Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources. Philology is more defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage British, philology is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology studies classical languages. Classical philology principally originated from the Library of Pergamum and the Library of Alexandria around the fourth century BCE, continued by Greeks and Romans throughout the Roman/Byzantine Empire, it was preserved and promoted during the Islamic Golden Age, resumed by European scholars of the Renaissance, where it was soon joined by philologies of other non-Asian and Asian languages. Indo-European studies involves the comparative philology of all Indo-European languages. Philology, with its focus on historical development, is contrasted with linguistics due to Ferdinand de Saussure's insistence on the importance of synchronic analysis.
The contrast continued with the emergence of structuralism and Chomskyan linguistics alongside its emphasis on syntax. The term "philology" is derived from the Greek φιλολογία, from the terms φίλος "love, loved, dear, friend" and λόγος "word, reason", describing a love of learning, of literature, as well as of argument and reasoning, reflecting the range of activities included under the notion of λόγος; the term changed little with the Latin philologia, entered the English language in the 16th century, from the Middle French philologie, in the sense of "love of literature". The adjective φιλόλογος meant "fond of discussion or argument, talkative", in Hellenistic Greek implying an excessive preference of argument over the love of true wisdom, φιλόσοφος; as an allegory of literary erudition, philologia appears in fifth-century postclassical literature, an idea revived in Late Medieval literature. The meaning of "love of learning and literature" was narrowed to "the study of the historical development of languages" in 19th-century usage of the term.
Due to the rapid progress made in understanding sound laws and language change, the "golden age of philology" lasted throughout the 19th century, or "from Giacomo Leopardi and Friedrich Schlegel to Nietzsche". In the Anglo-Saxon world, the term philology to describe work on languages and literatures, which had become synonymous with the practices of German scholars, was abandoned as a consequence of anti-German feeling following World War I. Most continental European countries still maintain the term to designate departments, position titles, journals. J. R. R. Tolkien opposed the nationalist reaction against philological practices, claiming that "the philological instinct" was "universal as is the use of language". In British English usage, in British academia, "philology" remains synonymous with "historical linguistics", while in US English, US academia, the wider meaning of "study of a language's grammar and literary tradition" remains more widespread. Based on the harsh critique of Friedrich Nietzsche, US scholars since the 1980s have viewed philology as responsible for a narrowly scientistic study of language and literature.
The comparative linguistics branch of philology studies the relationship between languages. Similarities between Sanskrit and European languages were first noted in the early 16th century and led to speculation of a common ancestor language from which all these descended, it is now named Proto-Indo-European. Philology's interest in ancient languages led to the study of what were, in the 18th century, "exotic" languages, for the light they could cast on problems in understanding and deciphering the origins of older texts. Philology includes the study of texts and their history, it includes elements of textual criticism, trying to reconstruct an author's original text based on variant copies of manuscripts. This branch of research arose among Ancient scholars in the 4th century BC Greek-speaking world, who desired to establish a standard text of popular authors for the purposes of both sound interpretation and secure transmission. Since that time, the original principles of textual criticism have been improved and applied to other distributed texts such as the Bible.
Scholars have tried to reconstruct the original readings of the Bible from the manuscript variants. This method was applied to Classical Studies and to medieval texts as a way to reconstruct the author's original work; the method produced so-called "critical editions", which provided a reconstructed text accompanied by a "critical apparatus", i.e. footnotes that listed the various manuscript variants available, enabling scholars to gain insight into the entire manuscript tradition and argue about the variants. A related study method known as higher criticism studies the authorship and provenance of text to place such text in historical context; as these philological issues are inseparable from issues of interpretation, there is no clear-cut boundary between philology and hermeneutics. When text has a significant political or religious influence, scholars have difficulty reaching objective conclusions; some scholars avoid all critical methods of textual philology
Keichū was a Buddhist priest and a scholar of Kokugaku in the mid Edo period. Keichū's grandfather was a personal retainer of Katō Kiyomasa but his father was a rōnin from the Amagasaki fief; when he was 13, Keichū left home to become an acolyte of the Shingon sect, studying at Kaijō in Myōhōji, Osaka. He subsequently attained the post of Ajari at Mount Kōya, became chief priest at Mandara-in in Ikutama, Osaka, it was at this time that he became friends with the poet-scholar Shimonokōbe Chōryū. However, he disliked the worldly duties of his work and, after wandering around the Kinki region for a while, made his way back to Mount Kōya. Influenced by the thinking of Kūkai, he read in the Japanese classics under the patronage of Fuseya Shigeta, a patron of the arts in Izumi Province. After serving as chief priest at Myōhōji, Keichū spent his last years at Enju’an in Kōzu in the Province of Settsu, his prolific works set a new standard in the study of the classics, though building on recent revivals of interest in the subject.
