributions of Muhammed Zafar Iqbal. Iqbal wrote; this story was included in a compilation of Iqbal's work in a book by the same name. Muktodhara, a famous publishing house of Dhaka was the publisher of this book; this collection of science fiction stories gained huge popularity and the new trend of science fiction emerged among Bengali writers and readers. After his first collection, Mr. Iqbal transformed his own science fiction cartoon strip Mohakashe Mohatrash into a novel.
All told, Muhammed Zafar Iqbal has written the greatest number of science fiction works in Bengali science fiction. Following in the footsteps of the ancestors and more writers young writers, started writing science fiction, a new era of writing started in the writing of Bengali literature. In 1997, the first and longest-running Bangladeshi science fiction magazine, was first published, with famous cartoonist Ahsan Habib as the editor; this monthly magazine played an important role in the development of Bengali science fiction in Bangladesh. A number of new and promising science fiction writers including Rabiul Hasan Avi, Anik Khan, Asrar Masud, Sajjad Kabir, Russel Ahmed, Mizanur Rahman Kallol came of age while working with the magazine. Nasim Sahnic is a promising young science fiction writer in Bangladesh, his latest science fiction books like Genetic code, Sundarbone Truti, Coxsbazarer Cossop are famous to young generation. Other notable writers in the genre include: Vobdesh Ray, Rakib Hasan, Nipun Alam, Ali Imam, Qazi Anwar Hussain,Altamas Pasha, Abdul Ahad, Anirudha Alam, Ahsanul Habib, Kamal Arsalan, Dr. Ahmed Mujibar Rahman, Moinul Ahsan Saber, Swapan Kumar Gayen, Mohammad Zaidul Alam, Mostafa Tanim, Muhammad Anwarul Hoque Khan, Jubaida Gulshan Ara Hena, Amirul Islam, Touhidur Rahman, Zakaria Swapan and Qazi Shahnur Hussain.
Mr. Khan loves to write science fiction on parallel mystery of science or mathematics. A number of writers from West Bengal, India have written science fiction. Credit for the first Bengali science fiction story is given to Bengali authors such as Jagadananda Roy, Hemlal Dutta and the polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose. Eminent film maker and writer Satyajit Ray enriched Bengali science fiction by writing many short stories as well as science fiction series, Professor Shonku. Professor Shonku is a fictional scientist created by Satyajit Ray in a series of Bengali science fiction books, his full name is Trilokeshwar Shonku, by occupation, he is an inventor. A short story known as The Alien written by Satyajit Ray about an alien named "Mr. Ang" gained pop
Bengal School of Art
The Bengal School of Art referred as Bengal School, was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal Kolkata and Shantiniketan, flourished throughout India during the British Raj in the early 20th century. Known as'Indian style of painting' in its early days, it was associated with Indian nationalism and led by Abanindranath Tagore, but was promoted and supported by British arts administrators like E. B. Havell, the principal of the Government College of Art, Kolkata from 1896; the Bengal school arose as an avant garde and nationalist movement reacting against the academic art styles promoted in India, both by Indian artists such as Raja Ravi Varma and in British art schools. Following the influence of Indian spiritual ideas in the West, the British art teacher Ernest Binfield Havell attempted to reform the teaching methods at the Calcutta School of Art by encouraging students to imitate Mughal miniatures; this caused controversy, leading to a strike by students and complaints from the local press, including from nationalists who considered it to be a retrogressive move.
Havell was supported by a nephew of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore painted a number of works influenced by Mughal art, a style that he and Havell believed to be expressive of India's distinct spiritual qualities, as opposed to the "materialism" of the West. Tagore's best-known painting, Bharat Mata, depicted a young woman, portrayed with four arms in the manner of Hindu deities, holding objects symbolic of India's national aspirations. Tagore attempted to develop links with Japanese artists as part of an aspiration to construct a pan-Asianist model of art. Through the paintings of'Bharat Mata', Abanindranath established the pattern of patriotism. Painters and artists of Bengal school were Nandalal Bose, M. A. R Chughtai, Sunayani Devi, Manishi Dey, Mukul Dey, Kalipada Ghoshal, Asit Kumar Haldar, Sudhir Khastgir, Kshitindranath Majumdar, Sughra Rababi, Debi Prasad Roychoudhury, Bireswar Sen, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, Kiron Sinha,TP Gaganendranath Tagore MeharThapar and Sarada Ukil; the Bengal school's influence in India declined with the spread of modernist ideas in the 1920s.
