A cartwheel hat is a wide brimmed circular or saucer-shaped design. It may be made in a variety of materials, including straw or felt and has a low crown, it may be similar to halo-brimmed hat in shape. It is worn at an angle to show off the curve of the brim, rather than being worn at the back of the head in the manner of a halo hat; the cartwheel hat became popular in the years leading up to World War I. The Milwaukee Sentinel described the new fashion in 1914: "Do not be astounded if you notice a smartly gowned woman with a hat of huge proportions... The new large hats are broad brimmed and have low crowns, which are not discernible when the hat is worn, hence they resemble cartwheels tilted at a becoming angle"; these early versions might be covered in taffeta or silk. The cartwheel hat appeared in films and fashion during the 1930s – an American newspaper described the latest Paris fashion for straight and curled-brim cartwheel designs in 1934; the correspondent described crowns so shallow that hats had to be secured with a rubber band above or below the hair, which must be "perfectly coiffed" as it was revealed by the hat.
In 1936, an Australian newspaper report about racegoers at Brisbane's Ascot racing meeting noted the abundance of: "wide-brimmed shady hats of the cartwheel type". The following year, The Observer described: "cartwheel hats with exceedingly low crowns and brims which slope slightly downwards" noting that London milliner Aage Thaarup was showing versions for Ascot in straw and lemon-yellow felt. One of the most influential showcases of the potential of the style was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, in which Vivien Leigh wore a huge cartwheel with green ribbons designed by celebrity milliner Mr. John. While a Hattie Carnegie cartwheel design appeared on the cover of American Vogue in 1938, the style is most associated with the period after World War II austerity and make-do-and-mend was over. By 1945, new cartwheel styles were being offered with open crowns. Four years Rita Hayworth wore a variation on the cartwheel made of sheer material to match the pleated Jacques Fath dress for her'low key' wedding to Aly Khan – an event that generated huge interest and replica designs of her outfit.
By spring 1950, the cartwheel hat was being tipped in Life alongside pleated dresses as the: "new silhouette". The hat designs featured were by Mr. John. A month Life noted: "The recent tendency to go bareheaded has been reversed because the new season's narrow silhouette looks better when balanced with a hat." The article singled out the cartwheel in a new "unseasonal" coral velvet. The cartwheel became closely associated with New Look fashions. Dior's Y-line collection of autumn 1955 showcased cartwheel hats, paired with pearls, princess-line dresses and stoles. While the size and shape of hats could be extreme, such designs were made not just for day but evening wear. High-profile wearers of the style included Queen Elizabeth who wore a straw cartwheel shape on her tour of Australia the year after her coronation – although her hat was less extreme than some of the Dior models; the cartwheel hat has continued as a favourite showstopper for weddings and events – with designers such as Philip Somerville, Graham Smith and Frederick Fox including them in their millinery ranges.
There have been notable revivals in high fashion. He featured cartwheel shapes in neon orange and shocking pink in 2002. Halo hat Mushroom hat Cartwheel hat at University of North Texas archive New South Wales museum collection, black cartwheel design, c. 1950 Getty image of 1946 cartwheel hat and evening gown British Pathé film showing cartwheel models, 1950 Stephen Jones contemporary cartwheel hat in Ryerson Fashion Research Collection
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis. The term referred to the bishop of the chief city of a historical Roman province, whose authority in relation to the other bishops of the province was recognized by the First Council of Nicaea; the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province called suffragan bishops. The term is applied in a similar sense to the bishop of the chief episcopal see of an ecclesiastical province; the head of such a metropolitan see has the rank of archbishop and is therefore called the metropolitan archbishop of the ecclesiastical province. Metropolitan bishops preside over synods of the bishops of their ecclesiastical province, are granted special privileges by canon law and tradition. In some churches, such as the Church of Greece, a metropolis is a rank granted to all episcopal sees, their bishops are all called the title of archbishop being reserved for the primate.
See also: Catholic Church hierarchy and Diocesan bishop In the Latin Church, an ecclesiastical province, composed of several neighbouring dioceses, is headed by a metropolitan, the archbishop of the diocese designated by the Pope. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops; the metropolitan's powers over dioceses other than his own are limited to supervising observance of faith and ecclesiastical discipline and notifying the Supreme Pontiff of any abuses. The metropolitan has the liturgical privilege of celebrating sacred functions throughout the province, as if he were a bishop in his own diocese, provided only that, if he celebrates in a cathedral church, the diocesan bishop has been informed beforehand; the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see, it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops, to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, determine the agenda.
