Kadalundi River is one of the four most important rivers flowing through Malappuram district in the Indian state of Kerala. The other three are the Bharathappuzha and the Tirur River; this rain-fed river is one of the most important rivers in the district. It is formed by the confluence of the Veliyar River; the Kadalundi originates from the Western Ghats at the western border of the Silent Valley and flows through the district of Malappuram. It has two main tributaries namely Veliyar; the Kadalundi River has a length of 120 km. The Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary spreads over a cluster of islands where the Kadalundipuzha River flows into the Arabian Sea. There are over a hundred varieties of native birds and around 60 varieties of migratory birds that come here in large numbers annually. Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary "About the Rivers of Kerala". All Kerala River Protection Council. Retrieved 10 September 2009
Cheruthoni is a town on the Cheruthoni River, a major tributary of the Periyar River, the second longest river in Kerala state, South India. The area is known by Cheruthoni Dam, a part of Idukki reservoir, which provide hydroelectric power to the region; the town is adjacent to the Cheruthoni dam. These dams, along with the Kulamavu Dam, form the Idukki Reservoir. Cheruthoni is part of Vazhathope Panchayat, in the Idukki District. Other villages adjacent to Cheruthoni include Vazhathope, Karimban, Maniyarankudi, Peppara and Painavu. Following a famine in the 1940s, the government allowed farmers to migrate to unoccupied arable lands in the mountains, where they cleared the land for agriculture; the region was identified as an ideal spot for a hydroelectric project. The Hindustan Construction Company was contracted to build the dams on behalf of the Kerala State Electricity Board. At this point, Cheruthoni began to grow. During the 1960s, a majority of the people living in Cheruthoni were not Keralites, but Sikhs from Punjab and manual laborers from neighbouring Tamil Nadu
Karamana is a river flowing through the city of Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, India. The river starts near the southern tip of the Western Ghats at Agastyar Koodam; the river merges with the Arabian Sea at Panathura near Kovalam. The river gets its name from Karamana, a suburb of Thiruvananthapuram city, Aryanad through which it flows; the catchment area is forested, command area is under mixed dry land crops such as coconut, pepper, rice, etc. The Karamana rises in the vicinity of the Agasthiarkoodam about 1600 m above the sea level; the peaks of origin of the river are today known as Chemmunji Motta and Aathiramala and its upper tributary rivers are the Kaaviyaar, Attayaar and Thodayaar. The river flows for 66 kilometers in a south - south west direction before flowing into the Arabian Sea; the largest tributary of the Karamana is the Killiyar. It has five anicuts on it. Part of the water is diverted into the Kochar channel which in turn feeds the Padmatheertham pond outside the Padmanabhaswamy Temple.
There are several temples located along the Killiyar's banks, the most famous of, the Attukal Temple. The Killiyar drains its basin is rich in avian fauna; the river merges with the Arabian Sea through the Pozhikkara estuary. In its final lap, the river runs parallel to the sea and the river here is known as the Edayar; the Karamana river has two important dams on it. These are the Aruvikkara Dam, built in the 1930s and the Peppara Dam which lies further upstream and was built in 1983; the Aruvikkara Dam was completed with the aim of providing piped drinking water to the city. The Trivandrum Water Works, inaugurated by and named after Lord Willingdon in 1933, is in charge of receiving and distributing the Karamana's waters to the city today. A JICA funded project is under way to augment the water distribution network in the city; the Peppara Dam regulates the flow of water into the Aruvikkara Dam by unifying all the upper tributaries of the Karamana river. The Peppara Dam has played a crucial role in eliminating the floods that once used to characterized the Karamana.
There is a 3 MW hydel power station at Peppara. The Karamana river has several bridges across it; the largest is at Karamana itself. This was built by Lt Col. Horsley, the author of the earliest English treatise on history of Travancore, inaugurated in 1853. Other important bridges are at Thrikkunnapuram, Mangattu Kadavu, Kundamon Kadavu, Jagathi bridge, Aryanad bridge,Aruvikkara, Maruthoor kadavu; the Karamana river basin supports a range of plants. These include the wild cane, mangroves, water lilies and coconut trees; the screw pine or pandanus is another common species along the river's banks. The Cerbera odollam, called Othalam in Malayalam, is found along the lower reaches of the river. Fish species found in the Karamana include Karimeen, Kariyida, Cherumeen, Nedumeen, Aaral and Paaval; the Karamana has been facing the problems of pollution and fish kill in recent years. The causes for the deterioration in the river's water quality include the discharge of untreated sewage and domestic and industrial effluents into the river and the unregulated development of tourism in the river basin area.
This has resulted in the lowering of dissolved oxygen levels in the river's water and caused fish kill downstream of the river. Illegal mining of river sand is another significant threat being faced by the river; the beauty of the Karamana and the fact that it wound through forests earned the river the name Vanamala, the garland of the forest, in Sanskrit. It is referred to as the ‘Makaraakara’ river in the Jain ascetic Udyodana Suri's 8th century Prakrit text Kuvalayamaala; the Karamana river closely influenced the development of music in Kerala. Some of the singers and composers who are associated with the river include Irayimman Thampi, Neelakanta Sivan and K S Chitra. Besides, the composer-king Swathi Thirunal was influenced by the river's scenic beauty. Over a dozen of his court musicians hailed from the Karamana village on the banks of the river
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab
Mangalam River is the main tributary of the river Gayathripuzha, which in turn is a tributary of Bharathapuzha, the second longest river in Kerala, India. It is around 30 km long in length, with its source from Nelliyampathi forests, passing through Vadakkencherry, Puthucode, etc. and joining Gayathripuzha at Plazhi in the border of Thrissur and Palakkad districts. Cherukunnapuzha is a tributary of Mangalam River and Mangalam Dam is constructed across this river. A canal system for irrigation purpose was completed and opened in 1966, in Alathur taluk, Palakkad district. Cherukunnapuzha Bharathapuzha - Main river Gayathripuzha - One of the main tributaries of the river Bharathapuzha Ayalurpuzha Vandazhippuzha Meenkarappuzha Chulliyar
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary