Lajamanu, Northern Territory
Lajamanu is a small town of the Northern Territory in Australia. It is located around 557 kilometres from Katherine and 890 kilometres from Darwin. At the 2006 census, Lajamanu had a population of 669; the town is a traditional community, is governed by the Central Land Council as well as the Kuridji law and justice group. The Lajamanu Council was formed in 1980, was the first community government council to be formed in the Northern Territory. On cultural matters, the council defers to the local tribal council, because traditional customs are still practiced and dominate the thinking of the community; the majority of Lajamanu residents have Warlpiri as their main heritage language. Lajamanu School was a Warlpiri-English bilingual school from 1982 until 2008 when the Northern Government introduced a policy banning Warlpiri language instruction for the first four hours of every school day; this has contributed to a significant drop in attendance at Lajamanu School since 2009. It has been reported.
Most official business and education is delivered in English. Lajamanu is located close to the centre of Australia, which has a dry climate. In February 2010, hundreds of live spangled perch rained down upon the town on two successive days. A tornado is believed to have sucked up the fish, which were frozen at high altitudes and thawed as they fell, which might have been hundreds of kilometres from their origin. Lajamanu is difficult to access due to the distance from major cities and towns. Road access is via the Victoria Highway onto the Buntine Highway for a further 323 kilometres and 104 to Lajamanu. Warlpiri people have a long history of creating art on wooden artifacts, the body, the ground and rocks. Walpiri art was used for a feature of art in Lajamanu. Lajamanu artists began using canvas and acrylic paint in 1986 following a traditional paintings course held in the community. Today, the artists in Lajamanu continue to paint using canvas and acrylic paint at the community's Warnayaka Art Gallery.
The Gallery is a Warlpiri corporation and is governed by an Walpiri board. Artists Peggy Rockman Napaljarri, Lily Nungarrayi Yirringali Jurrah Hargraves, Rosie Murnku Marnku Napurrurla Tasman and Molly Napurrurla Tasman have all painted at the gallery. Lajamanu artists have been finalists in the Telstra National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Awards in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. In 2010, Warlpiri elders in Lajamanu including Bill Bunter, Sharon Anderson and Martin Johnson participated in an ABC TV documentary Bush Law about the relationship between traditional Warlpiri law and the mainstream Australian justice system. Steve Jampijinpa Patrick is an educator and has been involved in the Milpirri festival and collaborations with Tracks Dance company. In 2008, Patrick co-authored Ngurra-kurlu: a way of working with Warlpiri people. Wanta worked as an Australian Research Council funded research fellow at the Australian National University from 2012 to 2014. In 2013, Wanta Jampijinpa directed the television documentary Milpirri: Winds of Change.
The film was a co production between Pintubi Anmatjerra Warlpiri Media and Communications and People Pictures Pty. Ltd. Milpirri: Winds of Change chronicles Wanta and the Lajamanu elders vision for making Warlpiri culture relevant to the contemporary world; the film premiered on "NITV" in November 2013. Contemporary Indigenous Australian artists from the Lajamanu region include Sheila Brown Napaljarri and Peggy Rockman Napaljarri. Raining fish Community Website Warnayaka Art Gallery
Victoria Daly Region
The Victoria Daly Regional Council is a local government area in the Northern Territory of Australia. The shire covers an area of 153,287 square kilometres and had a population of 2,800 at the 2016 Census. In October 2006 the Northern Territory Government announced the reform of local government areas; the intention of the reform was to improve and expand the delivery of services to towns and communities across the Northern Territory by establishing eleven new shires. The Victoria Daly Shire was created on 1 July 2008; the first election for the Shire was held on 25 October 2008. A general election was held on 24 March 2012. Councillor Betty Sullivan was elected Mayor of Victoria Daly Shire Council; the Shire became the Victoria Daly Region on 1 January 2014. Most of the land now part of the Region used to be unincorporated, but several existing LGAs were merged into it: Daguragu Community Nauiyu Nambiyu Community Timber Creek Community Walangeri Ngumpinku Community Pine Creek Community Woolianna CommunityOn 1 July 2014, the boundaries on its west side were revised to create a new local government area called the West Daly Region which consisted of the following three wards from the Victoria Daly Region - Nganmarriyanga, Thamarrurr/Pindi Pindi and Tyemirri.
