Eketorp is an Iron Age fort in southeastern Öland, extensively reconstructed and enlarged in the Middle Ages. Throughout the ages the fortification has served a variety of somewhat differing uses: from defensive ringfort, to medieval safe haven and thence a cavalry garrison. In the 20th century it was further reconstructed to become a visited tourist site and a location for re-enactment of medieval battles. Eketorp is the only one of the 19 known prehistoric fortifications on Öland, excavated, yielding a total of over 24,000 individual artifacts; the entirety of southern Öland has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The Eketorp fortification is referred to as Eketorp Castle; the indigenous peoples of the Iron Age constructed the original fortification about 400 AD, a period known to have engendered contact between Öland natives with Romans and other Europeans. The ringfort in that era is thought to have been a gathering place for religious ceremonies and a place of refuge for the local agricultural community when an outside enemy appeared.
The circular design was believed to be chosen because the terrain is so level that attack from any side was likely. The original diameter of this circular stone fortification was about 57 metres. In the next century the stone was moved outward to construct a new circular structure of about 80 metres in diameter. At this juncture there were known to be about fifty individual cells or small structures within the fort as a whole; some of these cells were in the center of the fortified ring, some were built into the wall itself. In the late 600s AD the ringfort was mysteriously abandoned, it remained unused until the early 11th century; this 11th century work built upon the earlier fort, except that stone interior cells were replaced with timber structures, a second outer defensive wall was erected. Presently the fort is used as a tourist site for visitors to Öland to experience a medieval fortification for this region. A museum within the castle walls displays a few of the large number of artefacts retrieved by the National Heritage Board during the major decade long excavation ending in 1974.
Inside the fort visitors are greeted by actors in medieval costumes who assume the roles of period artisans and merchants who might have lived there nine centuries earlier. There are re-enactment scenes of skirmishes and other dramatic events of daily life from the Middle Ages. Eketorp lies a few kilometers west of route 136. There is an ample unpaved parking area situated two kilometers west of the paved Öland perimeter highway. There is a gift shop on site. During peak summer visitation, there are guided tours available. Visitors are assessed an admission charge; the Eketorp website has announced "Kalmar County Museum has decided not to carry out the summer operations in 2019 at Eketorp's castle and otherwise dismantle the operation of Eketorps castle" due to financial and other reasons. Alby People Alvar Dry-stone wall Ringfort Stora Alvaret Eketorp
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 99% of human technological prehistory. It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene c. 11,650 cal BP. The Paleolithic is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals; the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use including leather and vegetable fibers. About 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record; the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa.
Archaeologists classify artifacts of the last 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, drilling and piercing tools. Humankind evolved from early members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis, who used simple stone tools—into anatomically modern humans as well as behaviorally modern humans by the Upper Paleolithic. During the end of the Paleolithic the Middle or Upper Paleolithic, humans began to produce the earliest works of art and began to engage in religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual; the climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. By c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia.
By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe. By c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia and expanded throughout the Americas; the term "Palaeolithic" was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek: παλαιός, palaios, "old"; the Paleolithic coincides exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, which lasted from 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago. This epoch experienced important climatic changes that affected human societies. During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, bringing a nearly complete end to South America's distinctive marsupial fauna; the formation of the isthmus had major consequences on global temperatures, because warm equatorial ocean currents were cut off, the cold Arctic and Antarctic waters lowered temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean.
Most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africa's collision with Asia created the Mediterranean, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean. During the Pleistocene, the modern continents were at their present positions. Climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, seasonal, similar to modern climates. Ice sheets grew on Antarctica; the formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean beds. Mid-latitude glaciation began before the end of the epoch; the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas. The Pleistocene climate was characterized by repeated glacial cycles during which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places.
Four major glacial events have been identified, as well as many minor intervening events. A major event is a general glacial excursion, termed a "glacial". Glacials are separated by "interglacials". During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor retreats; the minor excursion is a "stadial". Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500–3,000 m deep, resulting in temporary sea level drops of 100 m or more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions; the effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the preceding Pliocene; the Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Tasmania; the now decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Ruwenzori Range in east and central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one.
Karlskrona is a locality and the seat of Karlskrona Municipality, Blekinge County, Sweden with 35,212 inhabitants in 2010. It is the capital of Blekinge County. Karlskrona is known as Sweden's only baroque city and is host to Sweden's only remaining naval base and the headquarters of the Swedish Coast Guard; the city of Karlskrona is spread over 30 islands in the eastern part of Blekinge archipelago, Trossö being the main one. Other populated mentionable islands are Saltö, Sturkö, Hästö, Långö and Aspö; the islet of Stumholmen was property of the Navy and today it houses the National Naval Museum. Outside the city lies the archipelago of Karlskrona, the most southern of the Swedish archipelagos. Several islands are connected to the city by ferries; the city was founded on 10 August 1680 when the Royal Swedish Navy was relocated from the Stockholm area to the Trossö island which had up until been used chiefly for farming and grazing. At the time Sweden was the dominant military power in the Baltic sea region, but needed a better strategic location against Denmark, since southern parts of Sweden had been conquered only a few decades before.
