Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are the sister group to the rays. However, the term "shark" has been used for extinct members of the subclass Elasmobranchii outside the Selachimorpha, such as Cladoselache and Xenacanthus, as well as other Chondrichthyes such as the holocephalid eugenedontidans. Under this broader definition, the earliest known sharks date back to more than 420 million years ago. Acanthodians are referred to as "spiny sharks". Since sharks have diversified into over 500 species, they range in size from the small dwarf lanternshark, a deep sea species of only 17 centimetres in length, to the whale shark, the largest fish in the world, which reaches 12 metres in length. Sharks are common to depths of 2,000 metres, they do not live in freshwater although there are a few known exceptions, such as the bull shark and the river shark, which can be found in both seawater and freshwater.
Sharks have a covering of dermal denticles that protects their skin from damage and parasites in addition to improving their fluid dynamics. They have numerous sets of replaceable teeth. Well-known species such as the great white shark, tiger shark, blue shark, mako shark, thresher shark, hammerhead shark are apex predators—organisms at the top of their underwater food chain. Many shark populations are threatened by human activities; until the 16th century, sharks were known to mariners as "sea dogs". This is still evidential in the porbeagle; the etymology of the word "shark" is uncertain, the most etymology states that the original sense of the word was that of "predator, one who preys on others" from the Dutch schurk, meaning "villain, scoundrel", applied to the fish due to its predatory behaviour. A now disproven theory is that it derives from the Yucatec Maya word xok, meaning "fish". Evidence for this etymology came from the Oxford English Dictionary, which notes shark first came into use after Sir John Hawkins' sailors exhibited one in London in 1569 and posted "sharke" to refer to the large sharks of the Caribbean Sea.
However, the Middle English Dictionary records an isolated occurrence of the word shark in a letter written by Thomas Beckington in 1442, which rules out a New World etymology. Evidence for the existence of sharks dates from the Ordovician period, 450–420 million years ago, before land vertebrates existed and before a variety of plants had colonized the continents. Only scales have been recovered from the first sharks and not all paleontologists agree that these are from true sharks, suspecting that these scales are those of thelodont agnathans; the oldest accepted shark scales are from about 420 million years ago, in the Silurian period. The first sharks looked different from modern sharks. At this time the most common shark tooth is the cladodont, a style of thin tooth with three tines like a trident to help catch fish; the majority of modern sharks can be traced back to around 100 million years ago. Most fossils are of teeth in large numbers. Partial skeletons and complete fossilized remains have been discovered.
Estimates suggest that sharks grow tens of thousands of teeth over a lifetime, which explains the abundant fossils. The teeth consist of fossilized calcium phosphate, an apatite; when a shark dies, the decomposing skeleton breaks up. Preservation requires rapid burial in bottom sediments. Among the most ancient and primitive sharks is Cladoselache, from about 370 million years ago, found within Paleozoic strata in Ohio and Tennessee. At that point in Earth's history these rocks made up the soft bottom sediments of a large, shallow ocean, which stretched across much of North America. Cladoselache was only about 1 metre long with stiff triangular fins and slender jaws, its teeth had several pointed cusps. From the small number of teeth found together, it is most that Cladoselache did not replace its teeth as as modern sharks, its caudal fins had a similar shape to the great white sharks and the pelagic shortfin and longfin makos. The presence of whole fish arranged tail-first in their stomachs suggest that they were fast swimmers with great agility.
Most fossil sharks from about 300 to 150 million years ago can be assigned to one of two groups. The Xenacanthida was exclusive to freshwater environments. By the time this group became extinct about 220 million years ago, they had spread worldwide; the other group, the hybodonts, appeared about 320 million years ago and lived in the oceans, but in freshwater. The results of a 2014 study of the gill structure of an unusually well preserved 325-million-year-old fossil suggested that sharks are not "living fossils", but rather have evolved more extensively than thought over the hundreds of millions of years they have been around. Modern sharks began to appear about 100 million years ago. Fossil mackerel shark teeth date to the Early Cretaceous. One of the most evolved families is the hammerhead shark, which emerged in the Eocene; the oldest white shark teeth date from 60 to 66 million years ago, around the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. In early white shark evolution th
Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as animals, the waves, the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Haumea, Papahānaumoku, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more guardian spirits known as ʻaumakua that protected family. One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups: the four gods – Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne the four hundred gods and goddesses the great multitude of gods and goddesses the spirits the guardians Another breakdown consists of three major groups: the four gods, or akua: Kū, Kāne, Kanaloa many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions guardian spirits, ʻaumakua, associated with particular families One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the aliʻi, or Hawaiian royalty, to the gods.