When the daimyō of Mito, Tokugawa Mitsukuni, decided to sponsor an edition of the Man'yōshū, he commissioned Shimonokōbe Chōryū, heir to the learning of the great poet and Man'yō expert Kinoshita Chōshōshi, to undertake the project. However his dilatory approach, combined with illness, death, impeded his work and the task fell to Keichū, a close friend; the result was the latter's Man ` yō Daishōki. In particular, applied methods borrowed from Chinese Kaozheng philology with rigid empiricism, he used this hermeneutic to philologically critique Buddhism and instead located Shinto as the indigenous Japanese religion. His Waji Seiranshō challenged the standard orthographical conventions set by Fujiwara no Teika and reconstructed distinctions in the old Japanese lexicon based on the earliest texts. In addition to these Keichū wrote the Kōganshō (厚顔抄 1691 A Brazen-faced Treatise, the Kokin Yozaishō, the Seigodan, the Genchū Shūi, the Hyakunin Isshu Kaikanshō. Susan Burns. 2003. Before the Nation. Duke University Press, pp. 49–52.
Kaozheng Kokugaku Japanese poetry Kada no Azumamaro Kamo no Mabuchi Motoori Norinaga Hirata Atsutane
The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji is a classic work of Japanese literature written by the noblewoman and lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century. The original manuscript no longer exists, it was made in "concertina" or "orihon" style: several sheets of paper pasted together and folded alternately in one direction the other, around the peak of the Heian period. The work is a unique depiction of the lifestyles of high courtiers during the Heian period, written in archaic language and a poetic and confusing style that make it unreadable to the average Japanese without dedicated study, it was not until the early 20th century that Genji was translated into modern Japanese, by the poet Akiko Yosano. The first English translation was of poor quality and incomplete; the work recounts the life of Hikaru Genji, or "Shining Genji", the son of an ancient Japanese emperor, known to readers as Emperor Kiritsubo, a low-ranking concubine called Kiritsubo Consort. For political reasons, the emperor removes Genji from the line of succession, demoting him to a commoner by giving him the surname Minamoto, he pursues a career as an imperial officer.
The tale concentrates on Genji's romantic life and describes the customs of the aristocratic society of the time. It is sometimes called the world's first novel, the first modern novel, the first psychological novel or the first novel still to be considered a classic. While regarded as a masterpiece, its precise classification and influence in both the Western and Eastern canons has been a matter of debate; the Tale of Genji may have been written chapter by chapter in installments, as Murasaki delivered the tale to aristocratic women. It has many elements found in a modern novel: a central character and a large number of major and minor characters, well-developed characterization of all the major players, a sequence of events covering the central character's lifetime and beyond; the work does not make use of a plot. One remarkable feature of the Genji, of Murasaki's skill, is its internal consistency, despite a dramatis personæ of some four hundred characters. For instance, all characters age in step and the family and feudal relationships maintain general consistency.
One complication for readers and translators of the Genji is that none of the characters in the original text is given an explicit name. The characters are instead referred to by their function or role, an honorific, or their relation to other characters, which changes as the novel progresses; this lack of names stems from Heian-era court manners that would have made it unacceptably familiar and blunt to mention a person's given name. Modern readers and translators have used various nicknames to keep track of the many characters; the Tale of Genji was written in an archaic court language, unreadable a century after it was written. Thus, the Japanese have been reading annotated and illustrated versions of the work since as early as the 12th century, it was not until the early 20th century that Genji was translated into modern Japanese, by the poet Akiko Yosano. The debate over how much of Genji was written by Murasaki Shikibu has gone on for centuries and is unlikely to be settled unless some major archival discovery is made.
It is accepted that the tale was finished in its present form by 1021, when the author of the Sarashina Nikki wrote a diary entry about her joy at acquiring a complete copy of the tale. She writes that there are over 50 chapters and mentions a character introduced at the end of the work, so if other authors besides Murasaki Shikibu did work on the tale, the work was done near to the time of her writing. Murasaki Shikibu's own diary includes a reference to the tale, indeed the application to herself of the name'Murasaki' in an allusion to the main female character; that entry confirms that some if not all of the diary was available in 1008 when internal evidence suggests convincingly that the entry was written. Lady Murasaki is said to have written the character of Genji based on the Minister on the Left at the time she was at court. Other translators, such as Tyler, believe the character Murasaki no Ue, whom Genji marries, is based on Murasaki Shikibu herself. Yosano Akiko, the first author to make a modern Japanese translation of Genji, believed that Murasaki Shikibu had only written chapters 1 to 33, that chapters 35 to 54 were written by her daughter Daini no Sanmi.
Other scholars have doubted the authorship of chapters 42 to 54. According to Royall Tyler's introduction to his English translation of the work, recent computer analysis has turned up "statistically significant" discrepancies of style between chapters 45–54 and the rest, among the early chapters; the work recounts the life of Hikaru Genji, or "Shining Genji", the son of an ancient Japanese emperor, known to readers as Emperor Kiritsubo, a low-ranking, but beloved concubine called Kiritsubo Consort. For political reasons, the emperor removes Genji from the line of succession, demoting him to a commoner by giving him the surname Minamoto, he pursues a career as an imperial officer; the tale concentrates on Genji's romantic life and describes the customs of the aristocratic society of the time. Genji's mother dies when he is three years old, the Emperor cannot forget her; the Emperor Kiritsubo hears of a woman a princess of the preceding emperor, who resembles his deceased concubine, she becomes one of his wives.
