Kaal or Kāla is a word used in Sanskrit to mean "time". The Tamil word kaalam refers to duration in time, it is the name of a deity, in which sense it is not always distinguishable from kāla, meaning "black". It is used as one of the various names or forms of Yama. Kaal/Kaala is referred to the concept of Spacetime. In the Yogic System the concept of SpaceTime was referred to as one word rather than two separate concepts of Space and Time. Monier-Williams's used Sanskrit-English dictionary lists two distinct words with the form kāla. kāla 1 means "black, of a dark colour, dark-blue..." and has a feminine form ending in ī – kālī – as mentioned in Pāṇini 4-1, 42. Kāla 2 means "a fixed or right point of time, a space of time, time... destiny, fate... death" and has a feminine form ending in ā, as mentioned in the ṛgveda Prātiśākhya. As a traditional Hindu unit of time, one kālá corresponds to 144 seconds. According to Monier-Williams, kāla 2 is from the verbal root kal "to calculate", while the root of kāla 1 is uncertain, though the same.
As applied to gods and goddesses in works such as the Devī Māhātmya and the Skanda Purāṇa, kāla 1 and kāla 2 are not distinguishable. Thus Wendy Doniger, translating a conversation between Śiva and Pārvatī from the Skanda Purāṇa, says Mahākāla may mean "'the Great Death'... or'the Great Black One' ". And Swāmī Jagadīśvarānanda, a Hindu translator of the Devī Māhātmya, renders the feminine compound kāla-rātri as "dark night of periodic dissolution"; as Time personified, destroying all things, Kala is a god of death sometimes identified with Yama. Kala appears as an impersonal deity within the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Bhagavata Purana. In the Mahabharata, one of the main characters, reveals his identity as Time personified, he states to Arjuna that both sides on the battlefield of the Kurukshetra War have been annihilated. At the end of the epic, the entire Yadu dynasty is annihilated; the story ends with Yudhishthira, the last of the Pandava brothers, entering Heaven in his human form, thereby closing the link.
In Heaven, Yudi sees everyone within the story, both people whom he hated, people whom he loved, is happy to see them all. He sees their transcendent cosmic forms, Krishna as Vishnu, Draupadi as uma, realizes that the participants in the play were gods in human form, engaging in pastimes and working out their karma. Yudi abandons his bitterness and spends the rest of eternity in Heaven, it is a happy ending. Kala appears as the messenger of Death. At the end of the story, Time, in the form of inevitability or necessity, informs Rama that his reign on Earth is now over. By a trick or dilemma, he forces the death of Lakshmana, informs Rama that he must return to the realm of the gods. Lakshmana willingly passes away with Rama's blessing and Rama returns to Heaven. Time appears in the Bhagavata Purana as the force, responsible for the imperceptible and inevitable change in the entire creation. According to the Purana, all created things are illusory, thereby subject to creation and annihilation, this imperceptible and inconceivable impermanence is said to be due to the march of Time.
Time is considered to be the unmanifest aspect of God that remains after the destruction of the entire world at the end of a lifespan of Brahma. In the Chaitanya Bhagavata, a Gaudiya Vaishnavist text and biography of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, it is said that the fire that emerges from the mouth of Sankarshana at the End of Time is the Kālānala, or "fire of Time". One of the names of Sankarshana is kālāgni "fire of Time"; the Vishnu Purana states that Time is one of the four primary forms of Vishnu, the others being matter, visible substance, Spirit. At Bhagavad Gita 11.32, Krishna takes on the form of kāla, the destroyer, announcing to Arjuna that all the warriors on both sides will be killed, apart from the Pandavas: कालो ऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत् प्रवृद्धो लोकान् समाहर्तुम् इह प्रवृत्तः । This verse means: "Time I am, the great destroyer of the worlds, I have come here to destroy all people." This phrase is famous for being quoted by J. Robert Oppenheimer as he reflected on the Manhattan Project's explosion of the first nuclear bomb in 1945.
