Amitabh Bachchan is an Indian film actor, film producer, television host, occasional playback singer and former politician. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s for films such as Zanjeer and Sholay, was dubbed India's "angry young man" for his on-screen roles in Bollywood. Referred to as the Shahenshah of Bollywood, Sadi ka Mahanayak, Star of the Millennium, or Big B, he has since appeared in over 190 Indian films in a career spanning five decades. Bachchan is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors in the history of Indian cinema as well as world cinema. So total was his dominance on the Indian movie scene in the 1970s and 1980s that the French director François Truffaut called him a "one-man industry". Beyond the Indian subcontinent, he has a large overseas following in markets including Africa, the Middle East, United Kingdom and parts of the United States. Bachchan has won numerous accolades in his career, including four National Film Awards as Best Actor and many awards at international film festivals and award ceremonies.
He has won fifteen Filmfare Awards and is the most nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 41 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter, he has hosted several seasons of the game show Kaun Banega Crorepati, India's version of the game show franchise, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?. He entered politics for a time in the 1980s; the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 1984, the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2015 for his contributions to the arts. The Government of France honoured him with its highest civilian honour, Knight of the Legion of Honour, in 2007 for his exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond. Bachchan made an appearance in a Hollywood film, Baz Luhrmann's The Great Gatsby, in which he played a non-Indian Jewish character, Meyer Wolfsheim. Bachchan was born in Allahabad, his ancestors on his father's side came from a village called Babupatti, in the Raniganj tehsil, in the Pratapgarh district, in the present-day state of Uttar Pradesh, in India.
His mother, Teji Bachchan,was a social activist and Punjabi Sikh woman from Lahore. His father Harivansh Rai Bachchan was a Hindi-speaking Kayastha Hindu poet, fluent in the related Hindustani dialects of Awadhi and Urdu. Bachchan was named Inquilaab, inspired by the phrase Inquilab Zindabad popularly used during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the boy's name to Amitabh, according to a Times of India article, means "the light that will never die". Although his surname was Shrivastava, Amitabh's father had adopted the pen name Bachchan, under which he published all of his works, it is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films and for all other practical purposes, Bachchan has become the surname for all of his immediate family. Bachchan's father died in 2003, his mother in 2007. Bachchan is an alumnus of Nainital, he attended Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi. He has Ajitabh, his mother had a keen interest in theatre and was offered a feature film role, but she preferred her domestic duties.
Teji had some influence in Amitabh Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should "take the centre stage". He is married to actress Jaya Bhaduri. Bachchan made his film debut in 1969, as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award-winning film Bhuvan Shome, his first acting role was as one of the seven protagonists in the film Saat Hindustani, directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Anwar Ali and Jalal Agha. Anand followed, his role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garnered Bachchan his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor award. He played his first antagonist role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwana. Following Parwana were several films including Reshma Aur Shera. During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri, he narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972 he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa directed by S. Ramanathan, moderately successful. Many of Bachchan's films during this early period did not do well, but, about to change.
Bachchan was struggling, seen as a "failed newcomer" who, by the age of 30, had twelve flops and only two hits. Bachchan was soon discovered by screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar. Salim Khan wrote the story and script of Zanjeer, conceived the "angry young man" persona of the lead role. Javed Akhtar came on board as co-writer, Prakash Mehra, who saw the script as groundbreaking, as the film's director. However, they were struggling to find an actor for the lead "angry young man" role. Salim-Javed soon discovered Bachchan and "saw his talent, he was exceptional, a genius actor, in films that weren’t good." According to Salim Khan, they "strongly felt that Amitabh was the ideal casting for Zanjeer". Salim Khan introduced Bachchan to Prakash Mehra, Salim-Javed insi
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
Ilaiyaraaja is an Indian film composer, songwriter, orchestrator, conductor-arranger and lyricist who works in the Indian Film Industry, predominantly in Tamil. Regarded as one of the greatest Indian music composers, he is credited for introducing western musical sensibilities in the Indian musical mainstream. Reputed to be the world's most prolific composer, he has composed over 7000 songs, provided film scores for more than 1000 movies and performed in more than 20,000 concerts. Being the first Asian to compose a full symphony with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London, Ilaiyaraaja is known to have written the entire symphony in just 13 days which has never been done before in the world, he is a gold medalist in classical guitar from Trinity College of Music, Distance Learning Channel. According to Achille Forler, board member of the Indian Performing Right Society, the kind of stellar body of work that Ilaiyaraaja has created in the last 40 years should have placed him among the world's Top 10 richest composers, somewhere between Andrew Lloyd Webber and Mick Jagger.
