Katowice Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–1998, superseded by the Silesian Voivodeship. Its capital city was Katowice. Major cities and towns:: Katowice. Katowice Voivodeship Silesian-Dabrowa Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1946 to 1975, superseded by the 1975-1998 Katowice, Częstochowa Voivodeship, Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship, Opole Voivodeship, its capital city was Katowice. Voivodeships of Poland
Opole Voivodeship, or Opole Province, is the smallest and least populated voivodeship of Poland. The province's name derives from largest city, Opole, it is part of Upper Silesia. A large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, the German language is co-official in 28 communes. Opole Voivodeship is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Łódź Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship to the east, the Czech Republic to the south. Opole Province's geographic location, economic potential, its population's level of education make it an attractive business partner for other Polish regions and for foreign investors. Formed in 1997, the Praděd/Pradziad Euroregion has facilitated economic and tourist exchanges between the border areas of Poland and the Czech Republic. Opole Voivodeship was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Opole Voivodeship and parts of Częstochowa Voivodeship, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998.
The government, advised by prominent historians, had wanted to disestablish Opolskie and partition its territory between the more Polish regions of Lower Silesia and Silesian Voivodeship (eastern Upper Silesia and western Malopolska. The plan was that Brzeg and Namysłów, as the Western part of the region, were to be transferred to Lower Silesia, while the rest was to become, along with a part of the Częstochowa Voivodeship, an integral part of the new'Silesian' region. However, the plans resulted in an outcry from the German minority population of Opole Voivodeship, who feared that should their region be abolished, they would lose all hope of regional representation. To the surprise of many of the ethnic Germans in Opole however, the local Polish Silesian population and groups of ethnic Poles rose up to oppose the planned reforms; the solution came in late 1999, when Olesno was, after 24 years apart reunited with the Opole Voivodeship to form the new defined region. A historic moment came in 2006 when the town of Radłów changed its local laws to make German, alongside Polish, the district's second official language.
The voivodeship lies in the major part on the Silesian Lowland. To the east, the region touches upon the Silesian Upland with the famous Saint Anne Mountain; the Oder River cuts across the middle of the voivodeship. The northern part of the voivodeship, along the Mała Panew River, is densely forested, while the southern part consists of arable land; the region has the warmest climate in the country. Protected areas in Opole Voivodeship include the following three areas designated as Landscape Parks: Opawskie Mountains Landscape Park Góra Świętej Anny Landscape Park Stobrawa Landscape Park Opole Voivodeship is divided into 12 counties: 1 city county and 11 land counties; these are further divided into 71 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table; the voivodeship contains 35 towns. These are listed below in descending order of population: The Opole Voivodeship is the smallest region in the administrative makeup of the country in terms of both area and population. About 15% of the one million inhabitants of this voivodeship are ethnic Germans, which constitutes 90% of all ethnic Germans in Poland.
As a result, many areas are bilingual in Opolskie, the German language and culture play a significant role in education in the region. Ethnic Germans first came to this region during the Late Middle Ages; the area was once part of the Prussian province of Silesia. The Opole Voivodeship is an industrial as well as an agricultural region. With respect to mineral resources, of major importance are deposits of raw materials for building: limestone, marl and basalt; the favourable climate, fertile soils, high farming culture contribute to the development of agriculture, among the most productive in the country. A total of nineteen industries are represented in the voivodeship; the most important are cement and lime, food, car manufacturing, chemical industries. In 1997, the biggest production growth in the area was in companies producing wood and wood products, electrical equipment and appliances, as well as cellulose and paper products. In 1997, the top company in the region was Zakłady Azotowe S. A. in Kędzierzyn-Koźle, whose income was over PLN 860 million.
The voivodship's economy consists of more than 53,000 businesses small and medium-sized, employing over 332,000 people. Manufacturing companies employ over 89,000 people; the Opole Voivodeship is a green region with three large lakes: Turawskie and Otmuchów. The Opawskie Mountains are popular; the region includes the castle in Brzeg, built during the reign of the Piast dynasty—pearl of the Silesian Renaissance, the Franc
Jelenia Góra Voivodeship
Jelenia Gora Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in the years 1975–1998, superseded by the Lower Silesian Voivodeship. Its capital city was Jelenia Gora. Jelenia Góra Bolesławiec Zgorzelec Lubań Kamienna Góra Voivodeships of Poland
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
Kalisz is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants making it the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. It is the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce. Kalisz is an important regional commercial centre with many notable factories; the city is a centre for traditional folk art. The town was the site of the former'Calisia' piano factory, until it went out of business in 2007; the name Kalisz is thought to stem from the Slavic term "kal", meaning marsh. There are many artifacts from Roman times in the area of Kalisz, indicating that the settlement had once been a stop of the Roman caravans heading for the Baltic Sea along the trade route of the Amber Trail. Calisia had been mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD, although the connection is doubted by some historians who claim that the location mentioned by Ptolemy was situated in the territory of the Diduni in Magna Germania.