In Javanese mythology, Batara Kala is the god of destruction. It is a huge mighty and powerful god depicted as giant, born of the sperm of Shiva, the kings of gods. In Borobudur, the gate to the stairs is adorned with a giant head, making the gate look like the open mouth of the giant. Many other gates in Javanese traditional buildings have this kind of ornament; the most detailed Kala Face in Java is on the south side of Candi Kalasan. Kalachakra Kālī Mahakala Father Time
East Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo, it has a population of about 3.5 million, its capital is Samarinda. East Kalimantan has a total area of 129,066.64 square kilometres and is the second least densely populated province in Kalimantan. The majority of the region shares a maritime border to the east with West Sulawesi and North Sulawesi, its former northernmost region is now North Kalimantan Province. The province still borders Sarawak. Two months in December 2012, the existing West Kusai Regency was split in two, with the northernmost five districts forming a new Mahakam Ulu Regency. East Kalimantan is now divided into three cities. Isran Noor the current Governor of East Kalimantan and Hadi Mulyadi is its vice governor. East Kalimantan was once covered by tropical rainforest. In prehistory period, there is limestone cave called Lubang Jeriji Saléh located in the Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in district of Bengalon, East Kutai, believed to contain the oldest figurative art in the world.
The cave paintings were first spotted in 1994 by the French explorer Luc-Henri Fage. In 2018, a team of scientists investigating the cave, led by Maxime Aubert from Griffith University and Pindi Setiawan from the Bandung Institute of Technology, published a report in the journal Nature identifying the paintings as the world's oldest known figurative art; the team had investigated cave paintings in the neighbouring island of Sulawesi. In order to date the paintings, the team used dating techniques on the calcium carbonate deposits close to them. There are several kingdoms in East Kalimantan, including the Kingdom of Kutai, Sultanate of Kutai ing Martadipura, the Sultanate of Pasir. East Kalimantan region include Pasir, Kutai and Karasikan claimed as conquered territory Suryanata Maharaja, the governor of Majapahit in the State Dipa until 1620 in the Sultanate of Banjar. Between the years 1620-1624, kingdoms in East Kalimantan turned into an area influence of the Sultanate of Sultan Alauddin Makassar, before the Bungaya agreement.
According to the Hikayat Banjar, the Sultan of Makassar never borrowed land for trade covers an area east and southeast of Borneo to the Sultan Mustain Billah of Banjar when Kiai Martasura sent to Makassar and entered into an agreement with the Sultan Tallo I Mangngadaccinna Daeng I Ba'le'Sultan Mahmud Karaeng Pattingalloang, which became Mangkubumi and principal advisor to the Sultan Muhammad Said, King of Gowa in 1638-1654 and in-law of Sultan Hasanuddin, which will make the East Kalimantan region as a place to trade for the Sultanate of Makassar, since that began to arrive people from South Sulawesi. However, based on the agreement between the Sultanate of Banjar and the Dutch East India Company in 1635, VOC help Banjar restore lands in East Kalimantan into spheres of influence of the Sultanate of Banjar, it is embodied in the Bungaya agreement, that the Sultanate of Makassar are not allowed to trade up to the east and the north Borneo In accordance with treaties, on January 1, 1817, Sultan Sulaiman of Banjar handed East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, part of West and South Kalimantan over to the Dutch East Indies.
On May 4, 1826, Sultan Adam al-wathiq Billah of Banjar reaffirmed the handover of these territories to the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. In 1846, the Dutch began to put a Resident Assistant in East Borneo at Samarinda named H. Von Dewall. East Kalimantan was part of the Dutch East Indies. East Kalimantan with its administrative area was established based on the Law No. 25 of 1956 with the first governor being APT Pranoto. East Kalimantan Proviunce now comprises a land area of 129,066.642 square kilometers and comprehensive ocean management 25,656 km², located between 113 ° 44'and 119 ° 00' east longitude, between 2 ° 33'North latitude and 2 ° 25' South Latitude. East Kalimantan, is now divided into seven regencies and three cities, subdivided into 103 districts and 1,026 villages; the Regencies and cities are enumerated below. East Kalimantan is one of the main gates in the eastern part of Indonesia; the area is known as a storehouse of timber and mining, has hundreds of rivers which area the main means of transportation in addition to land transport, with the longest river being the Mahakam.
