Battle of Kōan
The Battle of Kōan known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty to invade Japan after their failed attempt seven years earlier at the Battle of Bun'ei. In the summer of 1281 the Yuan invaded with two large armies; the Japanese defenders were aided by a major storm which sunk a sizeable portion of the Mongolian fleets. The invaders who reached the shore were repulsed shortly after landing; the Japanese called the opportune storm kamikaze, a name used in the Second World War for pilots who carried out aerial suicide attacks. After the failed first invasion by the Yuan navy, the Japanese made many defense preparations, constructing numerous fortifications along the coast. Armies of samurai trained in swordsmanship were kept in a state of readiness to repel a further attack. In early 1280 Kublai Khan planned another invasion of Japan and ordered his shipbuilders to rebuild the whole fleet within a year. In the short time available many of the ships were poorly made.
By June 1281, 900 Yuan ships were gathered in Korea. They were crewed by 17,000 sailors, transported 10,000 Korean soldiers and 15,000 Mongols and Chinese; the Southern Route Army, was assembled just south of the Yangtze River, in China. It is said to have consisted of 100,000 men on 3,500 ships; as before and Tsushima islands fell to the much larger Yuan forces. The Eastern Route Army arrived at Hakata Bay on June 21, decided to proceed with the invasion without waiting for the larger Southern force which had still not left China, they were a short distance to the north and east of where their force had landed in 1274, were in fact beyond the walls and defenses constructed by the Japanese. The samurai responded assaulting the invaders with waves of defenders, denying them the beachhead. At night small boats carried small bands of samurai into the Yuan fleet in the bay. Under cover of darkness they boarded enemy ships, killed as many as they could, withdrew before dawn; this harassing tactic led the Yuan forces to retreat to Tsushima, where they would wait for the Southern Route Army.
However, over the course of the next several weeks, 3,000 men were killed in close quarters combat in the hot weather. Yuan forces never gained a beachhead; the first of the Southern force ships arrived on July 16, by August 12 the two fleets were ready to attack Japan. On August 15 a major tempest struck the Tsushima Straits, lasting two full days and destroying most of the Yuan fleet. Contemporary Japanese accounts indicate; the loss of ships was so great that "a person could walk across from one point of land to another on a mass of wreckage". Kublai Khan began to gather forces to prepare for a third invasion attempt, but was soon distracted by events in Southeast and Central Asia, no third attempt was made. Davis, Paul K. 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514366-3 Winters, Harold A.. Gerald E. Galloway,. Battling the Elements: Weather and Terrain in the Conduct of War. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6648-7. Retrieved 11 August 2011
In Japanese beliefs, Hachiman is the syncretic divinity of archery and war, incorporating elements from both Shinto and Buddhism. Although called the god of war, he is more defined as the tutelary god of warriors, he is the divine protector of Japan, the Japanese people and the Imperial House, the Minamoto clan and most samurai worshipped him. The name means "God of Eight Banners", referring to the eight heavenly banners that signaled the birth of the divine Emperor Ōjin, his symbolic animal and messenger is the dove. Since ancient times Hachiman was worshiped by peasants as the god of agriculture and by fishermen who hoped he would fill their nets with much fish. In Shinto, he became identified by legend as the Emperor Ōjin, son of Empress Jingū, from the 3rd–4th century. After the arrival of Buddhism in Japan, Hachiman became a syncretistic deity, fusing elements of the native kami worship with Buddhism. In the Buddhist pantheon in 8th century AD, he became Hachiman Great Bodhisattva; because as Emperor Ōjin he was an ancestor of the Minamoto clan, Hachiman became the tutelary kami of the Minamoto samurai clan.
Minamoto no Yoshiie, upon coming of age at Iwashimizu Shrine in Kyoto, took the name Hachiman Taro Yoshiie and through his military prowess and virtue as a leader, became regarded and respected as the ideal samurai through the ages. After Minamoto no Yoritomo became shōgun and established the Kamakura shogunate, Hachiman's popularity grew and he became by extension the protector of the warrior class the shōgun had brought to power. For this reason, the shintai of a Hachiman shrine is a stirrup or a bow. Throughout the Japanese medieval period, the worship of Hachiman spread throughout Japan among not only samurai, but the peasantry. So much so was his popularity that presently there are 25000 Shinto shrines in Japan dedicated to Hachiman, the second most numerous after shrines dedicated to Inari. Usa Shrine in Usa, Ōita Prefecture is head shrine of all of these shrines and together with Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū, Hakozaki-gū and Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū, are noted as the most important of all the shrines dedicated to him.
