Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphasyllabary writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan in the form of Siddhaṃ, they are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India, are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European, Tibeto-Burman, Austroasiatic and Tai. They were the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana. Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is attested from the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in South India and Sri Lanka; the most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BC and published by Coningham et al.. Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari and Sharada.
The Siddhaṃ script was important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan; the syllabic nature and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most through the spread of Buddhism. Southern Brahmi evolved into Old-Kannada and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism during 3rd century BCE and from where Buddhism spread to east Asia; the present Telugu script is derived from Bhattiprolu Script or "Kannada-Telugu script" or Kadamba script known as "Old Telugu script", owing to its similarity to the same. Minor changes were made, now called Tamil Brahmi, which has far fewer letters than some of the other Indic scripts as it has no separate aspirated or voiced consonants; some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are: Each consonant has an inherent vowel, a short'a'.
Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark, known in Sanskrit as a virama/halant, can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel; each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not part of a consonant, a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant. Consonants can be combined in ligatures. Special marks are added to denote the combination of'r' with another consonant. Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is noted by separate signs; the alphabetical order is: vowels, velar consonants, palatal consonants, retroflex consonants, dental consonants, bilabial consonants, approximants and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops, a nasal consonant. Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph.
Accordingly: The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are inventions; the pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919. Notes Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, in their corresponding dependent form combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent. Notes The Brahmi script was divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages; the main division in antiquity was between southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was influential, in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Old-Kannada/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.
Gupta script, 5th century Sharada, 8th century Gurmukhi, 14th century Landa, 10th century Khojki, 16th century Khudabadi, 1550s Mahajani Multani Takri Siddham, 7th century Anga Lipi, 720 Assamese script, 13th century Bengali script Tirhuta/Mithilakshar, 15th century Tibetan script, 7th century Lepcha alphabet Limbu alphabet'Phags-pa, 13th century Nagari, 8th century Devanagari, 13th century Gujarati, 16th century Modi, 17th century Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, 19th century Kaithi, 16th century Nandinagari, 8th century Sylheti Nagari, 16th century Bhaiksuki Nepal script Bhujimol, 6th century Ranjana, 12th century Soyombo, 17th century Prachalit Tocharian script, 7th century Meeitei Mayek Odia, 10th century Tamil-Brahmi Tamil script Vatteluttu Saurashtra alphabet Kolezhuthu Malayanma Pallava script Grantha alphabet Goykanadi Cham alphabet Tigalari alphabet Malayalam script Sinhala script Dhives akuru Thaana Kawi script Balinese script Batak script Baybayin Kulitan alphabet Buhid alphabet Hanunó'o alphabet Javanese script Lontara script Sundanese script Rencong script Rejang script Tagbanwa script Khmer alphabet Thai alphabet Lao alphabet Old Mon script Ahom
Mathura Junction railway station
Mathura Junction railway station is on the Agra-Delhi chord of Delhi-Mumbai and Delhi-Chennai lines. It is located in Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, it serves Vrindavan. Mathura is the birthplace of Lord Krishna, he spent his childhood 11 km away from Mathura. Therefore, both are major pilgrimage centres for Hindus. Mathura Refinery of Indian Oil Corporation, one of the largest oil refineries of India is located at Mathura; the 29 mi long Hath Road-Mathura Cantt line was opened in 1875 by Bombay and Central India Railway. It was transferred to North Eastern Railway in 1952; the Mathura-Kasganj line was converted from 1,000 mm wide metre gauge to 1,676 mm wide broad gauge in 2009. The 7 mi long metre gauge Mathura-Vrindavan branch line was opened by Bombay and Central Indian Railway in 1889. Mathura Junction has 10 Platforms. There is a junction for west bound trains, it has connectivity with all major cities of India. There are seven routes / lines from this railway junction station.