Ilaiyaraaja is known for integrating Indian folk music and traditional Indian instrumentation with western classical music techniques. His scores are performed by the Budapest Symphony Orchestra, he is a recipient of five Indian National Film Awards – three for Best Music Direction and two for Best Background Score. In 2010, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian honour in India and the Padma Vibhushan in 2018, the second-highest civilian award by the government of India. In 2012, he received the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, the highest Indian recognition given to practising artists, for his creative and experimental works in the music field. In 2003, according to an international poll conducted by BBC, more than half-a million people from 165 countries voted his composition Rakkamma Kaiya Thattu from the 1991 film Thalapathi as the fourth in the world's top 10 most popular songs of all time. US-based world cinema portal "Taste of Cinema" placed Ilaiyaraaja at the 9th position in its list of 25 greatest film composers in the history of cinema, thus becoming the only Indian composer to feature in that list.
In a poll conducted by CNN-IBN celebrating 100 years of Indian cinema in 2013, Ilaiyaraaja was voted as the all-time greatest film-music director of India with a maximum of 49%. Winner of numerous accolades, one of his compositions was part of the playlist for the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympics, directed by acclaimed Oscar-winning filmmaker Danny Boyle of Slumdog Millionaire fame. Ilaiyaraaja was born as Gnanathesikan in 1943 in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India; when he joined school his father changed his name to "Rajaiya", but his village people used to call him "Raasayya". Ilaiyaraaja joined Dhanraj Master as a student to learn musical instruments and the master renamed and called him just "Raaja". In his first movie Annakili, Tamil film producer Panchu Arunachalam added "Ilaiya" as a prefix in his name Raaja, he named him as "Ilaiyaraaja", because in the 1970s there was one more music director A. M. Rajah, a popular one. Ilaiyaraaja was married to Jeeva and the couple has three children—Karthik Raja, Yuvan Shankar Raja and Bhavatharini—all film composers and singers.
His wife Jeeva died on 31 October 2011. Ilaiyaraaja has a brother. Ilaiyaraaja grew up in a rural area, exposed to a range of Tamil folk music. At the age of 14, he joined a travelling musical troupe headed by his elder brother Pavalar Varadarajan, spent the next decade performing throughout South India. While working with the troupe, he penned his first composition, a musical adaptation of an elegy written by the Tamil poet laureate Kannadasan for Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. In 1968, Ilaiyaraaja began a music course with Professor Dhanraj in Madras, which included an overview of Western classical music, compositional training in techniques such as counterpoint, study in instrumental performance. Ilaiyaraaja is a gold medalist in classical guitar after completing the course through distance learning channel from Trinity College of Music, London. In the 1970s in Chennai, Ilaiyaraaja played guitar in a band-for-hire, worked as a session guitarist and organist for film music composers and directors such as Salil Chowdhury from West Bengal.
