A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast. Several rotor blades mounted on a single mast are referred to as a rotor; the International Civil Aviation Organization defines a rotorcraft as "supported in flight by the reactions of the air on one or more rotors". Rotorcraft include those aircraft where one or more rotors are required to provide lift throughout the entire flight, such as helicopters and gyrodynes. Compound rotorcraft may include additional thrust engines or propellers and static lifting surfaces. A helicopter is a rotorcraft whose rotors are driven by the engine throughout the flight to allow the helicopter to take off vertically, fly forwards and laterally, as well as to land vertically. Helicopters have several different configurations of one or more main rotors. Helicopters with a single shaft-driven main lift rotor require some sort of antitorque device such as a tail rotor, fantail, or NOTAR, except some rare examples of helicopters using tip jet propulsion, which generates no torque.
An autogyro utilizes an unpowered rotor, driven by aerodynamic forces in a state of autorotation to develop lift, an engine-powered propeller, similar to that of a fixed-wing aircraft, to provide thrust. While similar to a helicopter rotor in appearance, the autogyro's rotor must have air flowing up and through the rotor disk in order to generate rotation. Early autogyros resembled the fixed-wing aircraft of the day, with wings and a front-mounted engine and propeller in a tractor configuration to pull the aircraft through the air. Late-model autogyros feature a rear-mounted propeller in a pusher configuration; the autogyro was invented in 1920 by Juan de la Cierva. The autogyro with pusher propeller was first tested by Etienne Dormoy with his Buhl A-1 Autogyro; the rotor of a gyrodyne is driven by its engine for takeoff and landing – hovering like a helicopter – with anti-torque and propulsion for forward flight provided by one or more propellers mounted on short or stub wings. As power is increased to the propeller, less power is required by the rotor to provide forward thrust resulting in reduced pitch angles and rotor blade flapping.
At cruise speeds with most or all of the thrust being provided by the propellers, the rotor receives power only sufficient to overcome the profile drag and maintain lift. The effect is a rotorcraft operating in a more efficient manner than the freewheeling rotor of an autogyro in autorotation, minimizing the adverse effects of retreating blade stall of helicopters at higher airspeeds. A rotor kite or gyroglider is an unpowered rotary-wing aircraft. Like an autogyro or helicopter, it relies on lift created by one or more sets of rotors in order to fly. Unlike a helicopter and rotor kites do not have an engine powering their rotors, but while an autogyro has an engine providing forward thrust that keeps the rotor turning, a rotor kite has no engine at all, relies on either being carried aloft and dropped from another aircraft, or by being towed into the air behind a car or boat. A rotary wing is characterised by the number of blades; this is between two and six per driveshaft. A rotorcraft may have one or more rotors.
Various rotor configurations have been used: One rotor. Powered rotors require compensation for the torque reaction causing yaw, except in the case of tipjet drive. One rotor rotorcraft are called monocopters. Two rotors; these rotate in opposite directions cancelling the torque reaction so that no tail rotor or other yaw stabiliser is needed. These rotors can be laid out as Tandem – One in front of the other. Transverse – Side by side. Coaxial – One rotor disc above the other, with concentric drive shafts. Intermeshing – Twin rotors at an acute angle from each other, whose nearly-vertical driveshafts are geared together to synchronise their rotor blades so that they intermesh called a synchropter. Three rotors. An uncommon configuration. All three rotors turned in the same direction and yaw compensation was provided by inclining each rotor axis to generate rotor thrust components that opposed torque. Four rotors. Referred to as the quadcopter or quadrotor. Two rotors turn clockwise and two counter-clockwise.