Genji loves her first as a stepmother, but as a woman, th
Chūō is a special ward that forms part of the heart of Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself in English as Chūō City, it was formed in 1947 as a merger of Kyobashi and Nihonbashi wards following Tokyo City's transformation into Tokyo Metropolis. Chūō-ku, as a combination of Kyobashi and Nihonbashi, is the core of Shitamachi, the original downtown center of Edo-Tokyo. Meaning "Central Ward", it is the main commercial center of Tokyo, although Shinjuku has risen to challenge it since the end of World War II; the most famous district in Chūō is Ginza, built on the site of a former silver mint from which it takes its name. The gold mint, or Kinza occupied the site of the present-day Bank of Japan headquarters building in Chūō; as of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated resident population of 141,454, a population density of 13,850 persons per km2. The total area is 10.21 km2. However, because of the concentration of businesses and retail space, the daytime population swells to an estimated 650,000.
Chūō is in the central area of Tokyo, surrounded by the five special wards of Chiyoda, Taitō, Kōtō. Administratively, Chūō is divided into the three zones of Nihonbashi and Tsukishima. Nihonbashi and Kyobashi are predominantly commercial areas on the east side of Tokyo Station, incorporate the famous districts of Ginza and Tsukiji. Tsukishima is a separate island in Tokyo Bay dominated by condominium towers; until World War II, the area was crisscrossed by small rivers and canals, used by small boats which were the primary vehicles of commerce at the time. After the war, many of these waterways were filled in to make way for new roads and expressways. However, the former waterways are the basis for many of the neighborhood divisions in the ward; the Sumida River forms the eastern boundary of the ward. Chūō is physically the second-smallest ward in Tokyo, with a total area of just 10.15 km2. 1612: Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu, planning to establish Edo as the de facto capital of Japan, begins work on a new commercial district surrounding the eastern end of the Tōkaidō, the main road connecting Tokyo and the Kansai region.
During the Edo period this area is known as Edomachi—the town center of Edo. Much of the area was loose sand piled at the delta of the Sumida River before being filled in by the shogunate. 1657: After a fire consumes much of the city, the area is re-planned with more canals to accommodate more maritime commerce. 1869: A foreigners' settlement is established in Tsukiji. It continues until about 1899. 1872: A fire consumes much of the Ginza area. In its aftermath, the governor of Tokyo re-plans Ginza to be a modern European-style commercial district between Shinbashi to the south and Nihonbashi to the north. 1878: Under a new local organization statute, the wards of Nihonbashi and Kyobashi are established under the government of Tokyo City, covering the area now occupied by Chūō. 1945: Following Japan's defeat in World War II, several buildings are taken over by SCAP to serve as supply centers for the occupation forces. These include the Matsuya department store and the Toshiba Building; the buildings are returned to Japanese civilian control by 1951.
1947: Chūō Ward is founded on March 15 under the new Local Autonomy Law, merging the former Nihonbashi and Kyōbashi wards. Hakozakicho: Location of Tokyo City Air Terminal Hamacho Hisamatsucho Higashi-Nihonbashi Honcho Hongokucho: Location of Bank of Japan. Horidomecho Kabutocho: The securities district. Location of Tokyo Stock Exchange. Kakigaracho Suitengu Shrine: A Shinto shrine at which women pray for conception and safe birth. Kayabacho Kodenmacho Muromachi: Location of Mitsukoshi department stores. Nihonbashi: Traditional commercial center. Home to the Takashimaya department stores, the "zero milestone" from which highway distances to Tokyo are measured. Ningyocho Ohdenmacho Tomizawacho Yokoyamacho Arashio stable: Stable of professional sumo wrestlers Akashicho: Home to St. Luke's Hospital and Nursing School and the adjacent Garden Tower skyscraper. Ginza: Tokyo's most expensive shopping district, housing large stores such as Matsuya, Mitsukoshi and Printemps, as well as the famous Kabuki-za theater.
At night, Ginza is ablaze with neon lights. Exclusive bars abound. Shinbashi Enbujō: A famous theater Hatchobori: During the Edo period, the location of the police barracks Hamarikyu-teien: Location of Hamarikyu Onshi Teien. A spacious public park the property of daimyō' of Kōshū, under the administration of the Imperial Household Agency Irifune Kyobashi Minato Shinkawa Eitai Bridge: A bridge across the Sumida River Shintomi Tsukiji: Location of Chūō City Office. Viewed as one of the best sushi destinations in the world because of its huge wholesale fish market, which supplies restaurants and stores across eastern Japan. Home to the Jōdo Shinshū temple of Tsukiji Hongan-ji. Yaesu: District on the east side of Tokyo Station; the Yaesu side of Tokyo Station is the terminal for the Shinkansen "bullet train" lines. Harumi: the Harumi passenger terminal is here Kachidoki: The location of a bridge of the same name over the Sumida River Tsukishima.
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website