East Kalimantan is directly adjacent in the north to North Borneo, to the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait in the east, to South Kalimantan in the south, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and Malaysia in the west. There are hills in all districts, there are num erous lakes. Most lakes are located in the Kutai Regency with the most extensive lake, Lake Semayang and Melintang, each of which has an area of 13,000 ha and 11,000 ha; such a climate of Indonesia in general, East Kalimantan tropical climate and has two seasons and rainy seasons. The dry season occurs in May to October, while the rainy season in November to April; this situation continued every year interspersed with transitional season in certain months. Moreover, because of its location on the equator, the climate in East Kalimantan are affected by wind monsoon, monsoon wind is November–April west and east monsoon winds from May to
West Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five Indonesian provinces in the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo, its capital city is Pontianak. The province has an area of 147,307 km² with a recorded 2010 census population of 4,395,983. Ethnic groups include the Dayak, Chinese, Javanese and Madurese; the latest official estimate is 4,546,439. The borders of West Kalimantan trace the mountain ranges surrounding the watershed of the Kapuas River, which drains most of the province; the province shares land borders with Central Kalimantan to the southeast, East Kalimantan to the east, the Malaysian territory of Sarawak to the north. West Kalimantan is an area that could be dubbed "The Province of a Thousand Rivers"; the nickname is aligned with the geographical conditions that have hundreds of large and small rivers that which can be and are navigable. Several major rivers are still the main route for freight to the hinterland, despite road infrastructure now reaching most districts.
Although a small part of West Kalimantan region is sea water, West Kalimantan has dozens of large and small islands spread along the Karimata Strait and Natuna Sea that borders the province of Riau Islands. The total population in the province, according to the 2000 census totaled 4,073,430 inhabitants; the history of West Kalimantan can be traced back to 17th century. Dayaks were the main inhabitants of the province before the 17th century; the Malays established their own sultanates. The high Chinese population in this province was due to a republic founded by Chinese miners called Lanfang Republic after they defeated the local Malay sultans; the government of Lanfang Republic was ended in West Kalimantan after the Dutch occupation in 1884. West Kalimantan was under Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945, when Indonesia declared its Independence. During the Japanese occupation, more than 21,000 people in Pontianak were kidnapped and massacred by Japanese troops during the Pontianak incidents.
All the Malay Sultans on Kalimantan were executed and the Malay elite was devastated by the Japanese. The massacre occurred from April 23, 1943 to June 28, 1944 and most of the victims were buried in several giant wells in Mandor. Allied forces occupying the area after the war found several thousand bones, more than 60 years after the massacre, several secret graves of the victims were found in Mandor and the surrounding areas. After the end of war, the Japanese officers in Pontianak were arrested by allied troops and brought in front of an international military tribune. During the trial, it was revealed that the plan to start the rebellion did not exist and instead was only an imaginary plan created by Japanese officers who wanted to get promoted. A monument called. On 12 May 1947, the autonomous region of West Kalimantan was established, it was led by Syarif Hamid II of Pontianak, who supported the Dutch endeavor to establish a federal United States of Indonesia, of which West Kalimantan would be one component.
Following the 5 April 1950 arrest of Sultan Hamid for complicity in a coup attempt against the RUSI government led by Royal Netherlands East Indies Army officer Raymond Westerling, there were demands from the public for a merger into the Republic of Indonesia, which took place on 22 April. On 15 August, The West Kalimantan autonomous region became part of Kalimantan Province, two days the RUSI ceased to exist, was replaced with a unitary Republic of Indonesia. West Kalimantan was the site of substantial fighting during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation under the Sukarno government in the mid-1960s. After Suharto deposed Sukarno in 1965, the confrontation was resolved. Domestic conflict continued, for another ten years between the new military Suharto government and fighters organized during the confrontation and backed by the banned Indonesian Communist Party. During the 1930s the Dutch colonial powers initiated a "transmigration plan" to move people from populated islands such as Java, to the less populated islands of Irian Jaya and Kalimantan.