Archaeological excavations have uncovered early mediaeval settlement from the Piast dynasty period, c. 9th-12th centuries. Modern Kalisz was most founded in the 9th century as a provincial capital castellany and a minor fort. In 1106 Bolesław III Wrymouth made it a part of his feudal domain. Between 1253 and 1260 the town was incorporated according to the German town law called the Środa Śląska Law, a local variation of the Magdeburg Law, soon started to grow. One of the richest towns of Greater Poland, during the feudal fragmentation of Poland it formed a separate duchy ruled by a local branch of the Piast dynasty. After Poland was reunited, the town became a notable centre of weaving and wood products, as well as one of the cultural centres of Greater Poland. There are records of Khalyzian settlements from 1139. In 1282 the city laws were confirmed by Przemysł II of Poland, in 1314 it was made the capital of the Kalisz Voivodeship by king Władysław I the Elbow-high. Located in the centre of Poland, Kalisz was a notable centre of trade.
Because of its strategic location, King Casimir III the Great signed a peace treaty with the Teutonic Order there in 1343. As a royal town, the city managed to defend many of its initial privileges, in 1426 a new town hall was built; the Polish king Mieszko III the Old was buried in Kalisz. In 1574 the Jesuits came to Kalisz and in 1584 opened a Jesuit College, which became one of the most notable centres of education in Poland; the economic development of the area was aided by a large number of Protestant Czech Brothers, who settled in and around Kalisz after being expelled from Bohemia in 1620. In 1792, a fire destroyed much of the city centre; the following year, in the second partition of Poland, the Kingdom of Prussia absorbed the city, called "Kalisch" in German. In 1801, Wojciech Bogusławski set up one of the first permanent theatre troupes in Kalisz. In 1807, Kalisz became a provincial capital within the Duchy of Warsaw. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia, following Yorck's Convention of Tauroggen of 1812, von Stein's Treaty of Kalisz was signed between Russia and Prussia in 1813, confirming that Prussia now was on the side of the Allies.
After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, Kalisz became a provincial capital of Congress Poland and the capital of a province of the Russian Empire. Prussia and Russia held joint military exercises near the town in 1835; the proximity to the Prussian border accelerated economic development of the city and Kalisz started to attract many settlers, not only from other regions of Poland and other provinces of the Russian Empire, but from German states. In 1902, a new railway linked Kalisz to Warsaw and Łódź. With the outbreak of World War I, the proximity of the border proved disastrous for Kalisz. Between 2 and 22 August, Kalisz was shelled and burned to the ground by German forces under Major Hermann Preusker though Russian troops had retreated from the city without defending it and German troops – many of them ethnic Poles – had been welcomed peaceably. Eight hundred men were arrested and several of them slaughtered, while the city was set on fire and the remaining inhabitants were expelled. Out of 68,000 citizens in 1914, only 5,000 remained in Kalisz a year later.
By the end of the Great War, much of the city centre had been more or less rebuilt and many of the former inhabitants had been allowed to return. After the war Kalisz became part of the newly independent Poland; the reconstruction continued and in 1925 a new city hall was opened. In 1939 the population of Kalisz was 89,000. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the proximity of the border once again proved disastrous. Kalisz was captured by the Wehrmacht instantly and without much fighting, the city was annexed by Germany. By the end of World War II 30,000 local Jews had been murdered. An additional 20,000 local Catholics were either murdered or expelled to the German-occupied territories or to Germany as slave workers. In 1945 the population of the city was 43,000 – half the pre-war figure. In 1975, after Edward Gierek's reform of the administrative division of Poland, Kalisz again became the capital of a province – Kalisz Voivodeship.
Leszno Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1975 to 1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodeship. Its capital city was Leszno. Leszno Kościan Rawicz Gostyń Voivodeships of Poland
Konin Voivodeship - a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1975 to 1998, superseded by Greater Poland Voivodeship. Its capital city was Konin. Konin Turek Koło Voivodeships of Poland