It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council. No provincial council can be called. All Latin Rite metropolitans are archbishops. Titular archbishops are never metropolitans; as of April 2006, 508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops, 27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, there were 89 titular archbishops. See Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, metropolitans in charge of ecclesiastical provinces hold a position similar to that of metropolitans in the Latin Church. Among the differences is that Eastern Catholic metropolitans within the territory of the patriarchate are to be ordained and enthroned by the patriarch, who may ordain and enthrone metropolitans of sees outside that territory that are part of his Church. A metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province; the metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province.
A major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only from that regarding a patriarchal Church. Within major archiepiscopal churches, there may be ecclesiastical provinces headed by metropolitan bishops. There are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. Metropolitans of this kind are to obtain the pallium from the Pope as a sign of his metropolitan authority and of his Church's full communion with the Pope, only after his investment with it can he convoke the Council of Hierarchs and ordain the bishops of his autonomous Church. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops and his name is to be mentioned after that of the Pope in the liturgy. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, while in others that order is reversed.
Primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are designated as archbishops. In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence; the reverse is true for some Slavic Orthodox Churches and for Romanian Orthodox Church, where metropolitans rank above archbishops and the title can be used for important regional or historical sees. In terms of jurisdiction, there are two basic types of metropolitans in Eastern Orthodox Church: real metropolitans, with actual jurisdiction over their ecclesiastical provinces, honorary metropolitans who
A halo hat is a millinery design in which the headgear acts as a circular frame for the face, creating a halo effect. The design is said to date back to the late 19th century, it may be known as the angel hat or bambini – the latter said to derive from Italian for terracotta plaques depicting the infant Christ. A halo hat may be a wide range of sizes – some lying close to the head in the style of a bonnet or cloche and others that are similar in dimensions to a picture or cartwheel hat. Designs are worn towards the back of the head to create the'halo' effect; some designs with open crowns may be referred to as halo hats or as diadems. Popular from the 1930s on, the halo hat was created in a variety of fabrics – knitted or crocheted versions could be made at home – and could be a circle or semi-circle in shape; the halo became popular with brides. The halo hat is said to have first come into fashion the late 1880s, when it was known as an aureole hat, this was a name that continued to be used to describe the circular or semi-circular shape into the 1930s.
The Milwaukee Sentinel used the term to describe a new hat style in 1937. Describing the outfits worn by racegoers at a Sandown Park meet in 1937, The Times referred to an: "aureole-brimmed" hat design; the halo shape became popular again from the start of the 1930s in both the United States and Europe. It was a distinct move away from the cloche style, worn low over the brow, as the halo exposed the face and brow showing off more elaborate curled hairstyles becoming popular during this era. "Halo hats are so new" declared an advert in a US newspaper in 1931. A 1934 Sears catalogue featured a halo hat design as part of its Loretta Young collection, adding: "Take advantage of Loretta Young's fashion judgement and wear this new off-the-face hat! It's different... There's something of the angel's halo and something of the bucaneer's bravado in its dramatic, folded-back brim". In 1933 The Times reviewed the Christmas catalogues, saying: "the new season millinery, with its leading novelty, the'halo' hat, is specially interesting".
The following year, the Duchess of York was described as wearing a velvet halo hat to attend a charity matinee with Princess Elizabeth. Three years Wallis Simpson would wear an iconic gown and halo bridal headpiece, made by Caroline Reboux's studio in Paris and trimmed with pink and blue feathers; the halo was a flexible design. While it could create a large frame around the face – as with the circular straw design that featured on the Picture Post in 1940 – it could have more modest proportions. Like the draped turban, the halo style lent itself to adaptations – feathers, trims or flowers could be added – making it a versatile hat style, it could be made at home. Larger versions suited the post-war New Look designs, balancing the proportions of the full skirts that were fashionable after wartime austerity; the halo-style hat became popular for wedding outfits – future First Lady of the United States Betty Ford wore a large-brimmed halo wedding hat in 1938 – and half halos would become a staple design for more traditional wedding headpieces, remaining popular in bridal designs.
