Kalju Lepik was an Estonian poet who lived as an exile for most of his life. Kalju Lepik published his first poems in 1939 in Tartu students' journals Tuleviku Rajad. In 1940 he founded the art society Tuulisui, that continued its existence in Swedish exile from 1945 on. In 1943 and 1944 he fought as a conscript in the Waffen-SS unit Estonian Legion, he settled in Stockholm for many years. Kalju Lepik defended the rights of the Estonian refugees in Sweden. In 1946 he founded in Stockholm the exile publishing house Eesti Raamat. In 1966 he became the head of the Baltic Archive in Sweden. From 1982 on, Lepik was the chairman of the Estonian Writers' Union in exile. In 1990 and 1998, Kalju Lepik was awarded the Juhan Liiv poetry prize as well as the annual prize of Estonian literature in 1998. Kalju Lepik's earlier poems are passionately patriotical. In addition, satire can be found. In Lepik's poetry, pessimistic elements prevail. In his years, he discarded all kinds of political motives and exalted patriotic pathos.
Kalju Lepik was married to Asta Lepik. He is the father of diplomat Aino Lepik von Wirén, his last collections of poetry were published in Estonia and he died there in 1999. Nägu koduaknas Mängumees Kerjused treppidel Merepõhi Muinasjutt Tiigrimaast Kivimurd Kollased nõmmed Marmorpagulane Verepõld Klaasist mehed Kadunud külad Öötüdruk Pihlakamarja rist
A name day is a tradition in some countries in Europe, Latin America, Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries in general. It consists of celebrating a day of the year, associated with one's given name, such as Mark Wilkerson; the celebration is similar to a birthday. In Ireland for example, Caoimhes name day is celebrated on the 9th of February; the custom originated with the Christian calendar of saints: believers named after a saint would celebrate that saint's feast day, or in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the day of a saint's death. Name days have greater resonance in the Orthodox parts of Europe. In many countries, name-day celebrations no longer have connection to explicitly Christian traditions; the celebration of name days has been a tradition in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox countries since the Middle Ages, has continued in some measure in countries, such as the Scandinavian countries, whose Protestant established church retains certain Catholic traditions. The name days originate in the list of holidays celebrated in commemoration of saints and martyrs of the church.
For example, the name Karl or Carl is celebrated in Sweden on January 28, the anniversary of the death of Charlemagne. The church promoted celebration of name days over birthdays, as the latter was seen as a pagan tradition. Where name days occur an official list is held containing the current assignations of names to days. There are different lists for Finnish, Swedish and other countries that celebrate namedays, though some names are celebrated on the same day in many countries. From the 18th century and onwards the list of name days has been modified in Finland. Name days in Bulgaria are always associated with Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox celebrations; some names can be celebrated on more than one day and some have started following foreign traditions. St. George's day and St. John's day are two of the most popular name days in Bulgaria. Another example of a name day connected with Christianity is Tsvetnitsa. On this day people with names derived from flowers, herbs, etc. celebrate. Name days are connected with some year or season features like Dimitrovden being the beginning of winter and Gergyovden being the end of it according to traditional folklore.
Name days in Bulgaria are important and celebrated. Children celebrate their name days by bringing chocolates to school. By an ancient Bulgarian tradition, everybody is welcome on name days. Presents are given. Common well-wishes include "May you hear your name from grandchildren and great-grandchildren!", "May you hear your name only with good!" and "May your name be healthy and well!". In Croatia, name day is a day corresponding to a date in the Catholic calendar when the respective saint's day is celebrated. Though celebration of the name day is less usual than celebrating birthday, the name day is more congratulated by a broader number of acquaintances; this is due to the fact that the date of birth is known and the person's name is known to many. The names that are celebrated on the certain saint's day are all the names that correspond to the respective name and all the derivative names. For example, if there are different versions of the same name in different languages, i.e. different versions in Slavic, Germanic or other language groups, all the respective names are celebrated.
In the Czech Republic, each day of the year corresponds to a personal name. People celebrate their name day on the date corresponding to their own given name. Name days are of less importance than birthdays to Czech people. However, name day celebrations can be, are, held together with friends or co-workers of the same name and in this way it can grow in size and importance. In the past, by law, parents were not allowed to choose just any name for a child; this has changed, although it is still common to choose the name from the name day "calendar" and any unusual name has to be approved by a special office. The original list was the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, but changes have been made to reflect the present-day usage of names. Name days corresponding to some of the most frequent names in the Czech Republic gained more importance than the others. For example, the dates associated with names Josef and Karel are known by people with different names. However, the popularity of these names has decreased in the last years.
Danes have their own calendar for name days, see da.wikipedia, Danske navnedage. However, the custom of celebrating one's name day is unknown in Denmark, few Danes know when their name day is. Finnish Name Days Finns celebrate their name days according to their given name on the date given by the calendar published by the University of Helsinki Almanac Office; every day except New Year's Day, 29 February is a name day. For each day there are names in both Swedish. Women are
Kalju Tonuma is an Australian music producer and performer of Estonian descent. He is one half of the production team MEJU which he founded with Megan Bernard in 2014, he began his career in 1989 at Platinum Studios in Australia. He has been nominated for a number of Australian Recording Industry Association Music Awards; these include'Engineer of the Year' for This Is The Sharp by The Sharp, ‘Engineer of the Year’ for Kid Indestructible by 28 Days. In 2007 he completed a Master of Music Degree at Queensland University of Technology. 1995 - The Sharp - GOLD - This Is The Sharp 1997 - The Mavis’s - GOLD - Cry/Pink Pills 2000 - 28 Days - DOUBLE PLATINUM - Upstyle Down GOLD - Rip It Up 2005 - Bodyjar - GOLD - How It Works 2009 - The Temper Trap - PLATINUM SILVER - Conditions 2009 - The Living End - DOUBLE PLATINUM - White Noise 2010 - Superheist - GOLD - The Prize Recruit 1994 - Nominated for Engineer Of The Year 1999 - Nominated for Engineer Of The Year 2001 - Nominated for Engineer Of The Year 2001 - Nominated for Producer Of The Year
Kalju Orro is an Estonian stage and television actor, acting instructor, theatre producer, pedagogue. Kalju Orro was born in Tartu, where he attended secondary schools, he is a 1970 graduate of Tartu 17 Vocational School. Afterward, he enrolled in the Vanemuine Drama Studios in Tartu, graduating in 1971. In 1972, he enrolled in the Performing Arts Department of Tallinn State Conservatory under instruction of actor and theatre pedagogue Voldemar Panso, graduating in 1976. Among his graduating classmates were Merle Karusoo, Ago-Endrik Kerge, Urmas Kibuspuu, Aare Laanemets, Anne Paluver, Külliki Tool, Priit Pedajas, Eero Spriit, Peeter Volkonski. From 1976 until 1978, he was engaged at the Viktor Kingissepp Tallinn State Academic Drama Theatre in Tallinn, before departing to the Estonian SSR State Youth Theatre, where he has been engaged as an actor and producer since 1978. Among his more memorable international roles during his long career at the Tallinn City Theatre include those in works by such authors and playwrights as: Lyudmila Petrushevskaya, Dale Wasserman, Celestino Gorostiza, Aleksis Kivi, David Pownall, Luchino Visconti, Anton Chekhov, Dario Fo, Terry Johnson and Weill, William Shakespeare, Mark Twain, Alexandre Dumas, Thomas Mann, David Storey, Evelyn Waugh, Luigi Pirandello, Peter Barnes, David Hair, Tom Stoppard, Marina Carr, William Boyd, Nikolai Gogol, Dorota Masłowska, Maxim Gorky.
Notable roles in works by Estonian authors and playwrights include those of: A. H. Tammesaare, Hugo Raudsepp, Jaanus Rohumaa, Jaan Tätte, Madis Kõiv, Paavo Piik. Orro has worked as a theatrical producer on a number of stage productions during his career with the Tallinn City Theatre, beginning with a 1981 production of Ödön von Horváth's 1938 novel Youth Without God. Kalju Orro's first prominent feature-film role was as Markar in the 1977 Peeter Simm, Toomas Tahvel, Peeter Urbla-directed romantic drama Karikakramäng for Tallinnfilm. Other notable film roles include that of Volt in the 1992 Lembit Ulfsak-directed comedy family film Lammas all paremas nurgas, author August Kitzberg in the Rainer Sarnet-directed 2005 thriller Libahundi needus, as Uugu in the Elmo Nüganen-directed 2006 comedy Meeletu, based on the play of the same name by Jaan Tätte. In 2017, he made a cameo appearance as a hospital patient in the Andres Puustusmaa-directed comedy Rohelised kassid. Orro's first prominent role on Estonian television was as Kilian in the 1976 Elvi Koppel-directed family film Kuidas kuningas kuu peale kippus.