The crest of Hachiman is in the design of a mitsudomoe, a round whirlpool or vortex with three heads swirling right or left. Many samurai clans used this crest as their own, including some that traced their ancestry back to the mortal enemy of the Minamoto, the Taira of the Emperor Kanmu line. Hachiman shrine Minamoto no Yoriyoshi Minamoto no Yorinobu Kamikaze Hachiman – Ancient History Encyclopedia Bender, Ross. "Metamorphosis of a Deity: The Image of Hachiman in Yumi Yawata". Monumenta Nipponica. 33: 165–78. Doi:10.2307/2384124. JSTOR 2384124. Bender, Ross. "The Political Meaning of the Hachiman Cult in Ancient and Early Medieval Japan". Dissertation. Columbia University
Ise Grand Shrine
The Ise Grand Shrine, located in the city of Ise, Mie Prefecture of Japan, is a Shinto shrine dedicated to the sun goddess Amaterasu. Known as Jingū, Ise Jingū is a shrine complex composed of a large number of Shinto shrines centered on two main shrines, Naikū and Gekū; the Inner Shrine, Naikū, is located in the town of Uji-tachi, south of central Ise, is dedicated to the worship of Amaterasu, where she is believed to dwell. The shrine buildings instead joined wood; the Outer Shrine, Gekū, is located about six kilometers from Naikū and dedicated to Toyouke-Ōmikami, the god of agriculture, rice harvest and industry. Besides Naikū and Gekū, there are an additional 123 Shinto shrines in Ise City and the surrounding areas, 91 of them connected to Naikū and 32 to Gekū. Purportedly the home of the Sacred Mirror, the shrine is one of Shinto's holiest and most important sites. Access to both sites is limited, with the common public not allowed beyond sight of the thatched roofs of the central structures, hidden behind four tall wooden fences.
However, tourists are free to roam the forest, including its ornamental walkways after Meiji period. During the Edo period, it is estimated that one out of ten Japanese conducted an Okage Mairi pilgrimage to the shrine. Accordingly, pilgrimage to the shrine flourished in both religious frequency; because the shrine is considered sanctuary, no security checkpoints were conducted, as it was considered sacrilege by the faithful. The two main shrines of Ise are joined by a pilgrimage road that passes through the old entertainment district of Furuichi; the chief priest or priestess of Ise Shrine must come from the Imperial House of Japan and is responsible for watching over the Shrine. The current high priestess of the shrine is Sayako Kuroda. Around the 6th Century CE, the Yamato Court declared their lineage to Amaterasu, which created a connection between the court and Ise Shrine; this declaration of lineage would be a passed belief of the future emperors to come. According to the Nihon Shoki, around 2000 years ago the divine Yamatohime-no-mikoto, daughter of the Emperor Suinin, set out from Mt. Miwa in modern Nara Prefecture in search of a permanent location to worship the goddess Amaterasu, wandering for 20 years through the regions of Ohmi and Mino.
Her search brought her to Ise, in modern Mie Prefecture, where she is said to have established Naikū after hearing the voice of Amaterasu saying " is a secluded and pleasant land. In this land I wish to dwell." Before Yamatohime-no-mikoto's journey, Amaterasu had been worshiped at the imperial residence in Yamato briefly at Kasanui in the eastern Nara basin. When Princess Yamatohime-no-mikoto arrived at the village of Uji-tachi, she set up fifty bells to designate the area as enshrined for the goddess Amaterasu, why the river is called the Isuzu, or "fifty bells". Besides the traditional establishment date of 4 BCE, other dates of the 3rd and 5th centuries have been put forward for the establishment of Naikū and Gekū respectively; the first shrine building at Naikū was erected by Emperor Tenmu, with the first ceremonial rebuilding being carried out by his wife, Empress Jitō, in 692. The shrine was foremost among a group of shrines which became objects of imperial patronage in the early Heian period.