The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or pō, day, or ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the birth of Laʻilaʻi, the woman, Kiʻi, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with the woman before the god Kāne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of mankind from being symbols for the gods into the keeper of these symbols in the form of idols and the like; the Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to honor the god of Lono. The kahuna were well respected, educated individuals that made up a social hierarchy class that served the King and the Courtiers and assisted the Maka'ainana. Selected to serve many practical and governmental purposes, Kahuna were healers, builders, prophets/temple workers, philosophers, they talked with the spirits. Kahuna Kūpaʻiulu of Maui in 1867 described a counter-sorcery ritual to heal someone ill due to hoʻopiʻopiʻo, another’s evil thoughts.
He said. Prayers were said. "If the evil spirit appears and possesses the patient he or she can be saved by the conversation between the practitioner and that spirit."Pukui and others believed kahuna did not have mystical transcendent experiences as described in other religions. Although a person, possessed would go into a trance-like state, it was not an ecstatic experience but a communion with the known spirits. Kapu refers to a system of taboos designed to separate the spiritually pure from the unclean. Thought to have arrived with Pāʻao, a priest or chief from Tahiti who arrived in Hawaiʻi sometime around 1200 AD, the kapu imposed a series of restrictions on daily life. Prohibitions included: The separation of men and women during mealtimes Restrictions on the gathering and preparation of food Women separated from the community during their menses Restrictions on looking at, touching, or being in close proximity with chiefs and individuals of known spiritual power Restrictions on overfishingHawaiian tradition shows that ʻAikapu was an idea led by the kahuna in order for Wākea, the sky father, to get alone with his daughter, Hoʻohokukalani without his wahine, or wife, the earth mother, noticing.
The spiritually pure or laʻa, meaning "sacred" and unclean or haumia were to be separated. ʻAikapu included: The use of a different ovens to cook the food of male and female Different eating places Women were forbidden to eat pig, coconut and certain red foods because of their male symbolism. During times of war, the first two men to be killed were offered to the gods as sacrifices. Other Kapus included Mālama ʻĀina, meaning Niʻaupiʻo. Tradition says that mālama ʻāina originated from the first child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani being deformed so they buried him in the ground and what sprouted became the first kalo known as taro; the Hawaiian islands are all children of Papa, Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani so meaning that they are older siblings of the Hawaiian chiefs. Second child of Wākea and Hoʻohokukalani became the first Aliʻi Nui, or "Grand Chief"; this came to be called Niʻaupiʻo, the chiefly incest to create the "godly child". Punishments for breaking the kapu could include death, although if one could escape to a puʻuhonua, a city of refuge, one could be saved.
Kāhuna nui mandated long periods. No baby could cry, dog howl, or rooster crow, on pain of death. Human sacrifice was not unknown; the kapu system remained in place until 1819. Prayer was an essential part of Hawaiian life, employed when building a house, making a canoe, giving lomilomi massage. Hawaiians addressed prayers to various gods depending on the situation; when healers picked herbs for medicine, they prayed to Kū and Hina and female, right and left and supine. The people worshiped Lono during Kū during times of war. Histories from the 19th century describe prayer throughout the day, with specific p
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum is a crop of the Pacific Islands. The name kava is from Tongan and Marquesan, meaning "bitter". Kava is consumed throughout the Pacific Ocean cultures of Polynesia, including Hawaii and Vanuatu, Melanesia and some parts of Micronesia for its sedating effects; the root of the plant is used to produce a drink with sedative and euphoriant properties. Its active ingredients are called kavalactones. A Cochrane systematic review concluded it was to be more effective than placebo at treating short-term anxiety. Moderate consumption of kava has been deemed as presenting an "acceptably low level of health risk" by the World Health Organization. However, consumption of kava extracts produced with organic solvents or excessive amounts of poor quality kava products may be linked to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Kava is believed to have been domesticated in either Vanuatu by Papuans, it is believed to be a domesticated variety of Piper subbullatum, native to New Guinea and the Philippines.