Other notable television roles were as Karl in the 1984 Ago-Endrik Kerge-directed and Enn Vetemaa-penned Eesti Televisioon comedy television film Püha Susanna ehk meistrite kool, Constable Tults in the 1995 ETV historical drama miniseries Wikmani poisid, Hardi Tiidus in the Jaak Kilmi-directed 2005 ETV comedy-fantasy television film Kohtumine tundmatuga, as Hendrik Soopalu in the Kanal 2 crime series Kelgukoerad in 2012. In 2016, he joined the cast of the Kanal 2 comedy-drama series Naabriplika as the character Insener. In 2017 he joined the cast of the ETV ten-part drama series Pank, which follows the rise and subsequent misfortunes of a new bank that which emerges in Estonia in the 1990s. Kalju Orro has worked extensively as a voice actor and radio performer. In 1999, he was awarded the Estonian Radio Actor's Prize. From 1976 until 1994, Kalju Orro worked as an lecturer and drama instructor at the Performing Arts Department of the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre. From 1995 until 1999, he was a lecturer and instructor at Tallinn Pedagogical University, returning as a lecturer to the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre in 1998.
In addition to acting, Orro has written and contributed to a number of published books on the history of Estonian theatre, including the two-volume Lavakooliraamat. Vana album, a collection of photographs taken by Orro of people and events associated with Estonian theatre, was published in 2002. Kalju Orro was married to theatre scholar and critic Reet Neimar who died in 2008, their son Oliver Orro, an architect and professor, was born in 1982. Estonian Radio Actor Prize Order of the White Star, IV Class Karl Ader Award Kalju Orro on IMDb
Kilju is a folksy name for a Finnish home-made alcoholic beverage, in English known as sugar wine. It is made from sugar and water, its alcohol content is 15–17% ABV. Kilju is considered to be a low-quality beverage, consumed for the sake of its alcohol content; the Finnish Alcoholic Beverages Act 1 March 2018 legalized the manufacture of kilju and wine from fruits and other carbohydrate sources. Distilling it into moonshine is still illegal, however. Due to its low cost and simple production process, kilju is drunk by low-income people. Alternatively it can be made as a carbonated soft drink when served before the fermentation process is complete. Kilju made this way is high in sugar and CO2 content, has little to no alcohol, being similar to a sweet lemon soda, it is a family tradition to many. The simple production process makes it accessible to underage drinkers. Kilju can be produced by fermenting sugar and water, but kilju made from sugar and water was illegal in Finland before March 2018. Oranges and lemons are a popular choice for this purpose.
The process is similar to that of homebrewing wine. Properly made kilju is a clear, colorless liquid with no discernible taste other than that of ethanol, it can be refined into pontikka by means of distillation. It resembles rum, as both are distilled from fermented cane sugar products, although rum is made from molasses, a byproduct of the sugar refining process, instead of refined, crystallized table sugar. Kilju is produced improperly by home brewers who allow contaminants to disrupt fermentation or do not adequately filter or rack the liquid, or do not use a fining agent; the latter mistakes result in yeast being suspended, causing the mixture to be cloudy rather than clear. The yeast can provide an unpleasant taste; when homebrewing grew in popularity during the economic depression that followed the Finnish banking crisis of the early 1990s, yeast strains known as "turbo yeast" were introduced to the market. These yeast strains enable a rapid fermentation to full strength, in some cases in as little as three days.
Such a short production time does not allow the yeast to become lees. The introduction of turbo yeast reinforced the public's view of kilju as an easy method of procuring cheap alcohol. Kilju is mixed with juice or some other beverage to mask bad tastes caused by impurities. Compared to wines, kilju most resembles Beaujolais nouveau, drunk after only a few weeks of fermentation. However, properly made kilju will not turn into vinegar, it is possible to drink kilju years. Fruit wine Pruno Mead Tharra Moonshine
Nõmme Kalju FC
Nõmme Kalju FC known as Nõmme Kalju, or as Kalju, is a professional football club, based in Nõmme, Estonia, that competes in the Meistriliiga, the top flight of Estonian football. The club's home ground is Hiiu Stadium. Founded in 1923 and re-established in 1997, the club has played in the Meistriliiga since the 2008 season and have never been relegated from the Estonian top division. Nõmme Kalju have won one Estonian Cup and one Estonian Supercup. Nõmme Kalju football club was founded in 1923 as a division of the Kalju Sports Club by two professional wrestlers, Aleksander Šneider and Mart Liiv; the club's home ground was Hiiu Stadium in Nõmme and the club remained active until World War II. The club was re-established in 1997 by the former Estonia national team manager Uno Piir, Anton Siht and Värner Lootsmann. Nõmme Kalju joined the Estonian football league system and began competing in the Northern division of the III liiga; the club finished their first season in second place, while Joel Lindpere was the top goalscorer with 13 goals.