In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered imperial messengers to be sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan. These heihaku were presented to 16 shrines including the Ise Shrine. From the late 7th century until the 14th century, the role of chief priestess of Ise Shrine was carried out by a female member of the Imperial House of Japan known as a saiō. According to the Man'yōshū, the first saiō to serve at the shrine was Princess Ōku, daughter of Emperor Tenmu, during the Asuka period. Mention of Ise Shrine's saiō is made in the Aoi and Yugao chapters of The Tale of Genji as well as in the 69th chapter of The Tales of Ise; the saiō system ended during the turmoil of the Nanboku-chō period. During the Empire of Japan and the establishment of State Shinto, the position of chief priest of the Ise Shrine was fulfilled by the reigning emperor and the Meiji, Taisho and Shōwa Emperors all played the role of chief priest during their reigns. Since the disestablishment of State Shinto during the Occupation of Japan, the offices of chief priest and most sacred priestess have been held by former members of the imperial family or their descendants.
The current chief priest of the shrine is adoptive son of Takatsukasa Kazuko. He succeeded Kitashirakawa Michihisa, a great-grandson of Emperor Meiji, in 2007. Takatsukasa Kazuko was succeeded by Ikeda Atsuko. In 2012, Ikeda was joined by her niece Sayako Kuroda, sole daughter of reigning Emperor Akihito, to serve as a high priestess under her. On 19 June 2017, Sayako replaced her aunt as supreme priestess; the architectural style of the Ise shrine is known as shinmei-zukuri, characterized by extreme simplicity and antiquity: its basic principles date back to the Kofun period. The shrine buildings use a special variant of this style called Yuitsu-shinmei-zukuri, which may not be used in the construction of any other shrine. Yuitsu-shinmei-zukuri style mimics the architectural features of early rice granaries; the old shrines are dismantled and new ones built on an adjacent site to exacting specifications every 20 years at exorbitant expense, so that the buildings will be forever new and forever ancient and original.
The present buildings, dating from 2013, are the 62nd iteration to date and
Kikuchi Yōsai known as Kikuchi Takeyasu and Kawahara Ryōhei, was a Japanese painter most famous for his monochrome portraits of historical figures. The son of a samurai named Kawahara of Edo, he was adopted by a family named Kikuchi; when eighteen, he became a pupil of Takata Enjō. His illustrated history of Japanese heroes, the Zenken Kojitsu, is a remarkable specimen of his power as a draughtsman in monochrome ink. In order to produce this work, his many other portraits of historical figures, he performed extensive historical, archaeological, research. Zenken Kojitsu features over 500 major figures in Japanese history, was printed as a series of ten woodblock printed books, in 1878. Nakane Kōtei pointed out that Yōsai modelled the form of "Zenken Kojitsu" on "Banshōdō Chikusō Gaden", drawn by Jō Kan Syū. Kōtei said that Yōsai was influenced by Hokusai when young, he thought of the calligraphy as much as the picture. Louis, Frederic. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Kikuchi, Yōsai. 前賢故實: 考證. 東陽堂. - facsimile of works
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Miracle of the House of Brandenburg
The Miracle of the House of Brandenburg is the name given by Frederick II of Prussia to the failure of Russia and Austria to follow up their victory over him at the Battle of Kunersdorf on 12 August 1759 during the Seven Years' War. After the Battle of Kunersdorf, Frederick thought, he wrote that it was "a cruel reverse! I shall not survive it. I think. Adieu pour jamais". Prussia had lost 19,000 soldiers and was left with 18,000. On 16 August he wrote that if the Russians crossed the Oder and marched on the Prussian capital, Berlin, "We'll fight them – more in order to die beneath the walls of our own city than through any hope of beating them". Russian Field Marshal Saltykov and his army crossed the Oder that same day, with Austrian Field Marshal Laudon and his army crossing the Oder on the previous day. Field Marshal Daun was marching the rest of the Austrian army north from Saxony. All three forces aimed to march on Berlin. Frederick massed 33,000 men to defend Berlin against enemy forces that he estimated totalled 90,000.
Frederick referred to the events that followed as "the Miracle of the House of Brandenburg". The Austrians and the Russians proved reluctant to follow through their victory by occupying Berlin, in September they began withdrawing their forces; the Austrians and Russians had lost 20,000 men at Kunersdorf and both armies were concerned that their lines of communication were being stretched to the limit by marching so far. The army of Frederick's brother, Prince Henry, was not involved in Kunersdorf, thus still posed a threat to the Austrian and Russian forces. Seeing the results of these events, Frederick regained confidence. By December 1761, after five years of war, the strategic situation for Prussia turned bleak despite several tactical successes; as Frederick wrote on 10 December: The Austrians are masters of Schweidnitz and the mountains, the Russians are behind the length of the Warthe from Kolberg to Posen...my every bale of hay, sack of money or batch of recruits only arriving by courtesy of the enemy or from his negligence.