It was spread by the Austronesian Lapita culture after contact eastward into the rest of Polynesia. It is not found in other Austronesian groups. Kava reached Hawaii. Consumption of kava is believed to be the reason why betel chewing, ubiquitous elsewhere, was lost for Austronesians in Oceania. According to Lynch, the reconstructed Proto-Polynesian term for the plant, *kava, was derived from the Proto-Oceanic term *kawaRi in the sense of a "bitter root" or "potent root ", it referred to Zingiber zerumbet, used to make a similar mildly psychoactive bitter drink in Austronesian rituals. Cognates for *kava include Pohnpeian sa-kau. In some languages, most notably Māori kawa, the cognates have come to mean "bitter", "sour", or "acrid" to the taste. In the Cook Islands, the reduplicated forms of kawakawa or kavakava are applied to the unrelated members of the genus Pittosporum, and in other languages like in Futunan, compound terms like kavakava atua refer to other species belonging to the genus Piper.
The reduplication of the base form is indicative of falsehood or likeness, in the sense of "false kava". In Aotearoa, it was applied to the kawakawa, endemic to Aotearoa and nearby Norfolk Island, Lord Howe Island, the Rangitāhua Islands, it was exploited by the Māori based on previous knowledge of the kava, as the latter could not survive in the colder climates of Aotearoa. The Māori name for the plant, reduplicated, it is a sacred tree among the Māori people. It is seen as a symbol of death, corresponding to the rangiora, the symbol of life. However, kawakawa has no psychoactive properties, its connection to kava is limited purely on similarity in appearance. Kava was grown only in the Pacific islands of Hawaii, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, the Samoas and Tonga. An inventory of P. methysticum distribution showed it was cultivated on numerous islands of Micronesia, Melanesia and Hawaii, whereas specimens of P. wichmannii were all from Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu. The kava shrub thrives in well-drained soils where plenty of air reaches the roots.
It grows where rainfall is plentiful. Ideal growing conditions are 70–95 °F and 70–100% relative humidity. Too much sunlight is harmful in early growth, so kava is an understory crop. Kava cannot reproduce sexually. Female flowers are rare and do not produce fruit when hand-pollinated, its cultivation is by propagation from stem cuttings. Traditionally, plants are harvested around four years of age, as older plants have higher concentrations of kavalactones. After reaching about 2 m height, plants grow a wider stalk and additional stalks, but not much taller; the roots can reach a depth of 60 cm. Kava consists of sterile cultivars cloned from Piper wichmanii. Today it comprises hundreds of different cultivars grown across the Pacific; each cultivar has not only different requirements for successful cultivation, but displays unique characteristics both in terms of its appearance, in terms of its psychoactive properties. Scholars make a distinction between the so-called "noble" and non-noble kava; the latter category comprises medicinal kavas and wild kava.
Traditionally, only noble kavas have been used for regular consumption due to their more favourable composition of kavalactones and other compounds that produce more pleasant effects and have lower potential for causing negative side-effects, such as nausea or "kava hangover". The perceived benefits of noble cultivars explain why only these cultivars were spread around the Pacific by Polynesian and Melanesian migrants, with presence of non-noble cultivars limited to the islands of Vanuatu from which they originated. More it has been suggested that the widespread use of tudei cultivars in the manufacturing of several kava products might have been the key factor contributing to the rare reports of adverse reactions to kava observed among the consumers of kava-based products in Europe. Tudei v
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, Hāna. Native Hawaiian tradition gives the origin of the island's name in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. According to it, Hawaiʻiloa named the island after his son, who in turn was named for the demigod Māui; the earlier name of Maui was ʻIhikapalaumaewa.