More than four rotors. Referred to as multirotors, or sometimes individually as hexacopters and octocopter, these configurations have matched sets of rotors turning in opposite directions, they are popular for unmanned aerial vehicles. Some rotary wing aircraft are designed to stop the rotor for forward flight so that it acts as a fixed wing. For vertical flight and hovering it spins to act as a rotary wing or rotor, for forward flight at speed it stops to act as a fixed wing providing some or all of the lift required. Additional fixed wings may be provided to help with stability and control and to provide auxiliary lift. An early American proposal was the conversion of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter with a triangular rotor wing; the idea was revisited by Hughes. The Sikorsky S-72 research aircraft underwent extensive flight testing. In 1986 the Sikorsky S-72 Rotor Systems Research Aircraft was fitted with a four-bladed stopped rotor, known as the X-wing; the programme was cancelled two years before the rotor had flown.
The canard rotor/wing concept added a "canard" foreplane as well as a conventional tailplane, offloading the rotor wing and providing control du
JSC Rostvertol is a Russian helicopter manufacturer company located in Rostov-on-Don. It was founded on 1 July 1939. Rostvertol has been producing helicopters designed by the Mil design bureau since 1956 and is a world leader in the manufacture of heavy-lift helicopters, it built the Mi-6 Mi-10 Harke heavy-lift helicopters and the Mi-26 Halo. It produced the Mi-25 and Mi-35 Hind combat attack helicopters and the Mi-28 Havoc, it produces Mi-26T, Mi-24 and Mi-28N. The plant produces substantial quantities of helicopter rotor blades and consumer goods; the capital structure of the company is: 75.06 % Russian Helicopters. 6.59% private stockholders 2.35% Rosimushchestvo. The company's website Media related to Rostvertol-Avia at Wikimedia Commons
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG
Russian Aircraft Corporation "MiG" is a Soviet, a Russian aerospace joint stock company. Its head office is in Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow; the name "MiG" is formed as a conjunction of the names of its two founding designers, Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich. MiG aircraft are a staple of the Soviet and Russian Air Forces, the Soviet Union sold many of these aircraft within its sphere of influence, they have been used by the militaries of North Korea, North Vietnam, India and in aerial confrontations with American and allied forces, form part of the air forces of many Arab nations. It was known as Mikoyan and Gurevich Design Bureau simply Mikoyan. Mikoyan was established on December 8, 1939 as the Pilot Design Department of the Aviation Plant #1 and headed by Artem Mikoyan and Mikhail Gurevich, it was renamed "Experimental Design Bureau named after A. I. Mikoyan" otherwise known as the Mikoyan Design Bureau or Mikoyan OKB. In 1964 Gurevich retired, Mikoyan died in 1970, he was succeeded by Rostislav A. Belyakov, in 1978 the enterprise was named after Mikoyan.
In 1995, Mikoyan OKB was merged with two production facilities to form the Moscow Aviation Production Association "MiG". In the 1990s MiG began developing Mikoyan Project 1.44, a fifth-generation jet fighter, but the project was hampered by a lack of funding and was canceled. In December 1999, Nikolai Nikitin was appointed the corporation's General Director and General Designer. Nikitin focused most of the company's resources on the development of the Tu-334 passenger aircraft at the expense of military programs; this prompted the resignation in December 1999 of many of its leading military aircraft designers, including the chief designers and their deputies for the MiG-29 and MiG-31 programs. Nikitin was replaced by Valery Toryanin in November 2003, in turn replaced by Alexey Fedorov in September 2004. In 2006, the Russian government merged 100% of Mikoyan shares with Ilyushin, Sukhoi and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation. Mikoyan and Sukhoi were placed within the same operating unit.
MiG failed to win any major aircraft tender in the post-Soviet era, falling behind its Russian rival Sukhoi. According to press reports, the company was shedding hundreds of employees in late 2017 due to a shortage of orders; as of 2015 the company's business offering consists of modernized MiG-29 aircraft. MiG is developing a 4++ fighter, the MiG-35, with the first deliveries expected in late 2019. Another aircraft under development is the replacement for the Mig-31 interceptor, called Mig-41. List of Mikoyan and MiG aircraft Aircraft industry of Russia List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS Sukhoi Tupolev Migavia.ru – official site of MiG "OKB" successor enterprise Russian Aviation Museum, MiG Pages
Lyubertsy is a city and the administrative center of Lyuberetsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia. Population: 172,525 , it was first mentioned in 1621 and was granted town status in 1925. It is sometimes described as a working class suburb of Moscow. Lyubertsy was home to the Lyubers Soviet sports youth movement in the 1980s. During the perestroika years of the 1990s, the Lyubers, by association Lyubertsy, formed a part of the emerging organized crime syndicates. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Lyubertsy serves as the administrative center of Lyuberetsky District; as an administrative division, it is incorporated within Lyuberetsky District as the Town of Lyubertsy. As a municipal division, the Town of Lyubertsy is incorporated within Lyuberetsky Municipal District as Lyubertsy Urban Settlement. Lyubertsy is a major industrial center. There are over a large railway junction. Prevailing branches of industry are mechanical engineering, production of construction materials and food processing.
