Andrey Ivanovich Yeryomenko was a Soviet general during World War II and, subsequently, a Marshal of the Soviet Union. Born in Markivka in Kharkov Governorate to a peasant family, Yeryomenko was drafted into the Imperial Army in 1913, serving on the Southwest and Romanian Fronts during World War I, he joined the Red Army in 1918. He attended the Leningrad Cavalry School and the Frunze Military Academy, graduating in 1935. In addition to his education, he was appointed to command of a regiment of cavalry in Dec. 1929 a division in 1937, the 6th Cavalry Corps in 1938. On Sept. 17, 1939, Yeryomenko led his 6th Cavalry Corps into eastern Poland as part of the operations agreed to between Germany and the Soviet Union under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. In general, this Soviet operation was not efficiently organized. Yeryomenko was forced to request an emergency airlift of fuel so as to continue his advance. Despite these difficulties, the Corps kept moving, Yeryomenko earned the nickname "the Russian Guderian".
Yeryomenko was given command of the prestigious 1st Red Banner Far Eastern Army, deep in eastern Siberia, where he was serving at the outbreak of Operation Barbarossa on June 22, 1941. Eight days after the invasion began, Yeryomenko was recalled to Moscow, where he was made the Acting Commander of the Soviet Western Front, two days after its original commander, General of the Army Dmitri Pavlov, was dismissed for incompetence. Yeryomenko was thrust into a precarious position; the Nazi Blitzkrieg approach to warfare dominated the Western Front, but Yeryomenko motivated the remaining troops, halted the German offensive just outside Smolensk. During this vicious defensive Battle of Smolensk, Yeryomenko was wounded; because of his injuries, he was transferred to the newly created Bryansk Front. In late August, Yeryomenko was ordered to launch counter-offensive operations along the Bryansk Front against Guderian's Second Panzer Group as it began to move south to trap Kirponos' Southwestern Front around Kiev.
Stavka Stalin and Shaposhnikov, seemed convinced that Yeryomenko could block or distract Guderian's drive and save Kiev from encirclement. The counter-offensive failed to accomplish its objectives despite a valiant effort, leaving Bryansk Front weakened. In October the Germans launched Operation Typhoon, an offensive aimed at capturing Moscow. Most of Yeryomenko's weakened forces were encircled by Oct. 8 although small units managed to escape for days or weeks following. On Oct. 13, Yeryomenko was once again wounded, this time severely. He was evacuated to a military hospital in Moscow. In January 1942, Yeryomenko was appointed commander of the 4th Shock Army, part of the Northwestern Front. During the Soviet Winter Counteroffensive, Yeryomenko's army was part of the successful Toropets–Kholm Offensive, which liberated Toropets and much of the surrounding region, helping to create the Rzhev Salient, which became a major battlefield over the next 15 months. On Jan. 20, 1942, Yeryomenko was again wounded, this time in one leg, when German planes bombed his headquarters.
Yeryomenko refused to evacuate to a hospital. Yeryomenko's performance in the winter offensives restored Stalin's confidence, he was given command of the Southeastern Front, on Aug. 1, 1942, where he proceeded to launch powerful counterattacks against the German offensive into the Caucasus, Fall Blau. Yeryomenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev planned the defense of Stalingrad, rallying and re-organizing men and equipment falling back to the city from the Don River and the steppes to the west; when one of his subordinates, Gen. Anton Lopatin, doubted if his 62nd Army would be able to defend Stalingrad, Yeryomenko replaced him with Lt. Gen. Vasily Chuikov as Army commander on Sept. 11, 1942. Chuikov and the 62nd Army went on to prove themselves as the defenders of the city, confirming Yeryomenko's judgement. On Sept. 28, the Southeastern Front was renamed the Stalingrad Front. During Operation Uranus, November 1942, Yeryomenko's forces helped to surround the German 6th Army from the south, linking up with the northern penetration at Kalach-na-Donu.
German General Erich von Manstein soon attempted to counterattack the Soviet forces and break through the line to relieve the surrounded Germans. Yeryomenko repelled the attack with the forces of the 2nd Guards Army along their fall-back positions on the Myshkova River. On January 1, 1943, the Stalingrad Front was renamed Southern Front. After the end of the winter offensive, in March 1943, Yeryomenko was transferred north to the Kalinin Front, which remained quiet until September, when Yeryomenko launched a small, but successful offensive. In December, Yeryomenko was once again sent south, this time to take command of the Separate Coastal Army, put together to retake Crimea, accomplished with assistance from Fyodor Tolbukhin's 4th Ukrainian Front. In April, Yeryomenko once again was sent to command the 2nd Baltic Front. During the summer campaign, 2nd Baltic was successful in crushing German opposition, was able to capture Riga, helping to bottle up some 30 German divisions in Latvia. On March 26, 1945, Yeryomenko was transferred to the command of the 4th Ukrainian Front, the unit he controlled until the end of the war.