In the 1960s the Indonesian government granted the Madurese rights to clear forests for palm oil cultivation. This conflicted with the local Dayak tribes' traditional way of life; the tensions between the two ethnic groups resulted in major eruptions of violence in 1996, the Sambas riots in 1999 and the Sampit conflict in 2001, resulting in thousands of deaths. West Kalimantan Province is located in the western part of the island of Borneo, or in between the lines 2°08'N and 3°05'S and between 108°0'E and 114°10'E; the province is traversed by the Equator through the city of Pontianak. West Kalimantan has a tropical climate, with high temperatures accompanied by high humidity. Other specific characteristics is that the West Kalimantan region including one of the provinces in Indonesia, directly adjacent to another country on land, namely the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia. With this position, West Kalimantan is the only province in Indonesia that have had access road to get in and out of a neighboring country.
West Kalimantan and Sarawak have open roads 400 km long, spanning Pontianak-Entikong-Kuching and can be reached about six to eight hours of travel. In the northern part of the province, there are four regencies that directly borders Malaysia, namely Sambas, Sanggau and Kapuas Hulu, which stretch
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia. The largest among the 13 states, with an area equal to that of Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak is located in northwest Borneo Island, is bordered by the Malaysian state of Sabah to the northeast, Kalimantan to the south, Brunei in the north; the capital city, Kuching, is the largest city in Sarawak, the economic centre of the state, the seat of the Sarawak state government. Other cities and towns in Sarawak include Miri and Bintulu; as of the 2015 census, the population of Sarawak was 2,636,000. Sarawak has an equatorial climate with abundant animal and plant species, it has several prominent cave systems at Gunung Mulu National Park. Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia. Mount Murud is the highest point in Sarawak; the earliest known human settlement in Sarawak at the Niah Caves dates back 40,000 years. A series of Chinese ceramics dated from the 8th to 13th century AD was uncovered at the archaeological site of Santubong; the coastal regions of Sarawak came under the influence of the Bruneian Empire in the 16th century.
In 1839, James Brooke, a British explorer, arrived in Sarawak. He, his descendants, governed the state from 1841 to 1946. During World War II, it was occupied by the Japanese for three years. After the war, the last White Rajah, Charles Vyner Brooke, ceded Sarawak to Britain, in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. On 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-government by the British and subsequently became one of the founding members of the Federation of Malaysia, established on 16 September 1963. However, the federation was opposed by Indonesia leading to a three-year confrontation; the creation of the Federation resulted in a communist insurgency that lasted until 1990. The head of state is the Governor known as the Yang di-Pertua Negeri, while the head of government is the Chief Minister. Sarawak is divided into administrative divisions and districts, governed by a system, modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and was the earliest state legislature system in Malaysia; because of its natural resources, Sarawak specialises in the export of oil and gas and oil palms, but possesses strong manufacturing and tourism sectors.
It is ethnically and linguistically diverse. English and Malay are the two official languages of the state; the generally-accepted explanation of the state's name is that it is derived from the Malay word sarawak, which means people or community in Sanskrit. The Bengal region, a prominent trade and cultural hub which influenced East Asian history had communities of Sarawak which means people or community. However, the latter explanation is incorrect: the territory had been named Sarawak before the arrival of James Brooke, the word awak was not in the vocabulary of Sarawak Malay before the formation of Malaysia. Sarawak is nicknamed "Land of the Hornbills"; these birds are important cultural symbols for the Dayak people, representing the spirit of God. It is believed that if a hornbill is seen flying over residences, it will bring good luck to the local community. Sarawak has eight of the world's fifty-four species of hornbills, the Rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak. Foragers are known to have lived around the west mouth of the Niah Caves 40,000 years ago.
A modern human skull found near the Niah Caves is the oldest human remain found in Malaysia and the oldest modern human skull from Southeast Asia. Chinese ceramics dating to the Tang and Song dynasties found at Santubong hint at its significance as a seaport; the Bruneian Empire was established in the coastal regions of Sarawak by the mid-15th century, the Kuching area was known to Portuguese cartographers during the 16th century as Cerava, one of the five great seaports of Borneo. It was during this time that witnessed the birth of the Sultanate of Sarawak, a local kingdom that lasted for half a century before being reunited with Brunei in 1641. By the early 19th century, the Bruneian Empire was in decline, retaining only a tenuous hold along the coastal regions of Sarawak which were otherwise controlled by semi-independent Malay leaders. Away from the coast, territorial wars were fought between a Kenyah-Kayan alliance; the discovery of antimony ore in the Kuching region led Pangeran Indera Mahkota, a representative of the Sultan of Brunei, to increase development in the territory between 1824 and 1830.