The largest enterprises include: Kamov company. Ukhtomsky Helicopter plant named after N. I. Kamov Ukhtomsky machine-building plant, making equipment for raising livestock "Torgmash" joint-stock company produces manufacturing equipment A construction materials plant "Lyuberetskye carpets" collective "Belaya dacha" agricultural processing plant, a supplier for McDonald's Sergey Abeltsev, politician Yuri Gagarin, first human in space Alexander Menshikov, assistant of Peter the Great Nikolay Rastorguyev, lead singer of rock group Lyube Boris Razinsky, Olympic champion association football player Vasily Yakemenko, youth politician Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г..
Московская областная Дума. Закон №81/2005-ОЗ от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Люберецкого муниципального района, вновь образованного в его составе городского поселения и существующих на территории Люберецкого района Московской области муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №45/2012-ОЗ от 4 мая 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Люберецкого муниципального района, вновь образованного в его составе городского поселения и существующих на территории Люберецкого района Московской области муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №44, 12 марта 2005 г
JSC Russian Helicopters is a helicopter design and manufacturing company headquartered in Moscow, Russia. The company manufactures civilian and military helicopters; the company's principal shareholder is Rostec. It is the world's 24th-largest defence contractor measured by 2012 defence revenues, the second-largest based in Russia; the company attempted to stage an IPO on the London Stock Exchange in May 2011, but failed to fill the order book at the expected valuation of $2 billion. In 2011 Russian Helicopters and the Italian company AgustaWestland agreed to establish HeliVert, a joint company, in order to start production in Russia of the AW139 twin-engine multipurpose helicopter; the production plant is located in Moscow Region. In 2016 the company delivered 189 aircraft to customers in 13 countries. In the same year, it ended a partnership with the Ukraine-based engine maker Motor Sich. In 2017 the Russian Direct Investment Fund formed a consortium comprising leading Middle Eastern funds and finalized a deal to acquire a minority stake in Russian Helicopters.
Russian Helicopters valuation was estimated at $2.35 billion. No details have been revealed about the identity of the Middle Eastern investors; the transaction consists of two stages. The first stage involves the sale of a 12% stake and an investment of $300 million, as well as an agreed-upon subsequent potential increase in investment to $600 million; the deal will increase the authorized capital of the holding company. This will accumulate a significant amount of funds within the Company; these funds are necessary for the implementation of the Company’s strategy and business plan, including the development of new types of helicopters. In addition, these funds will help implement the investment program of the holding company, as well as finance possible M&A activities aimed at increasing the holding’s value and finance capital programs. Russian Helicopters' products include: Kamov Ka-27 Kamov Ka-31 Kamov Ka-52 Kamov Ka-60/62 Kamov Ka-226 Kazan Ansat Mil Mi-8 Mil Mi-17 Mil Mi-24 Mil Mi-26 Mil Mi-28 Mil Mi-34 Mil Mi-38 Mil Mi-54 VRT 500A fifth generation helicopter is under development.