Austrians controlling the hills in Saxony, the Imperials the same in Thuringia, all our fortresses vulnerable in Silesia, in Pomerania, Kustrin Berlin, at the mercy of the Russians. During the war the Prussians had lost 1,500 officers and over 100,000 men. Most Prussians now supported peace and Frederick was trying unsuccessfully to bring the Ottoman Empire into the war, her ally England was pressuring for a peace. In January 1762, Frederick received the news that the Empress Elizabeth of Russia had died on 5 January: "The Messalina of the North is dead. Morta la Bestia", wrote Frederick on 22 January, her nephew Peter was a strong admirer of Frederick the Great. He therefore reversed Elizabeth's anti-Prussian policy and negotiated peace with Prussia, with an armistice in March and a treaty of peace and friendship signed on 15 May. Near the end of World War II, in April 1945, Berlin was again encircled, this time by Soviet armies; the German Minister of Finance, Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, recorded in his diary how in early April in the Führerbunker, Joseph Goebbels read out loud to Adolf Hitler Thomas Carlyle's biography of Frederick the Great, the chapter being about...how the great king himself no longer saw any way out of his difficulties, no longer had any plan.
"Brave king!" says Carlyle, "wait ye a little while, the days of your good fortune stands behind the clouds, soon will rise upon you." On 12 February the Czarina died. After reading this to Hitler, "tears stood in the Führer's eyes"; however Krosigk misquotes Carlyle. A few days on 12 April 1945, Franklin D. Roosevelt, died. Krosigk wrote. Could this be the long-desired change of fortune?" Krosigk recorded Goebbels as saying that:...for reasons of Historical Necessity and Justice, a change of fortune was inevitable, like the Miracle of the House of Brandenburg in the Seven Years War. One of the staff officers had somewhat sceptically and asked, What Czarina will die this time? That, Goebbels had replied, he could not say, he had driven home, had heard the news of Roosevelt's death. He had telephoned to Buse, said, "The Czarina is dead." Buse had told him. Rumor on the Eastern Front held that soon the Western Allies would join Germany and defend Europe against communism. However, despite Roosevelt's death all the Allies held together.
As the Red Army took Vienna and overran Berlin, Adolf Hitler committed suicide on 30 April, on 8 May, the war in Europe ended with the surrender of all German forces. Fraser, David. Frederick the Great: King of Prussia. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9377-4. Weigley, Russell F.. "The Miracle of the House of Brandenburg". The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21707-5
Fūjin or Futen is the Japanese god of the wind and one of the eldest Shinto gods. He is portrayed as a terrifying wizard-like demon, resembling a red headed green-skinned humanoid wearing a leopard skin, carrying a large bag of winds on his shoulders. In Japanese art, the deity is depicted together with Raijin, the god of lightning and storms. According to Kojiki, Fujin was born from Izanami; the iconography of Fujin seems to have its origin in the cultural exchanges along the Silk Road. Starting with the Hellenistic period when Greece occupied parts of Central Asia and India, the Greek wind god Boreas became the god Wardo in Greco-Buddhist art a wind deity in China, the Japanese Wind God Fujin; the wind god kept its symbol, the windbag, its dishevelled appearance throughout this evolution. Vayu, Hindu god of wind ^ "The Japanese wind god images do not belong to a separate tradition apart from that of their Western counter-parts but share the same origins. One of the characteristics of these Far Eastern wind god images is the wind bag held by this god with both hands, the origin of which can be traced back to the shawl or mantle worn by Boreas/ Oado."
Boardman, John. The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03680-2. Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan. Alexander the Great: East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan. Tokyo: Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan. OCLC 53886263. Bopearachchi, Osmund. De l'Indus Archéologie de l'Asie Centrale. Lattes: Association imago-musée de Lattes. ISBN 2-9516679-2-2. Errington, Elizabeth; the Crossroads of Asia: transformation in image and symbol in the art of ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan. Cambridge: Ancient India and Iran Trust. ISBN 0-9518399-1-8