Increasing antimony production in the region led the Brunei Sultanate to demand higher taxes, which led to civil unrest. In 1839, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II assigned his uncle Pangeran Muda Hashim the task of restoring order but his inability to do so caused him to request the aid of British sailor James Brooke. Brooke's success in quelling the revolt was rewarded with antimony and the governorship of Sarawak, which at that time consisted only of a small area centred on Kuching; the Brooke family called the White Rajahs, set about expanding the territory they had been ceded. With expansion came the need for efficient governance and thus, beginning in 1841, Sarawak was separated into the first of its administrative divisions with currency, the Sarawak dollar, beginning circulation in 1858. By 1912, a total of five divisions had been established in Sarawak, each headed by a Resident; the Brooke family practised a paternalistic for
Banjarmasin is the capital of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is located on a delta island near the junction of the Martapura rivers; as a result, Banjarmasin is sometimes called the "River City". Its population was 625,395 at the 2010 Census and estimated to be more than 720,000 in late 2017. Main economic sectors include transportation and communication, processing industries and trade and commerce. Main processing industries are: plywood and rubber manufacturing; the city of Banjarmasin is divided into five districts, listed below with their population at the 2010 Census: Banjarmasin is served by the Syamsudin Noor Airport, located about 25 km outside the town. The town is served by a deepwater port, Trisakti Harbour, the centre of the Barito basin. Passenger ships and ferries to and from Java carry their operation here; the city is laced with flood-prone waterways, many houses are built on rafts or stilts over the water. The waterways are used for travel, using small rowboats. Banjarmasin serves as the closest town to the large coal loading anchorage port of Taboneo.
Together with Tanjung Bara, they constitute the largest coal loading ports in Indonesia. 96% of the population is Muslim. Other religions include Protestants, Catholics and Buddhists. Banjarese are the majority in the city, with Javanese and other ethnics are the minority; the city is the home of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Banjarmasin. Nan Serunai was an ancient kingdom in South Kalimantan, but soon it was replaced by Buddhist kingdom of Tanjungpuri. In the fourteenth century, Banjarmasin was part of the Hindu kingdoms of Negara Dipa and Negara Daha, a vassal of Majapahit, but Pangeran Samudera converted to become a Muslim in the fifteenth century. Following this Banjarmasin was founded at the junction of the Barito and Martapura Rivers on 24 September 1526; the Dutch opened trade there in 1606. The British controlled the city for several brief periods; the British East India Company started trading with the city, which they called Tamborneo or Tomborneo, in 1614. In 1703 the EIC established a factory there.
The EIC attempted unsuccessfully, to trade with the city between 1736 and 1746, in 1747 the Sultan signed a treaty with the Dutch giving them a trade monopoly. In 1787 it became a Dutch protectorate. Banjarmasin remained the region's capital until the onset of the Banjarmasin War in 1859, when the Dutch headquarters were moved to Martapura; the Hikayat Banjar is the chronicle of Banjarmasin. This text called the History of Lambung Mangkurat, contains the history of the kings of Banjar and of Kota Waringin in South-east and South Borneo respectively. In 1930 the city's population was 66,000 and reached 444,000 in 1990. Banjarmasin was the capital of Dutch Borneo, it was therefore an objective for the Japanese during Japanese Occupation of Indonesia during World War II. Banjarmasin was occupied on 10 February 1942; the metropolitan area, known as Banjar Bakula, consists of the cities of Banjarmasin and Banjarbaru, the regencies of Banjar, Barito Kuala and Tanah Laut in South Kalimantan. This metropolitan area covers an area of 3,404.46 square km, at the 2010 Census has a population of 1,924,427.
Pulau Petak is an island next to Bandjermasin just across the Barito river. Of old, the people of Pulau Petak have settled along the borders of the rivers though pronounced river levees are absent and flood danger exists; the rivers were the main traffic ways and transport occurred by boat. Along the river fruit tree plantations and palawidja fields were developed. From the plantations inland, drainage canal have been dug towards the back swamps in the centre of the island. Along the handils, lowland rice fields dominate the landscape. Here, the water management has been subject of a scientific study. Under the Köppen climate classification, Banjarmasin features a tropical dry climate. Temperatures are consistent throughout the year, averaging about 27 degrees Celsius, the city has no real dry season; however Banjarmasin has noticeably drier times of the year. November through May forms the wettest part of the year with monthly precipitation of 200 millimetres or more per month. June through October is drier with monthly precipitation of about 120 millimetres per month.