Fourth Ukrainian was positioned in
1st Baltic Front
The First Baltic Front was a major formation of the Red Army during the Second World War. It was commanded by Army General Andrey Yeryomenko, succeeded by Army General Bagramyan, it was formed by renaming the Kalinin Front in October 12, 1943, took part in several important military operations, most notably Bagration in the summer of 1944. The 1st Baltic Front assisted in lifting the Siege of Leningrad on January 27, 1944, as well as in Operation Samland, at that time known as the Samland Group, captured Königsberg in April 1945; as of June 23, 1944, the First Baltic Front consisted of the following units and their commanders: Baltic Front, led by front commander Army General Hovhannes Bagramyan 4th Shock Army, led by General-Lieutenant P. F. Malyshev 83rd Rifle Corps6th Guards Army, led by General Lieutenant I. M. Chistyakov 2nd Guards Rifle Corps 22nd Guards Rifle Corps 23rd Guards Rifle Corps 103rd Guards Rifle Corps Army artillery43rd Army, led by General Lieutenant A. P. Belaborodov 1st Rifle Corps 60th Rifle Corps 92nd Rifle Corps 1st Tank Corps3rd Air Army, led by General Lieutenant N. F. Papivin 11th Fighter Aviation Corps Army General Andrey Yeremenko Army General Ivan Bagramyan Lieutenant General Dmitry Leonov Lieutenant General Mikhail Rudakov Colonel General Vladimir Kurasov Zaloga, Steven J. Bagration 1944 - The Destruction of Army Group Center.
New York: Osprey Publishing, 1996, p. 24 ISBN 1-85532-478-4
Battle for Velikiye Luki
The Velikiye Luki offensive operation was executed by the forces of the Red Army's Kalinin Front against the Wehrmacht's 3rd Panzer Army during the Winter Campaign of 1942–1943 with the objective of liberating the Russian city of Velikiye Luki as part of the northern pincer of the Rzhev-Sychevka Strategic Offensive Operation. As part of Operation Barbarossa, the German army took Velikiye Luki on 19 July 1941, but was forced to retreat the next day due to Soviet counter-attacks breaking the line of communications in multiple places. A new attack was launched in late August, the city was recaptured on Aug. 26. The city had great strategic value due to the main north-south railway line running just west of the city at Novosokolniki, as well as the city's own rail network to Vitebsk and bridges over the Lovat River. After its capture and with the German offensive running out of steam for the winter, the area was fortified. Marshy terrain extended to Lake Peipus from just north of the city defended by the German 16th Field Army, making operations in the region around the city difficult for both sides.
Rather than maintaining a solid "front" in the area, the Germans established a series of thinly held outposts to the north and south of the city. Soviet counterattacks during the Winter Campaign of 1941–1942 the Battles of Rzhev just to the south, formed a large salient in the German lines. Velikiye Luki lay just on the western edge of the original advance, was just as strategic for the Soviets as the German; the city dominated the region and would therefore be the natural point for fighting, offering the possibility of eliminating the German bridges on the Lovat, to deny the Germans use of the rail line that provided communications between Army groups North and Centre. Furthermore, as long as the German Army occupied both rail junctions at Velikiye Luki and Rzhev, the Red Army could not reliably reinforce or resupply its troops on the north face of the massive Rzhev Salient. In view of its strategic significance, the Germans fortified the city over the course of 1942; the Soviets raided into German-held territory around the town and the town could only be kept supplied by armoured trains.
The Soviet offensive to retake the city was developed in mid-November 1942 using troops from the 3rd and 4th Shock armies, 3rd Air Army. The city itself was defended by the 83rd Infantry Division commanded by Lieutenant General Theodor Scherer, the lines to the south held by the 3rd Mountain Division, the front to the north held by the 5th Mountain Division; the city itself was provided with extensive prepared defenses and garrisoned by a full regiment of the 83rd Division and other troops, totaling around 7,000. Rather than attacking the town directly, the Soviet forces advanced into the difficult terrain to the north and south of the town. Spearheaded by four rifle divisions to the south and one to the north, the operation commenced on 24 November. Despite heavy losses, they cut the land links to the city by 27 November, trapping the garrison. Army Group Centre's commander asked the OKH for permission to conduct a breakout operation while the situation was still fluid by pulling the German lines back by around ten miles.