As of 2012, there has been a surge in interest in the Bengal school of art among scholars and connoisseurs. However, Bengal continues to produce some of the best artists of modern India. There is a department in the Government College Of Art & Craft, training students the traditional style of tempera and wash painting for a century now; these students are carrying the legacy of the Bengal School artists, who were a group of artists, following Abanindranath's style and sharing his aesthetic vision. Among them, Dhirendranath Brahma is the living legend of the Bengal School of Art, he is a master of calligraphy and has innumerable students who are carrying on the tradition of Bengal School of painting. Among the other renowned artists of this style of painting are Ajoy Ghosh, Sankarlal Aich, Amal Chaklader, Narendranath De Sarkar, Sukti Subhra Pradhan & Ratan Acharya; some of the best known artists of present-day Bengal are Jogen Chowdhury, Mrinal Kanti Das, Gopal Sanyal, Ganesh Pyne, Manishi Dey, Shanu Lahiri, Ganesh Haloi Jahar Dasgupta, Samir Aich, Bikash Bhattacharjee, Sudip Roy, Ramananda Bandopadhyay and Devajyoti Ray.
Sanat Chatterjee is one of the last living pioneers of Bengal School of art. He studied under Asit Kumar Haldar for around fifteen years. R. Siva Kumar, studying the work of the Santiniketan masters and their approach to art since the early 80s, refutes the practice of subsuming Nandalal Bose, Rabindranath Tagore, Ram Kinker Baij and Benode Behari Mukherjee under the Bengal School of Art. According to Siva Kumar,'This happened because early writers were guided by genealogies of apprenticeship rather than their styles and perspectives on art practice', his ideas on this issue are formulated in the catalogue essay of the exhibition Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism. Contextual Modernism Modern Indian painting Indian fine art Progressive Artists' Group Tanjore painting Rajput painting Madhubani painting New Indian Art Havell, E. B.. A Handbook of Indian Art. John Murray, London. Kossak, Steven. Indian court painting, 16th-19th century. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870997831.
John Onians. "Bengal School". Atlas of World Art. Laurence King Publishing. P. 304. ISBN 1856693775. Anthology of Indian Art Art Galleries in India Which Way Indian Art? by Mukul Dey Profile of a Pioneer: Sarada Ukil by Satyasri Ukil Kokka and the Early Neo-Bengal School Masters
Manasā Mansā Devi, is a Hindu folk goddess of snakes, worshipped in Bengal and other parts of North and northeastern India, chiefly for the prevention and cure of snakebite and for fertility and prosperity. Manasa is sister of Vasuki, king of Nāgas and wife of sage Jaratkaru, she is known as Vishahara, Nityā and Padmavati. Her myths emphasize her bad temper and unhappiness, due to rejection by her father Shiva and her husband, the hate of her stepmother, Chandi. In some scriptures, sage Kashyapa is considered to be her father, not Shiva. Manasa is depicted as being harsh to people who refused to worship her. Denied full godhead by her mixed parentage, Manasa's aim was to establish her authority as a goddess and to acquire steadfast human devotees. A Adivasi goddess, Manasa was accepted in the pantheon worshipped by Hindus, she was included in higher caste Hindu pantheon, where she is now regarded as a Hindu goddess rather than a tribal one. As a Hindu goddess, she was recognized as a daughter of sage Kashyapa and Kadru, the mother of all Nāgas.
By the 14th century, Manasa was identified as the goddess of fertility and marriage rites and was assimilated into the Shaiva pantheon, related to the god, Shiva. Myths glorified her by describing that she saved Shiva after he drank the poison, venerated her as the "remover of poison", her popularity grew and spread to southern India, her followers began to rival Shaivism. As a consequence, stories attributing Manasa's birth to Shiva emerged and Shaivism adopted this indigenous goddess into the Brahmanical tradition of mainstream Hinduism. Manasa is depicted as a woman covered with snakes, standing upon a snake, she is sheltered by the canopy of the hoods of seven cobras. Sometimes, she is depicted with a child on her lap; the child is assumed to be Astika. She is called "the one-eyed goddess" and among the Hajong tribe of northeastern India she is called Kānī Dīyāʊ The Mahabharata tells the story of Manasa's marriage. Sage Jagatkāru had decided to abstain from marriage. Once he came across a group of men hanging from a tree upside down.