In the mid 1960s, British Pathé's 1964 film Hats on for Winter featured a large-scale halo design with sunburst pattern, alongside visors and caps. Designers such as Graham Smith created oversized examples during the late 1980s. Among the most memorable modern halo-shaped hats are the design created by Philip Treacy for influential fashion editor Isabella Blow, the wheatsheaf halo-effect headpiece he designed for the wedding of Camilla Parker Bowles to Prince Charles. Cartwheel hat Half hat Bumper brim Halo-shape bonnet from 1903, from Brooklyn Museum costume collection and now Metropolitan Museum of Art collection Halo beret crochet pattern from 1934 Life magazine 4 March 1940, large halo hat or'spring sailor' British Pathé film Hats on for Winter, 1965 Hatatorium Gallery, halo hat
Peach basket hat
A peach basket hat is a millinery design that resembles an upturned country basket of the style used to collect fruit. It is made of straw or similar material and it has a trimming of flowers and ribbons; some models may feature a veil or draped fabric covering. It was introduced in around 1908 and caused some controversy over the succeeding year due to its extreme dimensions and decorations, it had revivals -- designs were at this stage more modest -- in the 1950s. The name peach basket hat became popularly used around 1908 in the United States. An advertisement in the Pittsburgh Gazette describes "the new Peach Basket Hats" showing an illustration of a flower-decorated straw hat in the shape of a basket. While the term peach basket does not appear to have been used in the British fashion press, descriptions involving fruit baskets were. A 1908 comment piece in The Guardian by Evelyn Sharp described a variety of oversized designs, including one similar to Roundhead headgear, noting that they were: "hideously popular" and came trimmed with a variety of flower and bird motifs.
Sharp added: "A basket of market produce pinned on the head. For next to the difficulty of finding the head of the wearer underneath the hat of to-day comes the difficulty of finding hat shape under the trimming of to-day". A 1907 article in the American edition of Vogue had predicted that the future of hats was: "in size colossal" and, two years on, the magazine suggested that the growing popularity of photography had inspired many of these new millinery designs, as couturiers were exposed to images from other cultures and countries; the inspiration for the peach basket millinery design was said to be the oversized styles worn by women of the Congo. Although the peach basket was launched as one of the 1908 season's new looks, it was not greeted with universal acclaim; the Los Angeles Herald, reported in 1909 that the US National Association of Retail Milliners had: "launched the aeroplane as the new style of headgear, put a ban on the peach basket hat and decreed the three-cornered hat of the Louis XVI period as the stunning bonnet for the coming winter months".
The milliners, who declared the peach basket dead, had suffered a poor season of sales. The association's president admitted: "The last season proved disastrous and unprofitable owing to the launching of extreme styles such as the fruit basket hat...a concerted effort has been made to tone down all attempts to introduce freak creations". A further editorial in a New York newspaper said that husbands were responsible for the collapse in sales of the peach basket hat, with the manager of one Sea Cliff store reporting: "I have had no end of husbands come to the shop this spring in company with their wives to pick out their hats to prevent them from investing in a peach basket, washbasin or inverted bowl shape. Never before has so much fun been poked at millinery as this season". In its favour, the peach basket was said to have saved a New York showgirl from disfigurement. Beginning: "Here's a kind word at last for the peach basket hat", an article in the Los Angeles Herald went on to describe how a car passenger thrown head first through a car windshield was saved because her substantial peach basket hat exited before her, thereby saving her from skinning her nose.
In 1909, the short comedy film Flossie's New Peach Basket Hat, produced by Sigmund Lubin, was released. In the same year, the song In a Peach Basket Hat Made for Two was composed by James M. Reilly and Henry W. Petrie; the design had a brief revival in the 1930s, with a fashion commentator noting that: "as fetching a line as it was in pre-war days, the peach-basket hat returned this week to offer lively competition to the flat-crowned hats as spring's favorite millinery". The article went on to describe a modified design of rough purple straw with a band of grosgrain ribbon and a bouquet of violets, as well as a classic peach basket with a navy straw brim and a tall tapering crown of leghorn straw dressed with flowers and a short veil, it was a design that featured in the mid 1950s in a simplified form but sometimes the straw frame was draped with soft fabric. Although the term – and the classic peach-basket design – have not been seen since the 1950s, Princess Maria Laura of Belgium wore an organza hat described as a peach basket at the 2003 wedding of Prince Laurent of Belgium and Claire Coombs.
Picture hat Peach basket style in straw with lace, silk and flower trims at the Fashion Institute of Technology, c. 1908 Worth sketch of tea dress with peach-basket style hat at the Victoria & Albert Museum, 1934-5
A lampshade hat is a millinery design in which the hat has a small circular crown – flat, but sometimes rounded – and flares outwards to create a cone-like profile. In shape, it may have some similarities to the pillbox and bucket hat, both of which were popular at around the same time, although the classic lampshade design is longer and more flared than a pillbox and is made of stiffer material than a bucket hat; the Asian conical hat and the mushroom hat are sometimes termed lampshade, as well as any oversized or lavishly trimmed hat. The lampshade style was popularised by Christian Dior in the 1950s and remained fashionable through the next decade. Dior continued to feature variations in his collections into the early 1960s. Early versions could rely on shape alone for effect. Writing in The Guardian in 1953 about the London spring collections, Clair Wilson described a: "lampshade of a hat" designed by Simone Mirman and shown at John Cavanagh's London show; this model was matched to a black silk cape.