Platform 9 dedicate for Vrindavan Metre-gauge trains. As per the 2018 report released by Quality Council of India, station was declared the least clean station among the 75 major stations; the Faridabad-Mathura-Agra section was electrified in 1982-85. The Mathura-Bharatpur-Gangapur city line was electrified in 1985-86. Mathura Junction railway station has a tourist information centre, telephone booths, computerised reservation centre, waiting room and non-vegetarian refreshment rooms, a book stall. Mathura Junction is amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railway; the junction is important as from here the routes of train coming from Delhi are bifurcated towards Mumbai and South Indian cities of Hyderabad and Chennai. Mathura train collision Trains passing through Mathura Junction Railway Station Trains at Mathura Junction Mathura travel guide from Wikivoyage Vrindavan travel guide from Wikivoyage
Nana Sahib, born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of Maratha empire and fighter, who led the rebellion in Cawnpore during the 1857 uprising. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Sahib believed that he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky; the Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the British garrison in Kanpur to surrender executed the survivors, gaining control of Cawnpore for a few days, he disappeared, after his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Cawnpore. He was led to the Nepal Hills in 1859. Nana was born on 19 May 1824 to Narayan Bhat and Ganga Bai. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Maratha War, the East India Company had exiled Peshwa Baji Rao II to Bithoor near Cawnpore, where he maintained a large establishment paid for in part out of a British pension.
Nana's father, a well-educated Deccani Brahmin, had travelled with his family from the Western Ghats to become a court official of the former Peshwa at Bithoor. Lacking sons, Baji Rao adopted Nana Sahib and his younger brother in 1827; the mother of both children was a sister of one of the Peshwa's wives. Nana Sahib's childhood associates included Tantya Tope, Azimullah Khan and Manikarnika Tambe who became famous as Rani Lakshmibai. Tantya Tope was the son of Pandurang Rao Tope, an important noble at the court of the Peshwa Baji Rao II. After Baji Rao II was exiled to Bithoor, Pandurang Rao and his family shifted there. Tantya Tope was the fencing master to Nana Sahib. Azimullah Khan joined the court of Nana Sahib as Secretary, after the death of Baji Rao II in 1851, he became the dewan in Nana Sahib's court. The Doctrine of lapse was an annexation policy devised by Lord Dalhousie, the British Governor-General of India between 1848 and 1856. According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the direct influence of the British East India Company, as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either "manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir".
The latter supplanted the long-established legal right of an Indian sovereign without an heir to choose a successor. In addition, the British were to decide; the doctrine and its application were regarded by Indians as illegitimate. At that time, the Company had absolute, imperial administrative jurisdiction over many regions spread over the subcontinent; the company took over the princely states of Satara and Sambalpur, Baghat and Jhansi using this doctrine. The British took over Awadh claiming; the Company added about four million pounds sterling to its annual revenue by the use of this doctrine. With the increasing power of the East India Company, discontent simmered amongst sections of Indian society and the indigenous armed Jhansi forces. Under the Peshwa's will Nana Sahib was, through his adoption, heir-presumptive to the Maratha's throne, eligible for his adoptive father's continuing annual pension of £80,000 from the East India Company. However, after the death of Baji Rao II, the Company stopped the pension on the grounds that the Nana was not a natural born heir and that the kingdom no longer existed.
The Nana, while still wealthy, was offended by both the termination of the pension and by the suspension of various titles and grants, retained by Baji Rao in exile. Accordingly, Nana Sahib sent an envoy to England in 1853 to plead his case with the British Government. However, Azimullah Khan was unable to convince the British to resume the pension, he returned to India in 1855. Nana Sahib won the confidence of the Collector of Kanpur, it was planned that Nana Sahib would assemble a force of 1,500 soldiers to support the British, in case the rebellion spread to Cawnpore. On 6 June 1857, at the time of the rebellion by forces of the East India Company at Cawnpore, the British contingent had taken refuge at an entrenchment in the northern part of the town. Amid the prevailing chaos in Cawnpore and his forces entered the British magazine situated in the northern part of the town; the soldiers of the 53rd Native Infantry, who were guarding the magazine, thought that Nana had come to guard the magazine on behalf of the Company.