The request was dismissed by Hitler, pointing to an earlier success in a similar situation at Kholm, demanded that the encircled formations stand fast while the Gruppe "Chevallerie" from the north and 20th Motorised Division from the south counter-attacked to open the encirclement. The garrison were ordered to hold the city at all costs; the remainder of the 83rd Infantry and 3rd Mountain Divisions, encircled south of Velikiye Luki, fought their way west to meet the relieving troops. Due to Army Group Centre's commitments at Rzhev, the only resources available to man the lines opposite Velikiye Luki were those in the area, which were organised as Gruppe Wöhler. Other divisions were made available, including the understrength 8th Panzer Division from Gruppe Chevallerie, the 20th Motorized Infantry Division from Army Group Centre reserve, the weak 6th Luftwaffe Field Division, the hurriedly rushed to the front 707th and 708th Security, 205th and 331st Infantry divisions although there was a corresponding build-up of Soviet strength.
Throughout December, the garrison – which maintained radio contact with the relief forces – held out against repeated Soviet attempts to reduce their lines, in particular the rail depot in the city's southern suburb. The Soviet forces, attacking entrenched troops in severe winter weather, suffered high casualties, while conditions in the city deteriorated despite airdrops of supplies and equipment. In the meantime, Soviet attempts to take their main objective, the rail lines at Novosokolniki, had been frustrated by the counter-attacks of the relief force. An attempt by the Germans to reach Velikiye Luki in late December, ran into stubborn Soviet defence and halted damaged. Operation Totila, the next attempt to break through to Velikiye Luki, was launched on 4 January; the two German spearheads advanced to within five miles of the city, but stalled due to pressure on their flanks. On 5 January, a Soviet attack from the north split Velikiye Luki in two, isolating a small group of troops in the fortified "citadel" in the west of the city, while the bulk of the garrison retained a sector centred around the rail station in the south of the city
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Velikiye Luki is a town in Pskov Oblast, located on the meandering Lovat River. It is the second largest town in Pskov Oblast. Velikiye Luki is a City of Military Glory, an honor bestowed on it because of the courage and heroism its citizens displayed during World War II, it was first mentioned in a chronicle under the year of 1166 as Luki. From the 12th century, Luki was a part of the Novgorod Republic. After the construction of a fortress in 1211, Velikiye Luki gained strategic importance, defending the approaches to Pskov and Novgorod, it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow by Ivan the Great in 1478. During the Livonian War, it played an important role. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Velikiye Luki was included into Ingermanland Governorate, it was explicitly mentioned as one of the towns the governorate comprised. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, in 1772, Pskov Governorate was established. After 1777, Velikiye Luki was the seat of Velikolutsky Uyezd.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it evolved into an important railway hub following the construction of the railway connecting Moscow with Riga. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, Velikoluksky District was established, with the administrative center in Velikiye Luki. Pskov Governorate was abolished as well, Velikiye Luki was the center of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On June 17, 1929, the okrug was transferred to Western Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished. On January 29, 1935, Western Oblast was abolished, the district was transferred to Kalinin Oblast, on February 5 of the same year, Velikiye Luki became the center of Velikiye Luki Okrug of Kalinin Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union. On May 4, 1938, the okrug was abolished again. From 19 to 21 July 1941 and again from 25 August 1941 to 17 January 1943, Velikiye Luki was occupied by German troops. During World War II, in 1941 and 1942, intensive fighting took place in the vicinity between German and Soviet forces.
During the Battle for Velikiye Luki, a German force of about 20,000 was surrounded in the town, turned into a fortress. After months of heavy fighting, the German defenders were defeated in January 1943; as a result of this siege, the town suffered total destruction. Significant part of Soviet forces consisted of Estonian mobilized to Red Army, about 6000 of them died there liberating the town. Many streets are named after the heroes of the Great Patriotic War. For example is the street named after Liza Chaykina. On August 22, 1944, Velikiye Luki Oblast was established, with the administrative center in Velikiye Luki. On October 2, 1957, Velikiye Luki Oblast was abolished, Velikiye Luki was transferred to Pskov Oblast as the town of oblast significance. In 2016, Velikiye Luki celebrated the 850th anniversary of the town's first mention in 1166; the town marked the event with festivals and historical exhibitions, as well as making long-term improvements. In 2013, town planners began the preparations to improve the infrastructure and quality of life for residents.
Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev offered federal support to the anniversary, recommended the Ministry of Transport fund a much-needed overpass connecting the two busiest parts of Velikiye Luki. The majority of the buildings in the town, including the schools, were built in the 1950s and 1960s and needed modernisation. New sports and leisure facilities were needed. Town officials stated. Among the improvements planned was the remodel of a large obelisk in Jubilee Square, erected on the city's 800th anniversary in 1966 but never finished. A contest was held to solicit designs for the remodel of the obelisk, as well as logos and slogans for the festivities; the winning design for the obelisk features elements symbolising the town's history, including Viking and Greek features. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Velikoluksky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the Town of Velikiye Luki—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the Town of Velikiye Luki is incorporated as Velikiye Luki Urban Okrug and serves as the administrative center of Velikoluksky Municipal District. Velikiye Luki is an industrial city, with several enterprises in machine building industry, they produce machines for timber industry, electrotechnical equipment, batteries. There is a workshop to repair railway locomotives. There are enterprises of timber and food industries, as well as production of brickstones. Food industry in 2010 was responsible for production of 24.8% of all industrial output, electrotechnical industry produced 15% of the output. Velikiye Luki is an important railway hub. One railway runs in the east-west direction. Another railway, running to the northwest, connects Velikiye Luki via Toropets and Ostashkov with Bologoye. One more railway connects Velikiye Luki to Nevel, where it splits into two railway lines, both running southeast into Belarus: One line to Vitebsk, another one to Grodno via Polotsk and Molodechno.
The M9 highway which connects Moscow and Riga bypasses Veli
Operation Mars known as the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Operation, was the codename for an offensive launched by Soviet forces against German forces during World War II. It took place between 25 November and 20 December 1942 around the Rzhev salient in the vicinity of Moscow; the offensive was a joint operation of the Soviet Western Front and Kalinin Front coordinated by Georgy Zhukov. The offensive was one in a series of bloody engagements collectively known in Soviet and Russian histories as the Battles of Rzhev, which occurred near Rzhev and Vyazma between January 1942 and March 1943; the battles became known as the "Rzhev meat grinder" for their huge losses on the Soviet side. For many years they were relegated to a footnote in Soviet military history. In Operation Mars, planned to commence in late October, forces of the Kalinin and Western Fronts would encircle and destroy the powerful German Ninth Army in the Rzhev salient; the basic plan of the offensive was to launch multiple, coordinated thrusts from all sides of the salient, resulting in the destruction of the Ninth Army.
The offensive would tie down German units and prevent them from being moved south. The Kalinin and Western Fronts were directed by Stalin and Zhukov "to crush the Rzhev-Sychovka-Olenino-Bely enemy grouping." The Western Front was to "take Sychovka no than the 15th December." The Kalinin Front's 39th and 22nd armies were to take Olenino by 16 Bely by 20 Dec.. Operation Mars was to be followed soon there after by Operation Jupiter, to commence two to three weeks later; the Western Front's powerful 5th and 33rd armies, supported by 3rd Guards Tank Army, would attack along the Moscow-Vyazma highway axis, link up with the victorious Mars force, envelop and destroy all German forces east of Smolensk. Once resistance around Vyazma was neutralized, the 9th and 10th Tank Corps and the 3rd Tank Army would penetrate deeper into the rear of Army Group Centre; the offensive was launched in the early hours of 25 November 1942. It got off as fog and snowy weather grounded the planned air support, it greatly reduced the effect of the massive artillery barrages preceding the main attacks, as it made it impossible for the forward artillery observers to adjust fire and observe the results.
The northern thrust made little progress. The eastern attack across the frozen Vazuza river ground forward; the two western thrusts made deeper penetrations around the key town of Belyi. Still, the progress was nowhere near; the German defenders fought stubbornly, clinging to their strong-points, which were centered on many of the small villages dotting the area. In some cases, the German strong-points remained manned for a time after the Soviets advanced past them, creating more problems for the Red Army in their rear areas. Despite repeated, persistent Soviet attacks, small-arms fire and pre-planned artillery concentrations cut down the attacking infantry. Soviet tanks were picked off by anti-tank guns, the few German tanks, in close combat with infantry; the relative lack of initial success compounded the Soviet problems. The minor penetrations and the resulting small bridgeheads made it difficult to bring forward reinforcements and follow-up forces artillery so critical for reducing the German strong-points.