A year Wilson described a new season's design, quite close fitting, in the manner of a helmet, adding that it was: "devoid of decoration and having some relationship to the cloche in concealing most of the hair". By 1956, lampshades and pillboxes were said to be overtaking the popular mushroom and cartwheel designs at Ascot races. A reviewer of the opening day's fashions noted: "1956 must be dismissed as an unspectacular year. Gone were the cartwheels and giant mushrooms of other years, in their place were pill-boxes and various derivations of the beret". Notable examples of the design include the red lampshade hat worn by Doris Day in the 1959 romantic comedy Pillow Talk. Costumes for this film were created by French costume/fashion designer Jean Louis. Like the pillbox, the lampshade remained popular into the 1960s, as hems rose and space age fashions took hold. Adaptations included both close-fitting and flared designs, as well as what fashion correspondent John Hart Roberts described as the "lampshade helmet", worn with hooded pullover, walking skirt and stockings at designer Maljana's Florence fashion show in 1965.
John Galliano, designing for Dior, showed a variety of extreme lampshade-style hats in 2008 – these were created by milliner Stephen Jones. The design duo DSquared2 recreated 1950s-style lampshade hats for their spring/summer 2014 fashion show in September 2013 at Milan Fashion Week. Other designers showing lampshade-inspired designs for 2014, included Lyn Devon. Mushroom hat Bucket hat Pillbox hat Givenchy lampshade hat with flower decoration in the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection, c. 1960 James Wedge variation on the lampshade hat made for Liberty of London in the Victoria & Albert Museum collection, 1957 Unusual lampshade design with goose-feather brim from the Ryerson Fashion Collection, believed to be 1950s Ornate Henry Margu Creations design featuring flowers and net DSquared spring/summer 2014 fashion show including lampshade hats on Fashion Channel
A half hat is a millinery design in which the hat covers part of the head. The design is close-fitting, in the manner of the cloche, frames the head stopping just above the ears, it may be similar to a halo hat in the way that it frames the face and can be worn straight or at an angle. The half-hat is said to have been created by the French-born and US-based milliner Lilly Daché, who won an award for the design in 1941; the half hat became popular in the post-war period in the 1950s. This was a design considered suitable for day and evening wear, some designs included details such as sequins and veils. Designs were stiffened to create a halo shape – a 1952 design from Ascot Millinery was made of decorated straw with an inner lining of velvet. While many designs stopped a little way beyond the crown of the head, there was a fashion for more bonnet-like shapes to half hats. Writing in The Guardian in 1952, fashion correspondent Phyllis Heathcote reported on the off-the-brow trend emerging from Paris, noting: "the majority of the hats are still small soft, much alike, except – and this is important – that whereas last season and the one before the tendency was to an arched line over the front of the head, leaving the back uncovered, this season the movement tends to uncover the front and cover the back".
Heathcote noted the practicality of this shape, describing it as a design that could be folded up and stowed in a handbag or pocket. Such was its popularity in the United States – when embellished – that a 1957 report in The Times on American hat fashions said: "The hat norm, godlike for Hera, is regal for American womanhood...the half-hat jewelled, is plainly a diadem, sometimes secured by jewelled springs behind the head". This was a hat design. A 1955 wedding reported in The Times describes the bride wearing: "a beige lace dress of ballerina length with a high upturned collar and a half-hat to match trimmed with fine light-brown feathers"; the half hat could be shaped close to frame the skull in the manner of the Juliet cap and some variations were known as the cape hat. Another variation is sometimes informally known as the'cracked egg hat' or'eggshell hat', due to its curved and irregular shape and is said to have been popularised by Givenchy and introduced by Dior. A design of this style worn by Queen Elizabeth during a 1954 tour of Australia had the addition of a pom-pom.
Halo hat Bicycle clip hat Juliet cap Biretta Beret Dutch cap Cap Gallery of half and'cracked egg' hat styles on Pinterest Givenchy half hat at the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection, c. 1952 Marcel Fromenti fashion drawing of Balmain half-hat at the Victoria & Albert Museum, c. 1954 British Pathé film showing 1953 Rose Vernier hats, including half hat designs