The Victoria Daly Regional Council is divided into 5 wards, governed by 6 councillors: Pine Creek Milngin Timber Creek Walangeri Daguragu Daguragu Daly River Kalkarindji Nauiyu Nambiyu Pine Creek Timber Creek Woolianna Yarralin Victoria Daly Region website Map of LGAs Policy details
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Vincent Lingiari AM, was an Aboriginal rights activist and was a member of the Gurindji people. In his earlier life he worked as a stockman at Wave Hill Station, he played the didgeridoo. Lingiari was elected and became the leader of the Gurindji communities in August 1966. On 7 June 1976, Lingiari was named a Member of the Order of Australia for his services to the Aboriginal people; the story of Vincent Lingiari was celebrated in the song "From Little Things Big Things Grow". Wave Hill Cattle Station is located 600 km south of Darwin in the Northern Territory. From the late nineteenth century it was run by Vesteys. Vesteys employed the Gurindji, to work on Wave Hill, but working conditions were poor and wages were low when compared to those of non Indigenous employees. In 1966, Lingiari, a member of the Gurindji had worked at Wave Hill, returned from a period of hospitalisation in Darwin, led a walk-off of indigenous employees of Wave Hill as a protest against the work and conditions. While there had been complaints from Indigenous employees about conditions on Wave Hill over many years, including an inquiry during the 1930s, critical of Vestey's employment practices, the walk-off had a focus, aimed at a wider target than Vestey's.
Before 1968 it was illegal to pay an indigenous worker more than a specified amount in goods and money. In many cases, the government benefits for which Indigenous employees were eligible were paid into pastoral companies’ accounts, rather than to the individuals; the protesters established the Wattie Creek Camp and demanded the return of some of their traditional lands. Speaking on this Lingiari said, "We want to live on our land, our way". So began the eight-year fight by the Gurindji people to obtain title to their land; the Wave Hill strike would reshape the agenda of relationships between Indigenous Australians and the wider community. Although an employee-rights action, it soon became a major federal issue when the Gurindji people demanded the return of their traditional lands; the strike lasted eight years. Over that time, support for Aboriginal rights grew; the protest led to the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976. This act gave indigenous Australians freehold title to traditional lands in the Northern Territory and the power to negotiate over mining and development on those lands, including what type of compensation they would like.
An important and symbolic event in Australian history occurred when, during an emotional ceremony in 1975, Prime Minister Gough Whitlam poured the local sand into Vincent Lingiari's hands, symbolically handing the Wave Hill station back to the Gurindji people. A photograph of the moment captured by Mervyn Bishop was purchased by the National Portrait Gallery and is displayed in Old Parliament House. On 7 June 1976, Lingiari was named a Member of the Order of Australia for his services to the Aboriginal people. Vincent Lingiari died on 21 January 1988; every year until he attended the Gurindji’s annual re-enactment of the walk-off. Vincent Lingiari was a holder of the cultural authority of the Gurindji people, his fight for his people’s rights – to the custodianship and ownership of their land and the capacity to practise their law and language – made him a national figure. He confronted the vast political forces that were arrayed against him and his people. In doing so, he won a victory, one of the most outstanding achievements in the history of the struggle for the recognition of Indigenous people, their rights and responsibilities in the land, their ability to practice their law and culture.
One of Australia's largest electorates is named after Lingiari. The Division of Lingiari encompasses nearly all of the Northern Territory as well as Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands, it includes traditional Gurindji lands. The story of Vincent Lingiari was celebrated in the song "From Little Things Big Things Grow" written by Paul Kelly and Indigenous musician Kev Carmody and recorded by Kelly in 1991. Native title Gurindji people "National Archives of Australia"
Victoria River (Northern Territory)
The Victoria River is a river in the Victoria Bonaparte bioregion of the Northern Territory, Australia. Flowing for 560 kilometres from its source, south of the Judbarra / Gregory National Park, until it enters Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in the Timor Sea, the Victoria River is the longest singularly named permanent river in the Northern Territory. Part of the area adjoining the river mouth has been identified as the Legune Important Bird Area because of its importance for waterbirds. However, the longest permanent river in the Northern Territory, as defined by international standards, is the Katherine/Daly River; this is a single river with two separating European names. This great river was, until deemed as two separate rivers due to the European naming conventions of the time, its journey begins just south of Jabiru, high in the Arnhem Land escarpment as a trickle until it flows into the Timor Sea some 690 kilometres thus making it 130 kilometres longer than the Victoria River. The river has 56 tributaries including the Camfield River, Wickham River, Battle Creek, Angalarri River, Gidyea Creek and Armstrong River.
The river flows through several waterholes such as Catfish waterhole and Four Mile Waterhole. It has a mean annual outflow of 5,000 gigalitres,Important wetlands are found in the lower reaches of the river with forming suitable habitat for waterfowl breeding colonies and roosting sites for migratory shorebirds. Large areas of rice-grass floodplain grasslands are found along the river. Several large cattle stations are found along the length of the river including Riveren where the river originates, Victoria River Downs, Wave Hill and Coolibah Station. On 12 September 1819, Philip Parker King became the first European to discover the mouth of the Victoria and, twenty years in 1839, Captain J. C. Wickham arrived at the same spot in HMS Beagle and named the river after Queen Victoria. Crew members of the Beagle followed the river upstream into the interior for more than 200 kilometres. In August 1855 Augustus Gregory sailed from Moreton Bay and at the end of September reached the estuary of the Victoria River.
He carried out extensive exploration. In 1847 Edmund Kennedy went on an expedition to trace the route of the "River Victoria" of Thomas Mitchell with a view to finding whether there was a practical route to the Gulf of Carpentaria; this "River Victoria" was renamed the Barcoo River. List of rivers of the Northern Territory
Daly River, Northern Territory
Daly River is the name of a river and a town in the Northern Territory of Australia. At the 2006 census, Daly River had a population of 468; the town is part of the Victoria Daly Region local government area. Settlement on the river is centred on the Aboriginal community of Nauiyu the site of a Catholic mission, as well as the town of Daly River itself, at the river crossing a few kilometres to the south; the area is popular for recreational fishing, being regarded as one of the best places to catch Barramundi in Australia. The Daly River is part of the Daly Catchment that flows from northern Northern Territory to central Northern Territory; the traditional owners of the area are the Mulluk-Mulluk people who live both in Nauiyu and at Wooliana downstream from the community. European discovery of Daly River was in 1865 by Boyle Travers Finniss, the first Premier of South Australia and Government Resident in the Northern Territory. Finniss named the river after Sir Dominick Daly, the Governor of South Australia, since the Northern Territory was at that time part of South Australia.
The region lay untouched by Europeans until 1882. Daly River town was the scene of some bloody exchanges between the local Aborigines and the miners. In 1884 three miners were killed; the miners in the town wreaked vengeance on the local Aborigines out of proportion to the perceived crime. A year probably aware of the tensions in the area, the Society of Jesus order of the Roman Catholic Church established a mission in the town, introducing Christianity and farming techniques to the local Aboriginal population; the original mission endured until 1899, when following a significant flood the missionaries were withdrawn. In 1954, contact between traditional Malak Malak elders and the bishop of Darwin led to the mission being reestablished. In 1955, the church purchased 4,000 acres of land and the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart helped to establish a school and a clinic for the community; the mission was renamed Nauiyu and with the exception of the church, convent and associated residences transferred to community ownership.
Due to the influence of the mission in the town, 75% percent of the population identify as Roman Catholics. Through the twentieth century there were a number of attempts to settle the town without real success. In 1911 the Commonwealth Government tried to convince people to move to the town. By the 1920s there were plans for crops of peanuts and tobacco. Cashews and sugar cane were planted unsuccessfully. In 1967 the Tipperary Land Corporation cleared large tracts of land around the settlement and started growing sorghum but the operation was closed down in 1973. Like other rivers of the top end, the Daly is prone to seasonal flooding and this has had a significant impact on the small community throughout its history. Major flood events devastated the town in 1957, causing widespread property damage. On 28 January 1998, a major natural disaster saw every building in the town inundated and the entire population airlifted to Batchelor during the emergency evacuation; the floodwaters, fed by heavy rainfall in the wake of Tropical Cyclone Les continued to rise until 3 February, reaching a peak of 16.8 m, the highest level recorded to date.
Daly River is considered a remote community, is accessed via the Daly River Road, sealed as far as the river crossing in 2007, providing all weather access to Darwin. A sealed airstrip at Nauiyu provides for charter and medical evacuation flights, however there are no scheduled air services to the airport, or aircraft based in the town. Other public facilities at Daly River include a public library, swimming pool and health clinic. There is St Francis Xavier located in Nauiyu; the Victoria Daly Regional Council maintains a regional office in the community, contributing more than 40 jobs to the local economy. Public Administration is by far the largest employment industry, accounting for over half of the workforce; the town and surrounding district are served by a modern police station, built in 1994. Two members of the Northern Territory Police are based here; the area serviced by the station is 33,000 km2, the responsibilities of the Daly River members include Emergency Management and boat access to the communities when the roads are cut by seasonal flooding.
Today the town is little more than a pub with a few motel units, a police station, a free caravan park. It is located on the banks of the river a couple of kilometres from the Daly River Crossing, now by sealed road from the main tourist route, the Stuart Highway; the settlement is a centre for visitors to explore the Daly River Nature Park and fishermen after barramundi. The park is home to saltwater crocodiles, spiders, wild pigs, feral Water Buffalo, giant bamboos and Kapok trees; the Daly River is famed for its large barramundi and is one of the more popular waterways for recreational fishing. It hosts two major fishing competitions annually, the "Barra Classic" and the "Barra Nationals"; the best barramundi fishing is just after the wet season when the flooded river is falling fast and clear water is pouring in off the floodplains. The floodwater carries baitfish; the Daly River is home to more freshwater turtle species than anywhere else in Australia. On the road 5 kilometres east of Daly River is a turnoff to Woolianna, a camping and caravan park on the banks of the river, one of several such parks.
Just before entering the town there is a turnoff to the Nauiyu Aboriginal Community, home to the Roman Catholic Mission and Merrepen Arts Centre where Aboriginal artifacts are sold
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of