The Island of Maui is called the "Valley Isle" for the large isthmus separating its northwestern and southeastern volcanic masses. Maui's diverse landscapes are the result of a unique combination of geology and climate; each volcanic cone in the chain of the Hawaiian Islands is built of dark, iron-rich/quartz-poor rocks, which poured out of thousands of vents as fluid lava over a period of millions of years. Several of the volcanoes were close enough to each other that lava flows on their flanks overlapped one another, merging into a single island. Maui is such a "volcanic doublet," formed from two shield volcanoes that overlapped one another to form an isthmus between them; the older, western volcano has been eroded and is cut by numerous drainages, forming the peaks of the West Maui Mountains. Puʻu Kukui is the highest of the peaks at 5,788 feet; the larger, younger volcano to the east, Haleakalā, rises to more than 10,000 feet above sea level, measures 5 miles from seafloor to summit. The eastern flanks of both volcanoes are cut by incised valleys and steep-sided ravines that run downslope to the rocky, windswept shoreline.
The valley-like Isthmus of Maui that separates the two volcanic masses was formed by sandy erosional deposits. Maui's last eruption occurred around 1790. Although considered to be dormant by volcanologists, Haleakalā is capable of further eruptions. Maui is part of a much larger unit, Maui Nui, that includes the islands of Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi, the now submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including as as 20,000 years ago, they are joined together as a single island due to the shallowness of the channels between them; the climate of the Hawaiian Islands is characterized by a two-season year and uniform temperatures everywhere, marked geographic differences in rainfall, high relative humidity, extensive cloud formations, dominant trade-wind flow. Maui itself has a wide range of climatic conditions and weather patterns that are influenced by several different factors in the physical environment: Half of Maui is situated within 5 miles of the island's coastline. This, the extreme insularity of the Hawaiian Islands account for the strong marine influence on Maui's climate.
Gross weather patterns are determined by elevation and orientation towards the Trade winds. Maui's rugged, irregular topography produces marked variations in conditions. Air swept inland on the Trade winds is shunted one way or another by the mountains and vast open slopes; this complex three-dimensional flow of air results in striking variations in wind speed, cloud formation, rainfall. Maui displays a unique and diverse set of climatic conditions, each of, specific to a loosely defined sub-region of the island; these sub-regions are defined by major physiographic features and by location on the windward or leeward side of the island. Windward lowlands – Below 2,000 feet on north-to-northeast sides of an island. Perpendicular to direction of prevailing trade winds. Moderately rainy. Skies are cloudy to cloudy. Air temperatures are more uniform than those of other regions. Leeward lowlands – Daytime temperatures are a little higher and nighttime temperatures are lower than in windward locations. Dry weather is prevalent, with the exception of sporadic showers that drift over the mountains to windward and during short-duration storms.
Interior lowlands – Intermediate conditions sharing characteristics of other lowland sub-regions. Experience intense local afternoon showers from well-developed clouds that formed due to local daytime heating. Leeward side high-altitude mountain slopes with high rainfall – Extensive cloud cover and rainfall all year long. Mild temperatures are prevalent. Leeward side lower mountain slopes – Rainfall is higher than on the adjacent leeward lowlands, but much less than at similar altitudes on the windward side.
In the Hawaiian religion, Pele, is the goddess of volcanoes and fire and the creator of the Hawaiian Islands. Referred to as "Madame Pele" or "Tūtū Pele" as a sign of respect, she is a well-known deity within Hawaiian mythology, is notable for her contemporary presence and cultural influence as an enduring figure from ancient Hawaii. Epithets of the goddess include Ka wahine ʻai honua. In different stories talking about the goddess Pele, she was born from the female spirit named Haumea; this spirit is important when talking about Hawaii's gods due to how she is a descendant from Papa, or Sky Father, a supreme being. Due to Pele being born, she has become a notable deity known to the Hawaiian culture, she is known as "She who shapes the sacred land", known to be said in ancient Hawaiian chants. Kīlauea is a active volcano, located on the island of Hawaiʻi and is still being extensively studied. Many Hawaiians believe Kilauea to be inhabited by a "family of fire gods", one of the sisters being Pele, believed to govern Kilauea and is responsible for controlling its lava flows.