After being hired as the musical assistant to Legendary Kannada film composer G. K. Venkatesh, he worked on 200 film projects in Kannada cinema; as G. K. Venkatesh's assistant, Ilaiyaraaja would orchestrate the melodic outlines developed by Venkatesh; this is the time Ilaiyaraaja learned most of it about composing under the guidance of G. K. Venkatesh. During this period, Ilaiyaraaja began writing his own scores. To listen to his compositions, he used to persuade Venkatesh's session musicians to play excerpts from his scores during their leisure times. Today Ilaiyaraaja remembers the golden days with his master G. K. Venkatesh. In 1975, film producer Panchu Arunachalam commissioned him to compose the songs and film score for a Tamil-language film called Annakkili. For the soundtrack, Ilaiyaraaja applied the techniques of modern popular film music orchestration to Tamil folk poetry and folk song melodies, which created a fusion of Western and Tamil idioms. Ilaiyaraaja's use of Tamil music in his film scores injected new influence into the Indian film score milieu.
By the mid-1980s Ilaiyaraaja was gaining increasing stature as a film composer and music director in the South Indian film industry. He has worked with Indian poe
Gangubai Hangal was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, known for her deep and powerful voice. Hangal belonged to the Kirana gharana. Gangubai Hangal was born in Dharwad to Chikkurao Nadiger, an agriculturist and Ambabai, a vocalist of Carnatic music. Hangal received only elementary education and her family shifted to Hubli in 1928 so that Gangubai could study Hindustani music, she began to train formally aged 13 with Krishnacharya Hulgur, a kinnari player, studying Hindustani classical music. From Hulgur, Gangubai learned sixty compositions in one year before he stopped teaching her after an argument about his fees, she learned from Dattopant Desai before studying under Sawai Gandharva, a respected guru. Hangal could only study sporadically under Gandharva when he returned to his home, but she received an intensive training of three years after he relocated permanently to Hubli. Hangal's mother's family was considered to be of low social status and for women of her generation singing was not considered appropriate employment.
She performed all over India and for All India Radio stations until 1945. Hangal had performed light classical genres, including bhajan and thumri, but concentrated on khyal. However, she refused to sing light classical, saying she sang only ragas. Hangal served as honorary music professor of the Karnataka University, she gave her last concert in March 2006 to mark her 75th career year. She had overcome bone marrow cancer in 2003, died of cardiac arrest at the age of 96, on 21 July 2009, in Hubli, where she resided, she had her eyes donated to increase awareness for organ donation. Hangal married at age 16 to a Brahmin lawyer, they had two sons, Narayan Rao and Babu Rao, one daughter, who died from cancer in 2004, aged 75. Gangubai Hangal received a number of awards, which include: Karnataka Sangeet Nritya Academy Award, 1962 Padma Bhushan, 1971 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, 1973 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, 1996 Padma Vibhushan, 2002The Karnataka state government declared two days of mourning for Hangal.
A state funeral was announced for 22 July in Hubli by the district commissioner of the Dharwad district. In 2008, The State Government of Karnataka decided to name the proposed Karnataka State Music University, Mysore after Gangubhai Hangal. Subsequently, the Karnataka State Dr. Gangubai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University Act, 2009 has been passed by the State Legislature. Presently the Karnataka State Dr. Gangubhai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University operates from Mysore, Karnataka. Gangothri — the birthplace of Gangubai Hangal — has been converted into a museum by the Government of Karnataka. Dr Gangubai Hangal Gurukul in Hubli trains artists in traditional Guru-Shishya parampara to become performing artists. Nanna Badukina Haadu, as told to Mr. N. K. Kulkarni, translated into English by G. N. Hangal, published by Hubli. Bhimsen Joshi Kundgol Hubli Dharwad Karnataka Gangubai Hangal at AllMusic Gangubai Hangal page at Vijaya Parrikar Library of Indian Classical Music Gangubai Hangal Detailed Biography Gangubai Hangal feted on her 94th birthday Gangubai Hangal auf culturebase.net
Teejan Bai is an exponent of Pandavani, a traditional performing art form, from Chhattisgarh, in which she enacts tales from the Mahabharata, with musical accompaniments. She has been awarded the Padma Shri in 1987, Padma Bhushan in 2003, Padma Vibhushan in 2019 by Government of India, besides 1995 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1995, given by Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama. Teejan Bai was born in Ganiyari village, 14 kilometres north of Bhilai, to Chunuk Lal Pardhi and his wife Sukhwati, she belongs to the Pardhi Scheduled Tribe of Chhattisgarh state The eldest among her five siblings she heard her maternal grandfather, Brijlal Pradhi, recite the Mahabharata written by Chhattisgarhi writer, Sabal Sinh Chauhan in Chhattisgarhi Hindi and took a liking to it. She soon memorised much of it, trained informally under Umed Singh Deshmukh. At age 13, she gave her first public performance in a neighbouring village, Chandrakhuri for Rs 10. Singing in the Kapalik shaili of'Pandavani', a first time for a woman, as traditionally women used to sing in the Vedamati, the sitting style.