These men were his ancestors, who were doomed to misery as their children had not performed their last rites. So they advised Jagatkāru to marry and have a son who could free them of those miseries by performing the ceremonies. Vasuki offered his sister Manasa's hand to Jagatkāru. Manasa gave birth to a son, Astīka. Astika helped in saving the Nāga race from destruction when King Janamejaya decided to exterminate them by sacrificing them in his Yajna, fire offering; the Puranas are the first scriptures to speak about her birth. They declare that sage Kashyapa is her father, not Shiva as described in the Mangalkavyas. Once, when serpents and reptiles had created chaos on the Earth, Kashyapa created the goddess Manasa from his mind; the creator god Brahma made her the presiding deity of reptiles. Manasa gained control by the power of mantras she chanted. Manasa propitiated the god Shiva, who told her to please the god Krishna. Upon being pleased, Krishna granted her divine Siddhi powers and ritually worshiped her, making her an established goddess.
Kashyapa married Manasa to sage Jaratkaru, who agreed to marry her on the condition that he would leave her if she disobeyed him. Once, when Jaratkaru was awakened by Manasa, he became upset with her because she awakened him too late for worship, so he left her temporarily. On the request of the great Hindu gods, Jaratkaru returned to Manasa and she gave birth to Astika, their son, before deserting his wife again; the Mangalkavyas were devotional paeans to local deities such as Manasa, composed in Bengal between the 13th and the 18th centuries. The Manasa Mangalkavya by Bijay Gupta and Manasa Vijaya by Bipradas Pipilai trace the origin and myths of the goddess; however these stray further from Puranaic references due to creative licenses exercised. According to Manasa Vijaya, Manasa was born when a statue of girl, sculpted by the serpent Vasuki's mother was touched by Shiva. Vasuki accepted Manasa as his sister, granted her charge of the poison, produced when King Prithu milked the Earth as a cow.
When Shiva saw Manasa, she proved to him. Shiva took Manasa to his home where his wife, suspected Manasa of being Shiva's concubine or co-wife, insulted Manasa and burnt one of her eyes, leaving Manasa half-blind. On one occasion, when Chandi kicked her, Manasa rendered her senseless with a glance of her poison. Tired of quarrels between Manasa and Chandi, Shiva deserted Manasa under a tree, but created a companion for her from his tears of remorse, called Neto or Netā; the sage Jaratkaru married Manasa, but Chandi ruined Manasa's wedding night. Chandi advised Manasa to wear snake ornaments and threw a frog in the bridal chamber which caused the snakes to run around the chamber; as a consequence, the terrified Jaratkaru ran away from the house. After few days, he returned and Astika, their son, was born. Accompanied by her adviser, Manasa descended to earth to see human devotees, she was mocked by the people but Manasa forced them to worship her by raining calamity on those who denied her power.
She managed to convert people from different walks of life, including the Muslim ruler Hasan, but failed to convert Chand Sadagar. Manasa wanted to become a goddess like Saraswati. To get there she had to achieve the worship of Chand Sada
Ekushey Book Fair
The Ekushey Book Fair or Amar Ekushe Grantha Melā, popularly known as Ekushey Boi Mela is the national book fair of Bangladesh. It takes place for the whole month of February in Dhaka; this event is dedicated to the martyrs who died on 21 February 1952 in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former East Pakistan. Muktodhara Publishing house started a little sale in front of Bangla Academy in the 21 February 1972, the Shaheed Day International Mother Language Day. Chittaranjan Saha of Muktodhara took the initiative. Other book publishers joined unofficially, it became official and the most popular book fair in Bangladesh. Bangla Academy took over organization of the fair in 1978. In 1984, it was named'Amar Ekushey Book Fair'. Notably in 1990s, another national book fair called; this book fair is organized by the government in December every year. Boi Mela started as a book fair. In addition to book sales, Bangla Academy organizes cultural events every fair-day.
Thousands of people gather to purchase books and spend time with the company of books and their authors with a patriotic zeal. There is no entry fee. Publishers of Bangladesh take year-long preparation to publish a huge number of books during this month. In 2008, 362 book stalls were set up by publishers, book sellers and such other organization including Bangla Academy and Nazrul Institute; the venue of the book festival and outside is decorated with banners and placards in conformity with the spirit of'Amar Ekushey'. It is the cultural reunion of Bangladesh. Attracted by discounted price, readers rush there. Given the importance head of the government inaugurates the fair on the first day of February. TV stations live broadcast the inaugural ceremony; the fair continues from 1 February to 28 February. It takes place in Suhrawardi Udyan; the Ministry of Culture is in control of the fair. The Prime Minister inaugurates the fair. Between 300 and 400 publishing houses take part in the fair. Only the Bangladeshi booksellers can join.