However, once he entered the magazine, Nana Sahib announced that he was a participant in the rebellion against the Company, intended to be a vassal of Bahadur Shah II. After taking possession of the Company treasury, Nana advanced up the Grand Trunk Road stating that he wanted to restore the Maratha confederacy under the Peshwa tradition, decided to capture Cawnpore. On his way, Nana met the rebel Company soldiers at Kalyanpur; the soldiers were on their way to Delhi, to meet Bahadur Shah II. Nana wanted them to go back to Cawnpore, help him defeat the British; the soldiers were reluctant at first, but decided to join Nana when he promised to double their pay and reward them with gold, if they were to destroy the British entrenchment. On 5 June 1857, Nana Sahib sent a letter to General Wheeler informing him to expect an attack next morning at 10 am. On 6 June, his forces attacked the Company entrench
Kanpur is a large city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The city is famous for its textile industries, it is 11th most populous urban agglomeration in India and largest urban agglomeration in Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur was an important British garrison town until 1947. Kanpur the administrative headquarter of Kanpur district and Kanpur division. Located on the west bank of the Ganges River, it is a principal trade and commercial centre in North India with the first woollen mill of India, the British India Corporation established here in 1876 by Alexander McRobert; the city is regarded as "The Leather City of the World" and is nicknamed as "Manchester of India". According to 2011 Indian census, it is the eleventh most populous urban city while the population of city and its suburb were around 5 million making it the eighth-most populous metropolitan area in India. In 1207, Raja Kanh Deo of the Kanhpuria clan established the village of Kanhpur, which came to be known as Kanpur. In 2018, was considered by the World Health Organization as the city with the world's worst air pollution.
In the 19th century, Cawnpore was an important British garrison with barracks for 7,000 soldiers. During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 900 British men and children were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa, they surrendered on the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board barges and be allowed to go by river to Allahabad. Though controversy surrounds what happened at the Satti Chaura Ghat, who fired the first shot, it is known that, soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at by the rebel sepoys and were either killed or captured; some of the British officers claimed that the rebels had, on purpose, placed the boats as high in the mud as possible, to cause delay. They claimed that Nana Sahib's camp had arranged for the rebels to fire upon and kill all the English. Although the East India Company accused Nana Sahib of betrayal and murder of innocent people, no evidence has been found to prove that Nana Sahib had pre-planned or ordered the massacre.
Some historians believe that the Satti Chaura Ghat massacre was the result of confusion, not of any plan implemented by Nana Sahib and his associates. Lieutenant Mowbray Thomson, one of the four male survivors of the massacre, believed that the rank-and-file sepoys who spoke to him did not know of the killing to come. Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar. After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to kill their hostages; the rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders and butchers from the nearby town were brought in to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on 18 July. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby; the British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those civilians caught in the area, including women and old men. The Cawnpore Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.
"Remember Cawnpore" became a war cry for British for the rest of the rebellion. The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam, includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometres around KNN boundary and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it extends to Murtaza Nagar, in the west its limit is up to Akbarpur, Kanpur Dehat Nagar Panchayat limit, on the eastern side the limit has been expanded on the road leading to Fatehpur and in extended up to; the metropolitan region area includes the area of Shuklaganj Municipal Committee, Unnao Municipal Committee, Akbarpur Village Authority and Bithoor Village Authority area. In 1997-98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of which 4,743.9 hectare was non-defined and rest 29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare was urban and rural area respectively. As per the provisional results of 2011 census, Kanpur city has a population of 2,767,031; the literacy rate was 84.14 per cent and sex ratio was 842.
The Kanpur urban agglomeration had a population of 2,920,067 with a literacy rate of 83.98% and a sex ratio of 842. There are 35 Parsis in Kanpur with their Fire Temple at The Mall. Kanpur is majority Hindu with sizeable minorities of Buddhist and Muslims. Kanpur division which consists of seven districts, is headed by the divisional commissioner of Kanpur, an Indian Administrative Service officer of high seniority, the commissioner is the head of local government institutions in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, is responsible for maintaining law and order in the division; the district magistrate of Kanpur reports to the divisional commissioner. The current commissioner is Pradeep Kumar Mohanty. Kanpur district administration is headed by the district magistrate of Kanpur, an IAS officer; the DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.
The DM is assisted by a chief development officer. The district has three tehsils viz. Sadar and Ghatampur, each headed by a sub-divisio
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012