The Swedish fleet tended to get stuck in the ice during winter while located close to Stockholm and was therefore moved south. The island had a strategic position with short sailing distances to the German and Baltic provinces; the city name means Karl's Crown in honour of King Karl XI of Sweden, the name being inspired by the name of the city Landskrona. The city grew and by 1750 Karlskrona had about 10,000 inhabitants, it was one of the biggest cities in the country. Most of the baroque buildings from this era are still standing, why the city centre is architecturally uniform; the shipyard in Karlskrona was established at the same time as the city. It was a necessity because of the heavy losses the Swedish navy had suffered in 1659. In 1711, the shipyard was Sweden's largest industrial employer with 1,100 workers; the oldest dock, the Polhem dock, is still in use. It got its name from Christopher Polhem. There is a historical rope making factory, now open for guided tour; the city has kept its street structure since its foundation.
Since the streets all follow a grid pattern the winds can blow from the sea right into the heart of the city. Parts of the city have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In October 1981 the Whiskey-class Soviet submarine S-363 ran aground in the archipelago near Sturkö just outside Karlskrona; the media characterized it as the "Whiskey on the Rocks" affair. The incident caused a temporary rise in tensions between the Soviet Union. While the submarine's grounding was inadvertent, the result of inebriation among the crew, the submarine certainly was engaged in an unspecified covert mission at the time; the most important day in Karlskrona is the day before midsummer's eve. On that day a big fair attracts tens of thousands to visit Karlskrona; the fair is called Lövmarknaden and is popular among the locals. The main square of Karlskrona is the biggest in Scandinavia; every year in late July/early August a popular festival called The Sail takes place in the harbor of Karlskrona. It is a place where families go to have something to eat and drink, watch the sailing boats lined up at the pier.
During the sail, the seascouts of Karlskrona will row a boat carrying torches along the docks while playing the national anthems for the visiting ships. The Sail has been replaced with a festival called Skärgårdsfest; the old architecture together with the naval installations comprise the major tourist attractions of Karlskrona. The city is one of the highlights of south-east Sweden. Karlskrona has preserved its buildings and its layout intact since its foundation; when the city was founded in 1680, it was thought of as a military city, with many defenses and fortifications exploiting the particular topography of the city. Some fortifications were located on the main island such as the Bastion Aurora, built at the beginning of the 18th century, but much of it was located on the nearby islands or more distant, such as the islands closing the bay, with in particular the important fortress of Kungsholmen and its circular port, but the civil part of the city was carefully planned. It has a rectangular grid plan, with however some diagonal streets, created because of the relief of the city center.
Nicodème Tessin l'Ancien was responsible for the design of the buildings, he gave the city a uniform baroque style. The central building of the city is the Fredrikskyrkan church, built in the 1690s, On the main square, the highest point of the island. Several other churches are located in the city, such as the Church of the Holy Trinity, built for the Germans of the city in 1709, ou encore Amiralitetskyrkan, consacrée en 1685 In front of the Amiralitetskyrkan church is the statue of Rosenbom, made famous by the children's book of Selma Lagerlöf, The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, in which the statue tells the story of the c. Near the church is the Admiralstorn Tower, dating from 1699 used to indicate the time for the shipyard workers but used since 1909 as the church tower Finally, the city has some more recent buildings, such as the model room, having hosted between 1780 and 1920 models of boats, Now transferred to the Marine Museum, or the town hall built after the
Kalmar Municipality is a municipality in Kalmar County, southeastern Sweden. The city of Kalmar is the municipal seat; the present municipality was created in 1971, when the City of Kalmar was amalgamated with five surrounding rural municipalities. The municipality consists of fifteen original local government units. There are 15 urban areas in Kalmar Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. Kalmar is twinned with: Gdańsk, Poland Kaliningrad, Russia Wilmington, United States Savonlinna, Finland Samsun, Turkey Panevėžys, Lithuania Statistics Sweden Kalmar Municipality - Official site University of Kalmar
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Borgholm Municipality is a municipality in Kalmar County, south-eastern Sweden, constituting the northern half of the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. The municipal seat is located in the city of Borgholm. Notable historic sites in this municipality are Halltorps Estate; the local government reform in the 1970s saw the creation of two municipalities on the island of Öland. Borgholm Municipality is the northern of the consists of sixteen original entities; the southern half of the island is made up of Mörbylånga Municipality. There are 5 urban areas in Borgholm Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. Borgholm has four sister cities: Rockford, Illinois, U. S. Łeba, Poland Zelenogradsk, Russia Korsnäs, Finland These are the results of the elections to the Riksdag held in Borgholm since the first election after the municipal reform, held in 1973. The results only include parties that have won representation in the Riksdag assembly at least once during this timeframe.
The results of the Sweden Democrats were not listed at a municipal level by the SCB between 1988 and 1998 due to the party's small size at the time. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election. New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. "Elected" is the total number of percentage points from the municipality that went to parties who were elected to the Riksdag. Statistics Sweden Borgholm Municipality - Official site
Nybro Municipality is a municipality in Kalmar County, south-eastern Sweden, with its seat in the town Nybro. The amalgamation of the City of Nybro with its surrounding municipalities took place in 1969; the municipality was inhabited by a few hundred people until the railways came in the late 19th century, the town Nybro was in its location between Kalmar on the east coast and Gothenburg on the west coast. Until Nybro consisted of minor industries, including a match factory, marked by its traditionally Småland forest nature unsuitable for agriculture. Nybro Municipality is in the eastern part of the "Kingdom of Crystal" area, that covers a total of four municipalities. There are nine urban areas in Nybro Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. Statistics Sweden The Bäckebo Bomb Official site Article Nybro from Nordisk Familjebok