There is Nazrul Moncho, a corner dedicated to poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, a fixed place for month-long cultural meetings, a Lekhok Kunjo, a dedicated place for writers and, a media center for the journalists. Free WiFi service has been enabled since 2019. Nowadays it becomes harder to accommodate the increasing number of publishers. In 2008, the theme of daily conference was'Bengali Literature and Culture - Achievement of three decades'. Ekushey Boi Mela 2008 was held from 1 to 29 February 2008; as many as 288 publishers participated. A record number of books were published on the occasion. According to official statistics, the number of books published in connection with the book fair was 2578; the sale proceeds from books sold shot up to a record of Taka 200 million. Video documentary short Ekushey.com.bd - bookstore for books released in 2011 ekushey book fair. List of Published Books in Boi Mela Bangla Academy
Culture of Bengal
The Culture of Bengal encompasses the Bengal region of South Asia, including Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, where the Bengali language is the official and primary language. Bengal has a recorded history of 1,400 years; the Bengali people are its dominant ethnolinguistic tribe. The region has been a historical melting point, blending indigenous traditions with cosmopolitan influences from Ancient Indian empires. Bengal was the richest part of Medieval India and hosted the subcontinent's most advanced political and cultural centers during the British Raj; the partition of Bengal left its own cultural legacy. Bangladesh is the scene of a dominant Bengali Muslim culture, whereas Indian Bengali-speaking regions have a Bengali Hindu majority. Muslim-majority Bangladesh is home to a significant Hindu minority, whereas West Bengal has a large Muslim minority. Apart from these, there are numerous ethnic and religious minorities. Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, is a cosmopolitan city which houses a sizeable number of ethnic communities.
Bengal is an important hub of classical South Asian arts. Festivals on the secular Bengali calendar are celebrated. Bengal has one of the most developed literary traditions in Asia. A descent of ancient Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit, the Bengali language evolved circa 1000-1200 CE under the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty, it became an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal and absorbed influences from Arabic and Persian. Middle Bengali developed secular literature in the 17th centuries, it was spoken in Arakan. The Bengali renaissance in Calcutta developed the modern standardized form of the language in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rabindranath Tagore became the first Bengali writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913, was the first non-European Nobel laureate. Kazi Nazrul Islam became known as the Rebel Poet of British India. After the partition of Bengal, a distinct literary culture developed in East Bengal, which became East Pakistan and Bangladesh; the works of ancient philosophers from Bengal have been preserved at libraries in Tibet and Central Asia.
These include the works of Tilopa. Medieval Hindu philosophy featured the works of Chaitanya. Sufi philosophy was influential in Islamic Bengal. Prominent Sufi practitioners were disciples of Jalaluddin Rumi, Abdul-Qadir Gilani and Moinuddin Chishti. One of the most revered Sufi saints of Bengal is Shah Jalal. Bengal has produced leading figures of Indian classical music, including Alauddin Khan, Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan. Common musical instruments include the sitar and sarod; the Baul tradition is a unique regional folk heritage. The most prominent practitioner was Lalon Shah. Other folk music forms include Gombhira and Bhawaiya. Folk music in Bengal is accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. Other instruments include the dotara, bamboo flute, tabla. Songs written by Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam are popular. Bangladesh is the center of Bangla rock, as well as indie, Sufi fusion folk music. Bengali theater traces its roots to Sanskrit drama under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE.
It includes narrative forms and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performance with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and the processional forms like the Jatra. Bengal has an rich heritage of dancing dating back to antiquity, it includes classical and martial dance traditions. In antiquity, Bengal was a pioneer of painting in Asia under the Pala Empire. Miniature and scroll painting flourished during the Mughal Empire. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple of Kolkata, from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. From the depiction of Hindu gods other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of themes. Modern painting emerged in Calcutta with the Bengal school. East Pakistan developed its own contemporary painting tradition under Zainul Abedin. Modern Bangladeshi art has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Kanak Chanpa Chakma, Kafil Ahmed, Saifuddin Ahmed, Qayyum Chowdhury, Rashid Choudhury, Quamrul Hassan, Rafiqun Nabi and Syed Jahangir among others.