There are several traditional legends associated with Pele in Hawaiian mythology. In addition to being recognized as the goddess of volcanoes, Pele is known for her power, passion and capriciousness, she has numerous siblings, including Kāne Milohai, Kamohoaliʻi, Nāmaka and numerous sisters named Hiʻiaka, the most famous being Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. They are considered to be the offspring of Haumea. Pele's siblings include deities of various types of wind, fire, ocean wave forms, cloud forms, her home is believed to be the fire pit called Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit caldera of Kīlauea, one of the Earth's most active volcanoes. Pele shares features similar to other malignant deities inhabiting volcanoes, as in the case of the devil Guayota of Guanche Mythology in Canary Islands, living on the volcano Teide and was considered by the aboriginal Guanches as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano. Legend told that journeyed on her canoe from the island of Tahiti to Hawaii; when going through with her journeys, it was said that she tried to create her fires on different islands, but her sister, Nāmaka, was chasing her wanting to put an end to her.
In the end, the two sisters fought Pele in the end was killed. With this happening, her body was destroyed but her spirit lives in the Halemaumau crater on Kilauea, they say, "Her body is the steam that comes from the volcano. She can change form, appearing as a white dog, old woman, or beautiful young woman". In addition to her role as goddess of fire and her strong association with volcanoes, Pele is regarded as the "goddess of the hula", she is a significant figure in the history of hula because of her sister Hiʻiaka, believed to be the first person to dance hula. As a result of Pele's significance in hula, there have been many hula dances and chants that are dedicated to her and her family; the hula being dedicated to Pele is performed in a way that represents her intense personality and the movement of volcanoes. In one version of the story, Pele is the daughter of Kanehoalani and Haumea in the mystical land of Kuaihelani, a floating free land like Fata Morgana. Kuaihelani was in the region of Kahiki.
She stays close to her mother's fireplace with the fire-keeper Lono-makua. Her older sister Nā-maka-o-Kahaʻi, a sea goddess, fears that Pele's ambition would smother the home-land and drives Pele away. Kamohoali'i drives Pele south in a canoe called Honua-i-a-kea with her younger sister Hiʻiaka and with her brothers Kamohoaliʻi, Kanemilohai and arrives at the islets above Hawaii. There Kane-milo-hai is left on Mokupapapa, just a reef, to build it up in fitness for human residence. On Nihoa, 800 feet above the ocean she leaves Kane-apua after her visit to Lehua and crowning a wreath of kau-no'a. Pele picks him up again. Pele used the divining rod. A group of chants tells of a pursuit by Namakaokaha'i and Pele is torn apart, her bones, KaiwioPele form a hill on Kahikinui. In another version, Pele comes from a land said to be "close to the clouds," with parents Kane-hoa-lani and Ka-hina-liʻi, brothers Ka-moho-aliʻi and Kahuila-o-ka-lani. From her husband Wahieloa she has a son Menehune. Pele-kumu-honua entices her Pele travels in search of him.