Nõmme Kalju played in the III liiga for eight consecutive seasons. In 2002, Kuno Tehva acquired the club with a goal of establishing a professional football club. Nõmme Kalju were promoted to the third tier II liiga in 2004 and to the second tier Esiliiga in 2005. Nõmme Kalju finished their first season in the Esiliiga in fifth place. In 2007, Fredo Getúlio was appointed as manager. Nõmme Kalju faced Kuressaare in the promotion play-offs; the club lost their first match home 0–1 but won the second leg away 2–1 and advanced to the Meistriliiga on away goals. In preparation for their Meistriliiga debut, Nõmme Kalju rebuilt the team by signing 16 new players. Nõmme Kalju finished their first season in the Meistriliiga in fourth place, only a point away from the third place, while Ingemar Teever won the top goalscorer's title with 23 goals. In 2009, the club made its debut in Europe by playing in the 2009–10 UEFA Europa League, where they were defeated by Dinaburg 1–2 on aggregate in the first qualifying round.
Nõmme Kalju finished the 2009 season in fifth place. In 2010, Igor Prins took over as Nõmme Kalju finished the 2010 season in fourth place; the club strengthened their first-team squad during the 2010–11 winter transfer window by signing Estonian internationals Alo Bärengrub, Tarmo Neemelo, Eino Puri and Kristen Viikmäe. Nõmme Kalju finished the 2011 season as runners-up, seven points behind champions Flora, while Tarmo Neemelo scored 22 goals. In the 2012 season, Nõmme Kalju won their first league title. By winning the Meistriliiga, Nõmme Kalju qualified to the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League qualifying phase. Nõmme Kalju defeated HJK in the second qualifying round 2–1 on aggregate, but subsequently lost to Viktoria Plzeň 2–10 on aggregate in the third qualifying round; the team failed to defend their Meistriliiga title in the 2013 season, finishing as runners-up, despite Vladimir Voskoboinikov winning the goalscoring title with 23 goals. Nõmme Kalju finished the 2014 season with a disappointing fourth place, following which Igor Prins was sacked and replaced by former player Sergei Terehhov.
Under Terehhov, the team had a successful start, winning first nine league games and winning their first Estonian Cup trophy, defeating Paide Linnameeskond 2–0 in the finals. In September 2015, Terehhov resigned after poor results in the Meistriliiga, with Fredo Getúlio taking over as caretaker manager. Nõmme Kalju finished the 2015 season in third place. In November 2015, it was confirmed. Under Frantsev, the team finished third in 2016 and 2017, before winning the Meistriliiga for the second time in 2018 without losing a single match; the original club crest was most created in 1922, when the Kalju Sports Club was founded, although the author of crest remains unknown. The crest was remade by artist Martin Lazarev, who preserved all the historical elements, but gave the crest a finished shape and form. Nõmme Kalju's uniforms have traditionally been white. In the 2000s, Nõmme Kalju adopted the colour of pink, leading to the nickname Pink Panthers. Hiiu Stadium has been the historic home ground of Nõmme Kalju since 1923.
It is a multi-purpose stadium owned by the Nõmme district and are operated by Nõmme Sports Centre. The stadium was renovated and re-opened in 2002, having an artificial turf; the stadium is located in Nõmme, Tallinn. From 2012 to 2014, Nõmme Kalju played at the larger Kadriorg Stadium. Located in Kadriorg, the stadium was built from 1922 to 1926 and is one of the oldest football stadiums in Estonia. With a capacity of over 5,000, Kadriorg could seat 10 times as many spectators as the Hiiu Stadium; as of 3 March 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For season transfers, see transfers summer 2018 and transfers winter 2018–19. Meistriliiga Winners: 2012, 2018 Estonian Cup Winners: 2014–15Estonian Supercup Winners: 2019 Official website Nõmme Kalju at Estonian Football Association