One of the prominent painters in his days was Jamini Roy, who brought folk art and " boutique" techniques to the fore. Other notable painters during the Bengali renaissance period were Rabindranath Tagore, Abanindranath Tagore among others; the earliest fortified cities in the region include Wari-Bateshwar and Mahasthangarh. Bengal has a glorious legacy of terracotta architecture from the medieval periods; the style includes many mosques, palaces, forts and caravanserais. Mughal Dhaka was known as the Venice of the East. Indo-Saracenic architecture flourished during the British period among the landed gentry. British Calcutta was known as the City of Palaces. Modernist terracotta architecture in South Asia by architects like Louis Kahn. Bengali village housing is noted as the origin of the bungalow. Ancient Bengal was home to the Pala-Sena school of Sculptural Art. Ivory sculptural art flourished across the region under the Nawabs of Bengal. Notable modernist sculptors include Nitun Kundu. Muslin production in Bengal dates back to the 4th century BCE.
The region exported the fabric to Ancient Rome. Bengali silk was known as Ganges Silk in the 13th cen
Bengali novels occupy a major part of Bengali literature. Though the first Bengali novel was Karuna O Phulmonir Bibaran, the Bengali novel started its journey with Durgeshnandini written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1865. According to Ananda Sanker and Lila Ray,'when the novel was introduced in Bengali in the middle of the 19th century, the form itself was new, the prose in which it was written was new, the secular tone was new in a country hitherto wholly dominated by religion, the society in which and for which it was written was new’, but some great novelists like Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, Manik Bandopadhyay, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay developed the newly introduced genre in such a way that ‘new’ changed into ‘matured’ through their works. All these literary activities went on in full swing in Kolkata. Dhaka, on the other hand, could not participate in the early stage, but literature created by and of the people of Bangladesh area on flourished with notable success.
Novels of Bangladesh fall fifty years behind the Bengali novels. In its history of about one hundred years, novels of Bangladesh got a good number of novels where creative emancipation of the writers has been established. In the early stage, glorification of the religious beliefs and lives was the theme of most of the novels. On, picturization of real Bengali life became a common topic. By the end of the fifties, the novelists turned to human mind and its analysis. A great change of the theme came after 1971. Novels about the Liberation War of Bangladesh began to come forth. Till now it has not ceased to be an interesting topic; the content and form of the novels saw various changes in the last fifty years. Starting from ordinary narration, now it has reached to magic realistic presentation through stream of consciousness, surrealism etc. To many, Anowara was the most significant one among the earlier novels written in Bangladesh; this novel was written by Mohammad Najibar Rahman in 1914. But the milestone in the modern novels of Bangladesh is Syed Waliullah's Lalsalu.
The history of Bangladeshi novels can be categorized in 3 major parts. Pre-partition era East-Pakistan era Bangladesh era Before 1947, events like Partition of Bengal in 1905, Foundation of Muslim League in 1906 and Unification of Bengali in 1911 inspired the Muslim community of Dhaka to establish a new identity in the horizon of literature. Mohammad Najibar Rahman, Kazi Imdadul Huq, Kazi Abdul Wadud, Sheikh Idrish Ali, Abul Fazal, Humayun Kabir, etc. were among the novelists who tried to enrich the novels of the East Pakistan, present Bangladesh. Mohammad Najibar Rahman's Anowara was the first notable novel and it moved the whole Bengali Muslim community after publication. According to Rafiqullah Khan, ‘The novel could not create any novelty from artistic point of view, but it carried great importance for its picturization of socio-economic and political culture and ideals of the uprising populace’; the main themes of most of the novels in this era were Muslim society and orthodoxy. Examples of novels incorporating these themes are Najibar Rahman's Premer Somadhi and Goriber Meye, Sheikh Idris Ali's Premer Pothe.