Contrary to the tradition, Teejan Bai performed standing singing out loud in her typical guttral voice and unmistakable verve, entering what was till a male bastion. Within a short time, she became known in neighbouring villages and invitations poured to perform at special occasions and festivals, her big-break came, when Habib Tanvir, a theatre personality from Madhya Pradesh, noticed her talent, she was called to perform for Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi. In time she received national and international recognition, a Padma Shri in 1988, Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1995, Padma Bhushan in 2003. Beginning in the 1980s, she travelled all over the world as a cultural ambassador, to countries as far as England, Switzerland, Turkey, Malta, Cyprus and Mauritius, she performed sequences from the Mahabharata in Shyam Benegal's acclaimed Doordarshan TV series Bharat Ek Khoj based on Jawaharlal Nehru's book. Today she continues to enthrall audiences, the world over with her unique folk singing and her powerful voice.
Though she was married at 12, she was expelled by the community, the'Pardhi' tribe, for singing Pandavani, being a woman. She built herself a small hut and started living on her own, borrowing utensils and food from neighbours, yet never left her singing, which paid off for her, she never went to her first husband's home and split. In the following years, she was married twice and became a grandmother. Pandavani means stories of Pandavas, the legendary brothers in Mahabharat, involves enacting and singing with instrumental accompaniment an ektara or a tambura in one hand and sometimes a kartal in another; as the performance progresses, the tambura becomes her only prop, sometimes to personify a gada, mace of Bhima, or Arjuna's bow or chariot, while at other times it becomes the hair of queen Draupadi, allowing her to play various character with effective ease and candour. Her acclaimed performances are of, Draupadi cheerharan, Dushasana Vadh and Mahabharat Yudh, between Bhishma and Arjun. 1988 Padma Shri 1995 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award 2003 Hon. D. Litt, Bilaspur University 2003 Padma Bhushan 2016 M S Subbalaxmi centenary award 2018 Fukuoka prize 2019 Padma Vibhushan Music of Chhattisgarh Facebook page Teejan Bai, a profile on her narration of the Mahabharata Portrait of Teejan Bai at Kamat.com Bharat Ek Khoj Episode 5 at YouTube.com
Ustad Qamruddin "Bismillah" Khan referred to by the title Ustad, was an Indian musician credited with popularizing the shehnai, a subcontinental wind instrument of the oboe class. While the shehnai had long held importance as a folk instrument played schooled intraditional ceremonies, Khan is credited with elevating its status and bringing it to the concert stage, he was awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 2001, becoming the third classical musician after M. S. Subbulakshmi and Ravi Shankar to be accorded this distinction. On his 102nd birthday, Google honored Bismillah Khan with a Google doodle. Khan was born on 21 March 1916 into a family of traditional Muslim musicians in Bhirung Raut Ki Gali, Dumraon, in what is now the eastern Indian state of Bihar, as the second son of Paigambar Baksh Khan and Mitthan, his father was a court musician employed in the court of Maharaja Keshav Prasad Singh of Dumraon Estate in Bihar. His grandfather Ustad Salar Hussain Khan and grandfather Rasool Baksh Khan were musicians in the Dumraon palace.