The Germans reacted by shifting units within the salient against the points of the Soviet advance and pinching off their spearheads. With limited reserves and reinforcement unlikely due to Soviet offensives elsewhere, the Ninth Army was placed under great pressure; the shifting of German forces, coupled with Soviet losses and supply difficulties, allowed the German forces to gain the upper hand. Their lines held, much of the lost ground was retaken; the counterattacks against the Belyi and the Vazuza thrusts resulted in several thousand soldiers being trapped behind German lines. A few of these would manage to break through to Soviet lines, some after fighting in the German rear for weeks. All vehicles and heavy weapons had to be left behind. Though the Germans were not able to remove Soviet forces from the Luchesa valley in the northwest of the salient, this was of little significance since the Soviets there were unable to press their attack through the difficult terrain. "The Western Front failed to penetrate enemy defences", according to Zhukov.
The Germans were able to hit the flank of the Kalinin trapped Maj.-Gen. M. D. Solomatin's Mechanized Corps for three days. Operation Mars was a military failure, the Soviets were unable to accomplish any of their objectives. However, in the aftermath of Operation Mars General Von Kluge recommended the salient be abandoned to economize on manpower and to assume more defensible positions. Hitler refused, his denial of a major withdrawal in the winter of 1941–42 had stabilized the army when it was on the edge of a collapse. Subsequently, he was less willing to heed the advice of his commanders. In addition he was unwilling to give up any ground he had won, saw usefulness in retaining the jump off point for a future thrust upon Moscow. However, in the Spring of 1943 his desire to move back onto the offensive made him more receptive to withdrawing forces from the salient to free up manpower. A staged withdrawal was begun at the beginning of March 1943. By the 23rd of that month the withdrawal was complete.
Historian A. V. Isayev has pointed out that together with influences on other sectors during the winter of 1942, Operation Mars had an effect upon the strategic situation in 1943. In the plan for the large offensive at Kursk in July 1943, the Ger
20th Army (Soviet Union)
The 20th Army was a field army of the Red Army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. The Army was first formed in the Orel Military District in June 1941. On 22 June 1941 the Army was part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command and was located west of Moscow. On 27 June 1941 it was proposed to Joseph Stalin that the Soviet armies would defend the line going through the Daugava-Polotsk-Vitebsk-Orsha-Mogilev-Mazyr as part of the Reserve Front. Committed as part of Western Front in defensive battles in Belarus and Vyazma. By 5 August 1941 the army, in David Glantz's words, had been'reduced to a skeleton.' The strength of the 289th Rifle Division had fallen to 285 men, 17 machine guns, one anti-tank gun, the 73rd Rifle Division to 100 men and 4 to 5 machine guns, 144th Rifle Division to 440 men, 153rd Rifle Division to 750 men. The Army HQ was disbanded having been destroyed in the Vyazma Pocket. Source: Combat composition of the Soviet Army via tashv and Leo Niehorster 61st Rifle Corps 110th Rifle Division 144th Rifle Division 172nd Rifle Division 69th Rifle Corps 73rd Rifle Division 229th Rifle Division 233rd Rifle Division 18th Rifle Division 301st Howitzer Artillery Regiment 537th High Power Howitzer Artillery Regiment 438th Corps Artillery Regiment 7th Mechanised Corps 14th Tank Division 18th Tank Division 1st Moscow Motor Rifle Division 9th Motorcycle Regiment 60th Pontoon Bridge Battalion Lieutenant General Fyodor Remezov Lieutenant General Pavel Kurochkin Lieutenant General M. F. Lukin Lieutenant General F. A. Ershakov Reestablished in November 1941 from Operational Group Liziukov.
Reformed November 1941 for the Battle of Moscow, including 331st and 350th Rifle Divisions, the 28th, 35th, 64th separate rifle brigades. Fought as part of the Western Front. In 1942-43 it operated on the Rzhev-Sychevka bridgehead, took part in the Rzhev-Vyazma offensive operation. In 1944 it became part of the Stavka Reserve and was reassigned to Kalinin Front and Leningrad Front, it was disbanded in April 1944 by being dispersed within the formations of 3rd Baltic Front. The army was in strategic reserve from July 1943 to April 1944. In April 1944 the headquarters was used to form the 3rd Baltic Front. Lieutenant General Andrey Vlasov Lieutenant General Max Reyter Major General N. I. Kiriukhin Lieutenant General Mikhail Khozin Lieutenant General Nikolai Berzarin Major General A. N. Ermakov Lieutenant General Nikolai Berzarin Major General A. N. Ermakov Lieutenant General Anton Lopatin Lieutenant General Nikolai Gusev