Banjarmasin on average sees just under 2,600 millimetres of rain per year. The Sabilal Muhtadin Mosque, located along the Martapura riverfront, is a major landmark in the city. Built in 1979, the mosque accommodates thousands of worshippers on Friday prayers. A state university is located in the town. A floating marketplace, where buyers and sellers meet each other using boats, is located on the western outskirts of town, it is considered one of city's identity mark for years. Banjarmasin has long been renowned as a center for gem trading rare diamonds and rubies. An informal network with international connections exists, which supports the large domestic Indonesian trade in rare diamonds. Banjar's diamonds are known for their exquisite brilliance. In recent times, many of Indonesia's large diamond stones have been traded out of the country. A local dish is a soup served with lime. Another notable local dish is "Ketupat Kandangan", a ketupat dish with coconut milk soup (can be served with either chicken or snakehead fish meat
Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia, part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island, located in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2. Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis; the Indian Ocean borders the west and southwest coasts of Sumatra with the island chain of Simeulue and Mentawai off the western coast. In the northeast the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, an extension of the Eurasian continent. In the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java; the northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while off the southeastern coast lie the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait and the Java Sea. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which contain several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeastern area contains large plains and lowlands with swamps, mangrove forest and complex river systems; the equator crosses the island at its center in West Riau provinces.
The climate of the island is tropical and humid. Lush tropical rain forest once dominated the landscape. Sumatra has a wide range of plant and animal species but has lost 50% of its tropical rainforest in the last 35 years. Many species are now critically endangered, such as the Sumatran ground cuckoo, the Sumatran tiger, the Sumatran elephant, the Sumatran rhinoceros, the Sumatran orangutan. Deforestation on the island has resulted in serious seasonal smoke haze over neighbouring countries, such as the 2013 Southeast Asian haze causing considerable tensions between Indonesia and affected countries Malaysia and Singapore. Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, because of the gold deposits in the island's highlands; the first mention of the name of Sumatra was in the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, in reference to a kingdom near modern-day Banda Aceh, the first landfall for traders.
The island is known by other names namely, Andalas or Percha Island. Late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, a rising power until replaced by the Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, in letters addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1602, referred to himself as "king of Aceh and Samudra"; the word itself is from Sanskrit "Samudra", meaning "gathering together of waters, sea or ocean". Marco Polo named the kingdom Samara or Samarcha in the late 13th century, while the 14th century traveller Odoric of Pordenone used Sumoltra for Samudra. Subsequent European writers used similar forms of the name for the entire island. European writers in the 19th century found that the indigenous inhabitants did not have a name for the island; the Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya. Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs and Indian traders in the 6th and 7th centuries AD.
By the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292. Ibn Battuta visited with the sultan for 15 days, noting the city of Samudra was "a fine, big city with wooden walls and towers," and another 2 months on his return journey. Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states fell under their control. Aceh, in the north, was the major obstacle, as the Dutch were involved in the long and costly Aceh War; the Free Aceh Movement fought against Indonesian government forces in the Aceh Insurgency from 1976 to 2005. Security crackdowns in 2001 and 2002 resulted in several thousand civilian deaths; the longest axis of the island runs 1,790 km northwest–southeast, crossing the equator near the centre. At its widest point, the island spans 435 km; the interior of the island is dominated by two geographical regions: the Barisan Mountains in the west and swampy plains in the east.
Sumatra is the closest Indonesian island to mainland Asia. To the southeast is Java, separated by the Sunda Strait. To the north is the Malay Peninsula, separated by the Strait of Malacca. To the east is Borneo, across the Karimata Strait. West of the island is the Indian Ocean; the Great Sumatran fault, the Sunda megathrust, run the entire length of the island along its west coast. On 26 December 2004, the western coast and islands of Sumatra Aceh province, were struck by a tsunami following the Indian Ocean earthquake; this was the longest earthquake recorded, lasting between 600 seconds. More than 170,000 Indonesians were killed in Aceh. Other recent earthquakes to strike Sumatra include the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake and the 2010 Mentawai earthquake and tsunami. To the east, big rivers carry silt from the mountains, forming the vast lowland interspersed by swamps. If unsuitable for farming, the area is of great economic importance for Indonesia, it produces oil from both above and below the soil -- petroleum.