The sea pours from her head over the land of Kanaloa and her brothers say: The sea floods the land recedes. Pele is considered to be a rival of the Hawaiian goddess of snow, Poliʻahu, her sisters Lilinoe and Kahoupokane. All except Kahoupokane reside on Mauna Kea; the kapa maker lives on Hualalai. One myth tells that Poliʻahu had come from Mauna Kea with her friends to attend sled races down the grassy hills south of Hamakua. Pele was greeted by Poliʻahu. However, Pele became jealously enraged at the goddess of Mauna Kea, she opened the subterranean caverns of Mauna Kea and threw fire from them towards Poliʻahu, with the snow goddess fleeing towards
Kahuna is a Hawaiian word, defined as a respectful man who has moral authority in society "a prime person, a minister, or an expert in any profession". A kahuna may be versed in canoe building or any other talent. Blessing new buildings and construction projects, officiating weddings are some of the tasks a kahuna may be called upon to perform, by his or her community. Forty types of kahuna are listed in the book Tales from the Night Rainbow, twenty in the healing professions alone, including "Kahuna lapaʻau, medical priest or practitioner", "Kahuna hāhā, an expert who diagnoses, as sickness or pain, by feeling the body". There are two main categories of kahuna. There are different types of sorcery kahuna, which can include: Kuhikuhi puʻuone: one who locates the site for the construction of heiau, or temples. Kilokilo: one who divines and predicts future events, a prophet. Hoʻounāunā: one who can send spirits to cause an illness. ʻAnāʻanā: one who "practices evil sorcery by means of prayer". Nānāuli: one who studies natural signs, like clouds and winds.
Poʻi ʻUhane: one who can catch a spirit and force it to do its bidding. Lapaʻau: one who practices procedures of medicinal healing. Expert kahuna are called Kahuna Nui and Kahuna Nui lived in places such as Waimea Valley, known as the "Valley of the Priests", they were given slices of land. Hewahewa, a direct descendant of Paʻao, was the Kahuna Nui to Kamehameha I. A contemporary, Leimomi Mo'okini Lum is a Kahuna Nui. David Kaonohiokala Bray was a well-known kahuna. King Kamehameha IV, in his translation of the Book of Common Prayer, used the term Kahuna to refer to Anglican priests and Kahunapule to refer to both lay and ordained Anglican ministers. Craft kahuna were never prohibited; as an example, when the Hōkūle‘a was built to be sailed to the South Pacific to prove the voyaging capabilities of the ancient Hawaiians, master navigator Mau Piailug from Satawal was brought to Hawaii to teach the Hawaiians navigation. It is said that the missionaries came to Hawaii in 1820 and made kahuna practices illegal.
In the 100 years after the missionaries arrived all kahuna practices were legal until 1831, some were illegal until 1863, all were legal until 1887 some were illegal until 1919. Since 1919, all have been legal, except sorcery, illegal at first, but was decriminalized in 1972; the first Christian missionaries arrived in 1820. The most powerful person in the nation, Kaʻahumanu, did not convert until 1825, but it was not until 11 years after missionaries arrived that she proclaimed laws against hula, chant, ‘awa, Hawaiian religion. The use of the term in reference to surfing can be traced back to the 1959 film Gidget, in which "The Big Kahuna", played by Cliff Robertson, was the leader of a group of surfers; the term became commonplace in Beach Party films of the 1960s such as Beach Blanket Bingo, where the "Big Kahuna" was the best surfer on the beach. It was adopted into general surfing culture. Hawaiian surfing master Duke Kahanamoku may have been referred to as the "Big Kahuna" but rejected the term as he knew the original meaning.
In the New Age spiritual system known as Huna, which uses some Hawaiian words and concepts appropriated from Hawaiian tradition, kahuna denotes someone of priestly or shamanic standing. The prevalence of these works in pop culture have come to influence English dictionary definitions such as Merriam-Webster, which now defines kahuna not only as "a preeminent person or thing" but with a secondary definition of "Hawaiian shaman". In the 1999 movie The Big Kahuna salesmen are trying to get a lucrative contract with a manufacturer they refer to as the "great kahuna". In a fantasy scene, Kevin Spacey's character wears a headdress and is revered as "the big kahuna"; the term was used by Wally Amos in his cookie business, The Cookie Kahuna. Ancient Hawaii Kohala Historical Sites State Monument Ho'oponopono, Hawaiian forgiveness process Maven, a term from a different tradition with similar connotations Morrnah Simeona, regarded as a kahuna la'au lapa'au Tohunga, a cognate term and title in Māori tradition Big Kahuna Burger, a fictional chain of Hawaiian-themed fast food restaurants that appears in the movies of Quentin Tarantino Chai, Makana Risser Na Mo'olelo Lomilomi: Traditions of Hawaiian Massage & Healing.