He was named Qamruddin at birth. Upon seeing the new born, his grandfather Rasool Baksh Khan a shehnai player, is said to have exclaimed "Bismillah", or "In the name of Allah", thereafter he came to be known by this name. At the age of six he moved to Varanasi in the state of Uttar Pradesh, to be apprenticed to his maternal uncle, Ali Baksh'Vilayatu' Khan, a shehnai player attached to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. In 1932, at the age of 16, he entered into an arranged marriage with a cousin. Khan was a pious Muslim, was a symbol of communal harmony. Khan was single-handedly responsible for making the shehnai a famous classical instrument, he brought the Shehnai to the center stage of Indian music with his concert in the Calcutta, known as Kolkata in All India Music Conference in the year 1937. He was credited with having the monopoly over the instrument as he and the shehnai are synonyms. Khan is one of the finest musicians in Indian classical music, he played the shehnai to audiences across the world.
He was known to be so devoted to his art form that he referred to shehnai as his begum after his wife died. On his death, as an honour, his shehnai was buried with him, he was known for his vision of spreading love through music. Khan had the rare honour of performing at Delhi's Red Fort on the eve of India's Independence in 1947, he performed raga Kafi from the Red Fort on the eve of India's first Republic Day ceremony, on 26 January 1950. His recital had become a cultural part of India's Independence Day celebrations, telecast on Doordarshan every year on 15 August. After the prime minister's speech from Lal Qila in Old Delhi, Doordarshan would broadcast a live performance by the shehnai maestro; this tradition dated from the days of Jawaharlal Nehru. Khan had a brief association with movies, he played the shehnai for super star Rajkumar's role of Appanna in the Kannada movie Sanaadi Appanna which became a blockbuster. He provided sound of shehnai in Goonj Uthi Shehnai. Noted director Goutam Ghose directed a documentary about the life of Khan.
In the 1967 film The Graduate, there is a poster advertising "Bismillah Khan and the seven musicians" on a street of Berkeley, California. He as a five year old, played gilli danda near a pond in the ancient estate of Dumraon in Bihar, he would go to the nearby Biharji temple to sing the Bhojpuri'Chaita', at the end of which he would earn a big laddu weighing 1.25kg, a prize given by the local Maharaja. Khan attributed his skill to the blessings of Lord Vishwanath, believed that there was little that he could teach his disciples. Khan accepted students, he thought that if he would be able to share his knowledge it wouldn't be useful as it would only give his students a little knowledge. Some of his followers include S. Ballesh, as well as Khan's own sons, Nazim Hussain and Nayyar Hussain. On 17 August 2006, Bismillah Khan's health deteriorated and he was admitted to the Heritage Hospital, Varanasi for treatment. Ustad's last wish – to perform at India Gate, could not be fulfilled, he wanted to pay tributes to the martyrs.
He waited in vain till his last rites He died after four days on 21 August 2006 because of a cardiac arrest. He is survived by five daughters, three sons and a large number of grandchildren and great-grandchildren, his adopted daughter Soma Ghosh; the Government of India declared a day of national mourning on his death. His body along with a Shehnai was buried at Fatemaan burial ground of old Varanasi under a neem tree with a 21-gun salute from the Indian Army. Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi, instituted the Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar in 2007, in his honour, it is given to young artists in the field of music and dance. Bismillah Khan was commemorated on his 102nd birth anniversary by Search Engine Google which showed a special doodle on its Indian home page for him on 21 March 2018; the Government of Bihar has proposed setting up of a museum, a town hall-cum-library and installation of a life-size statue at his birthplace in Dumraon. In the film, Eric Clapton: Life in 12 Bars, Clapton cites Bismillah Khan as an influence and how he tried to use his guitar to imitate the music of Khan's woodwind instrument.
Bharat Ratna. Fellow of Sangeet Natak Akademi. Tahar Mausique from Republic of Iran. Padma Vibhushan Padma Bhushan Padma Shri Sangeet Natak Akademi Award Tansen Award by Govt. of Madhya Pradesh. Three medals in All India Music Conference, Calcutta
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region