Sumatra is the largest producer of Indonesian coffee. Small-holders grow Arabica coffee in the highlands, while Rob
Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, east of Sumatra; the island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia and Brunei in the north, Indonesia to the south. 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo; the sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. A little more than half of the island is in the Northern Hemisphere including Brunei and the Malaysian portion, while the Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world; the island is known by many names. Internationally it is known as Borneo, after Brunei, derived from European contact with the kingdom in the 16th century during the Age of Exploration.
The name Brunei derives from the Sanskrit word váruṇa, meaning either "water" or Varuna, the Vedic god of rain. Indonesian natives called it Kalimantan, derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, meaning "burning weather island". In earlier times, the island was known by other names. In 977, Chinese records began to use the term Bo-ni to refer to Borneo. In 1225, it was mentioned by the Chinese official Chau Ju-Kua; the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom. Borneo is surrounded by the South China Sea to the north and northwest, the Sulu Sea to the northeast, the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south. To the west of Borneo are the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. To the south and east are islands of Indonesia: Java and Sulawesi, respectively. To the northeast are the Philippine Islands. With an area of 743,330 square kilometres, it is the third-largest island in the world, is the largest island of Asia.
Its highest point is Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, with an elevation of 4,095 m. Before sea levels rose at the end of the last Ice Age, Borneo was part of the mainland of Asia, with Java and Sumatra, the upland regions of a peninsula that extended east from present day Indochina; the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand now submerge the former low-lying areas of the peninsula. Deeper waters separating Borneo from neighbouring Sulawesi prevented a land connection to that island, creating the divide known as Wallace's Line between Asian and Australia-New Guinea biological regions; the largest river system is the Kapuas in West Kalimantan, with a length of 1,000 km. Other major rivers include the Mahakam in East Kalimantan, the Barito in South Kalimantan, Rajang in Sarawak and Kinabatangan in Sabah. Borneo has significant cave systems. In Sarawak, the Clearwater Cave has one of the world's longest underground rivers while Deer Cave is home to over three million bats, with guano accumulated to over 100 metres deep.
The Gomantong Caves in Sabah has been dubbed as the "Cockroach Cave" due to the presence of millions of cockroaches inside the cave. The Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak and Sangkulirang-Mangkalihat Karst in East Kalimantan which a karst areas contains thousands of smaller caves; the Borneo rainforest is estimated to be around 140 million years old, making it one of the oldest rainforests in the world. It is the centre of the evolution and distribution of many endemic species of plants and animals, the rainforest is one of the few remaining natural habitats for the endangered Bornean orangutan, it is an important refuge for many endemic forest species, including the Borneo elephant, the eastern Sumatran rhinoceros, the Bornean clouded leopard, the hose's palm civet and the dayak fruit bat. Peat swamp forests occupy the entire coastline of Borneo; the soil of the peat swamp are comparatively infertile, while it is known to be the home of various bird species such as the hook-billed bulbul, helmeted hornbill and rhinoceros hornbill.
There are about 15,000 species of flowering plants with 3,000 species of trees, 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of resident birds in Borneo. There are about 440 freshwater fish species in Borneo; the Borneo river shark is known only from the Kinabatangan River. In 2010, the World Wide Fund for Nature stated that 123 species have been discovered in Borneo since the "Heart of Borneo" agreement was signed in 2007; the WWF has classified the island into seven distinct ecoregions. Most are lowland regions: Borneo lowland rain forests cover most of the island, with an area of 427,500 square kilometres; the Borneo montane rain forests lie in the central highlands of the island, above the 1,000 metres elevation. The Tropical and subtropical grasslands and shrublands on South Kalimantan; the highest elevations of Mount Kinabalu are home to the Kinabalu mountain alpine meadow, an alpine shrubland notable for its numerous endemic species, including many orchids. The island had extensive rainforest cover, but the area w