In this time, for the first time the life of the Bengali farmers took an artistic delineation through Kazi Abdul Wadud's Nodibakshe. Kazi Imdadul Huq sprinkled a new wave, his famous novel Abdullah was published in periodicals in 1920 and it came into book form in 1933. According to Biswajit Ghosh, this novel was a'bourgeois and humanitarian revolt against devotion to Peers, religious dogmas, purdah-system and disparity between Ashraf and Atraf'. Later,'Kazi Abdul Wadud and Humayun Kabir extended this attitude'. Another novelist, Abul Fazal, exposed human psychological analyses in his novel Chouchir, he afterwards wrote Prodip O Patongo and Shahoshika. It is well accepted that this type of psychological approach was a first attempt in novels of Bangladesh, though not for the first time in Bengali novels. A progressive novelist Humayun Kabir wrote an English novel and Women, published in 1945; the Bengali form was published in 1952 by the name of Nodi O Nari. The independence of India and Pakistan from British rule bore more importance for the people of Bengal.
Since the Bengali speaking community were divided into two parts – the East and the West Bengal. It turns into the smashing of the millennium-old unity of Bengali nation. Moreover, the existence of language became a great question just after the creation of Pakistan; the West-Pakistan ruling government tried to impose Urdu as the principal language on the Bengali people. But the whole society reacted strongly; this leaves a permanent impression on Bengali literature. In this tumultuous era, Syed Waliullah's Lalsalu was published, it was the foremost successful novel, both from reality points of view. Syed Waliullah translated it in English by the name Tree Without Roots. Mahbub-ul Alam wrote Mofijon published in 1948. In the first years of the Pakistan regime the authors took village life as their theme, but they diversified their interests. Newly born urban society began to establish itself as worthy to be literary contents. Along with them political developments took place in fiction. Among the first novelists of Pakistan period, Abul Fazal, Akbar Hossain, Shaukat Osman, Abu Rushd, Kazi Afsaruddin, Daulatunnessa Khatun, Syed Waliullah, Sarder Jayenuddin, Abu Ishaque, an
Nabanna is a Bengali harvest celebration celebrated with food and dance and music in Bangladesh and in the Indian State of West Bengal. It is a festival of food; the festival is celebrated with mela. It is one of the numerous festivals that gave the name "baro mase tero parban" to the land of Bengal. Although the nabanna parban is somewhat different from other ones since it is not connected to a religion such as Ratha Yatra; the villagers and locals from both the major religious groups join the festival with equal participation. There are several fertility rituals which make the festival a harvest ritual; the festival gets a lot of support from the creative army of Bengali culture. Several poets, musicians and painters flock to such mass gatherings. There is a famous play written on nabanna by Bijon Bhattacharya which depicts the sad incident of the great Bengal Famine of 1943. Nowadays the Festival "Nabanna" is celebrating every Bengali year in Dhaka, organised by Jatiya Nabanna Utshab Udjapan Parshad since 1998.
Mr. Shahriar Salam is main planner of the organisation. There are huge number of performing in a day long festival. Traditional Dance, Song & Rally arranging by the Committee. Once upon a time 1st Agrahayan was the first day of Bengali New Year, it is a non-communal festival in Bengal. Below is a description found in west Bengal on one such mela website. "people from several villages of Howrah and from other districts of West Bengal come here. People not only come to visit the Mela. In addition, they participate in many cultural programmes and competitions like'Pithe Making', Seat-and Draw, Senior Citizens' Walking Competition etc. An "Art-Camp" may attract creative minded people where artists from different states will participate; some rare items of rural Bengal as "Dhenki", paddy of different varieties directly from the farmers' house are to be exhibited in the Exhibition ground. You can taste some delicious Bengali dishes like Pati-sapta, Jilipipi etc. during the festival. Bengal's time-honoured culture and heritage will be presented to you in forms of Baul song, Chhou-dance, Tarja, Kobi-gaan, etc.
These artists come from different parts of the state to perform their talent and expertise in front of thousands of appreciative gatherings. Moreover, you can refurbish your collection of folk arts from the'exhibition-cum-sale' stalls of handicrafts made by rural artisans." Several dance and music forms have grown out of the ritual accompanied with the festival. Examples are Bihu etc.. The name nabanna is associated to several rural welfare projects and banks, it has been associated with the IPTA movement of Bengali theatre. The path-breaking production "Nabanna" of the Indian People's Theatre Association IPTA in the 1940s, has been a motivating force in the left-tilted political approach of the next few decades on the stage where luminaries like Utpal Dutt will glow with brilliance. Jahangiri, Mahmood Nasir. "Navanna". In Islam, Sirajul. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Acharya, Namrata. "Paddy production to be higher this year in WB in spite of floods". Business Standard. New Delhi. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
– outlines rice growing seasons