Kalinga (historical region)

Kalinga is a historical region of India. It is defined as the eastern coastal region between the Mahanadi and the Godavari rivers, although its boundaries have fluctuated with the territory of its rulers; the core territory of Kalinga now encompasses a large part of Odisha and northern part of Andhra Pradesh. At its widest extent, the Kalinga region included a part of present-day Chhattisgarh; the Kalingas have been mentioned as a major tribe in the legendary text Mahabharata. In the 3rd century BCE, the region came under Mauryan control as a result of the Kalinga War, it was subsequently ruled by several regional dynasties. The Bhauma-Karas were another important regional dynasty, although they did not call their kingdom Kalinga. At various times, the Kalinga region formed part of the bigger empires, lost its distinct political identity after the Eastern Gangas; the Kalinga region is defined as the eastern coastal region between the Mahanadi and the Godavari rivers. However, its exact boundaries have fluctuated at various times in the history.

In the ancient Indian literature, the Kalinga region is associated with the Mahendragiri mountain located in the Ganjam district of Odisha, near its border with Andhra Pradesh. At times, the southern border of Kalinga extended further up to the Krishna river. In the north, it sometimes extended beyond the Mahandi river, up to the Vaitarani river; the Kalinga region did not encompass the whole of present-day Odisha: the north-eastern part of Odisha was included in the distinct Utkala region. Utkala lost its identity, came to be considered as a part of Kalinga; the eastern boundary of Kalinga was formed by the sea. Its western boundary is difficult to pinpoint. However, the Puranic literature suggests that Kalinga extended up to the Amarakantaka hills in the west. Several ancient inscriptions mention the term "Trikalinga", interpreted in several ways. According to one theory, Trikalinga refers to the widest extent of Kalinga. However, the Eastern Chalukya records suggest that Kalinga and Trikalinga were two distinct regions, with Trikalinga denoting the hilly region to the west of Kalinga.

The name of the region is derived from a tribe of the same name. According to the legendary text Mahabharata, the progenitors of the Kalingas and of their neighbouring tribes were brothers; these neighbours included the Angas, the Vangas, the Pundras, the Suhmas. The Kalingas occupied the extensive territory stretching from river Baitarani in Odisha to the Varahanandi in the Visakhapatnam district, its capital in the ancient times was the city of Dantapura. The Hathigumpha inscription suggests that a king named Nandaraja had excavated an aqueduct there in the past. Assuming that Nandaraja refers to a king of the Nanda dynasty, it appears that Kalinga region was annexed by the Nandas at some point, it appears to have become independent again after the fall of the Nandas. It is described as "Calingae" in Megasthenes' Indica: The Prinas and the Cainas are both navigable rivers; the tribes which dwell by the Ganges are the Calingae, nearest the sea, higher up the Mandei the Malli, among whom is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that region being the Ganges.

The royal city of the Calingae is called Parthalis. Over their king 60,000 foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen, 700 elephants keep watch and ward in "procinct of war." Kalinga was annexed by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. The headquarters of the Mauryan province of Kalinga was located at Tosali. After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, the region came under the control of the Mahameghavahana family, whose king Kharavela described himself as the "supreme lord of Kalinga". Kalinga came under Gupta suzerainty in the 4th century CE. After the Gupta withdrawal, it was ruled by several minor dynasties, whose rulers bore the title Kalingadhipati ("Lord of Kalinga"; these included the Vasishthas, the Matharas, the Pitrbhaktas. In the 7th century, the Shailodbhava king Madhavaraja II as well as the Eastern Ganga king Indravarman claimed the title Sakala-Kalingadhipati. During 8th-10th centuries, the Bhauma-Kara dynasty ruled the region, although they called their kingdom "Tosala"; the subsequent Somavamshi kings called themselves the lord of Kalinga and Utkala.

During 11th-15th century, the Eastern Gangas became the dominant power in the region, bore the title Kalingadhipati. Their capital was located at Kalinganagara, was transferred to Kataka during the reign of Anantavarman Chodaganga in the 12th century. Kalinga is an important part of the legendary history of Sri Lanka, as it was the birthplace of legendary Prince Vijaya according to the Mahavamsa. Derived from Kalinga is the still current term Keling or Kling, used in parts of Southeast Asia to denote a person of the Indian subcontinent or Indian diaspora and at present having some derogatory and pejorative connotations in Malaysia.. History of Odisha List of rulers of Odisha Kalinga alphabet, derived from Brahmi script Keling Kalingga Kingdom

Location estimation in sensor networks

Location estimation in wireless sensor networks is the problem of estimating the location of an object from a set of noisy measurements. These measurements are acquired in a distributed manner by a set of sensors. Many civilian and military applications require monitoring that can identify objects in a specific area, such as monitoring the front entrance of a private house by a single camera. Monitored areas that are large relative to objects of interest require multiple sensors at multiple locations. A centralized observer or computer application monitors the sensors; the communication to power and bandwidth requirements call for efficient design of the sensor and processing. The CodeBlue system of Harvard university is an example where a vast number of sensors distributed among hospital facilities allow staff to locate a patient in distress. In addition, the sensor array enables online recording of medical information while allowing the patient to move around. Military applications are good candidates for setting a wireless sensor network.

Let θ denote the position of interest. A set of N sensors acquire measurements x n = θ + w n contaminated by an additive noise w n owing some known or unknown probability density function; the sensors transmit measurements to a central processor. The n th sensor encodes; the application processing the data applies a pre-defined estimation rule θ ^ = f. The set of message functions m n, 1 ≤ n ≤ N and the fusion rule f are designed to minimize estimation error. For example: minimizing the mean squared error, E ‖ θ − θ ^ ‖ 2. Ideally, sensors transmit their measurements x n right to the processing center, m n = x n. In this settings, the maximum likelihood estimator θ ^ = 1 N ∑ n = 1 N x n is an unbiased estimator whose MSE is E ‖ θ − θ ^ ‖ 2 = var = σ 2 N assuming a white Gaussian noise w n ∼ N; the next sections suggest alternative designs when the sensors are bandwidth constrained to 1 bit transmission, m n =0 or 1. We begin with an example of a Gaussian noise w n ∼ N, in which a suggestion for a system design is as follows m n = I = { 1 x n > τ 0 x n ≤ τ θ ^ = τ − F − 1, F = 1 2 π σ ∫ x ∞ e − w 2 / 2 σ 2 d w {\displaystyle =\tau -F^\left,\quad F={\frac

1706 Establishment

The 1706 Establishment was the first formal set of dimensions for ships of the Royal Navy. Two previous sets of dimensions had existed before, though these were only for specific shipbuilding programs running for only a given amount of time. In contrast, the 1706 Establishment was intended to be permanent. Dimensions for ships had been established for the "Thirty Ships" building program of 1677, while these dimensions saw use until 1695, this was because of the success of the 1677 ships and the lack of perceived need to change them. Dimensions were laid down for the 1691 "Twenty-seven Ships" program to build seventeen eighty-gun and ten sixty-gun double-decked ships of the line, though the dimensions were abandoned before the program was complete, with the final four eighty-gun ships being constructed with three gun-decks; the origins of the formalized 1706 Establishment can be traced to February 1705, when Prince George of Denmark, the Lord High Admiral at the time, ordered the Navy Board to determine a set of dimensions for second-rate ships.

Though the second-rate ships appear to have been the central focus of the Establishment, the Board was directed to consider dimensions for ships of the third-, fourth-, fifth-rate ships. Because of their rarity and power, first rates were not addressed by the Establishment and were given individual designs, whilst smaller vessels had a low enough cost to allow experimentation; the Navy Board used existing ships considered to be the best in their respective classes as the bases for these dimensions. The Navy Board produced sets of dimensions for ships from forty, sixty, seventy and ninety guns. After a last-minute adjustment created by Admiral George Churchill, the dimensions were sent out to the dockyards together with an order that they were to be adhered to, that they should apply to rebuilds as well as new ships; the implementation of the Establishment - the first of many - began an era of notorious conservatism in naval administration. Though there would be no significant technological changes until the following century, the naval architecture of the 1706 Establishment became more antiquated for the early eighteenth century.

Seven existing second-rates were rebuilt to the 1706 Establishment, including three whose reconstruction was ordered in 1704-1705. These first three were the Marlborough of 1706, Blenheim of 1709 and the Vanguard of 1710; the other four ships were the Neptune of 1710, Ossory of 1711, Sandwich of 1715 and Barfleur of 1716. These ships were armed as 96-gun ships under the 1703 Establishment of Guns, they were re-armed as 90-gun ships under the 1716 Establishment of Guns, with heavier 32-lb and 9-lb on the lower and upper decks, but with one pair of 6-lb removed from each of the partial decks above to leave: Quarter deck - 10 × 6-lb Forecastle - 2 × 6-lb Roundhouse - nil Eight of the older type of two-decker 80-gun ships were rebuilt as three-deckers under the 1706 Establishment - the Boyne and Humber launched in 1708, the Russell in 1709, the Dorsetshire in 1712, the Newark and Shrewsbury in 1713, Cambridge in 1715 and Torbay in 1719. In addition, two new ships were built to this specification as replacements for ships lost in 1707 - the Devonshire and Cumberland both being launched in 1710.

The ships were armed with 80 guns as per the 1703 Establishment of Guns, as shown in the table at right. The 1716 Establishment of Guns replaced the 24-pounder guns on the lower deck by an equal number of 32-lb, it added one pair of 6-lb to the upper deck, removing one pair of 6-lb from the quarter deck. Following the loss of four 70-gun ships in a single night during the Great Storm on 27 November 1703, four replacements were ordered from the Royal Dockyards just three weeks - the Northumberland and Stirling Castle being launched in 1705 and the Nassau in 1707. Another four were ordered in 1705-1706, again from the Dockyards - the Elizabeth and Restoration launched in 1706, while another Resolution and Captain were launched in 1708. Subsequently, two more ships were three rebuilt from existing third-rates by contract; the ships were armed with 70 guns as per the 1703 Establishment of Guns, as shown in the table at right. Under the 1716 Establishment, a thirteenth pair of 24-lb was added on the lower deck, while the demi-culverins on the upper deck were upgraded to 12-lb.

An extra pair of 6-lb was added to the quarter deck, while the 3-lb were removed from the roundhouse to retain the total at 70 guns. Four 60-gun ships were newbuilt to the 1706 Establishment - the Plymouth launched in 1708, the Lion and Gloucester in 1709, the Rippon in 1712 - while four existing 60-gun ships were rebuilt to the same specification from 1714 onwards - the "Lyme", Kingston and"Nottingham.s As per the 1703 Establishment of Guns, the ships were armed with 64 guns as shown in the table at right. The 1716 Establishment of Guns replaced the 18-lb on the lower deck by 24-lb, reduced the ships to 60 guns by removing one pair of 6-lb from the quarter deck and another pair from the forecastle to result in a composition of: Lower deck: 24 24-lb Upper deck: 26 9-lb Quarter deck: 8 6-lb Forecastle: 2 6-lb Eleven new 50-gun ships were built to the 1706 Establishment - the Salisbury launched in 1707, the Falm