In 2006 the Russian defense ministry awarded Russian Helicopters a R&D contract for a naval helicopter conducting antisubmarine warfare among other tasks, following the coaxials Kamov Ka-15, Ka-25, Ka-27. The resulting Minoga project has been wind-tunnel tested since, the Russian Navy will inspect a mockup in early 2019 and its maiden flight is planned for 2020, it may be coaxial and could be based on the early 2000s Ka-92 concept competing with the Mil Mi-X1 for a high-speed civilian helicopter halted in 2015. Powered by two 380 kg Klimov TV7-117V turboshafts developing 3,500-3,750 hp in emergencies, 2,500-3,000 at maximum takeoff weight, 1,650 hp in cruise, it has to be compact enough to store two in a ship hangar housing a single 12 tons Ka-27: Kamov studied a lightweight deck helicopters from four-five to seven-eight metric tons. The Kamov Ka-52K Katran is in flight tests but is limited to electronic reconnaissance and airstrike; the following entities are part of the company: DesignersMil Moscow Helicopter Plant Kamov Design Bureau VR-TechnologiesManufacturersUlan-Ude Aviation Plant Kazan Helicopters Rostvertol Progress Arsenyev Aviation Company Kumertau Aviation Production EnterpriseComponentsReductor-PM Stupino Machine Production PlantJoint venturesHeliVert Comparable major helicopter manufacturers: AgustaWestland Airbus Helicopters Bell Helicopter Boeing Rotorcraft Systems MD Helicopters Sikorsky Aircraft Russian Helicopters
Rostec the State Corporation for Assistance to Development and Export of Advanced Technology Industrial Product Rostec and Rostekhnologii, is a Russian state-owned holding conglomerate headquartered in Moscow that specializes in consolidating in strategically important companies in the defense and high-tech industries, by assisting in the development and export with the ultimate goal of capitalizing them and bringing them to an initial public offering. Established in 2007, the organization comprises about 700 enterprises, which together form 14 holding companies: eleven in the defense-industry complex and three in civil sectors. Rostec's organizations are located in 60 constituents of the Russian Federation and supply goods to over 70 countries worldwide; the organization is headed by Sergey Chemezov. On 23 November 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed federal law No. 270 to establish a state corporation named Rostekhnologii, passed by the State Duma on 9 November and passed by the Federation Council on 16 November.
In 10 July 2008, newly-elected Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed a decree that transfers 443 struggling enterprises to the ownership under Rostekhnologii. Out of these acquired assets, 30% of such enterprises were in pre-crisis and crisis condition, 28 entities in bankruptcy proceedings, 17 had no business operations, 27 had lost part of their assets or faced a material risk of such loss, with all facing a total debt of RUB630 billion. In addition, these enterprises had worn out fixed assets, dilapidated production chains, poor management. After the acquisition, structural reforms were made, helping the enterprises emerge from their financial struggles with a 20%–30% increase in production growth, five times the national average. Most of the profits were acquired by Rostekhnologii, which 80% of it was from 20% of Rostekhnologii's assets; the 20% included the titanium monopoly VSMPO-AVISMA, helicopter manufacturers Mil and Kamov, AvtoVAZ, KamAZ. This in turn brought executives of some companies in conflict with each other, such as the case with Mil and Kamov in which they refuse to communicate with each other.
As a result, Rostekhnologii had to work with the two companies so they can cooperate with each other. On 21 December 2012, Rostekhnologii rebranded itself as Rostec to make the corporation more open to the world. Rostec featured a new logo, an open square symbolizing a window to the world and a focus frame, as well a new slogan "Partner in development" and implemented changes in its corporate governance structure; the corporation spent $1.5 million for rebranding. The corporate brand, launched in late 2012, is one of Russia's 15 most valuable brands and has a value similar to that of major companies such as Rosneft and Rostelecom. On 16 July 2014, as a result of Russian intervention in Ukraine and Russian annexation of Crimea, Rostec was one of the companies, sanctioned by the Obama administration. Sergey Chemezov, current CEO of Rostec, was one of the individuals targeted by the United States and the European Union, whose visa was banned and assets froze by the E. U.. Rostec's access to U. S. debt markets was limited.
Rostec was forced to rethink its strategy for its holding companies. In December 2015, Rostec's supervisory board approved its development strategy through 2025. According to the strategy, Rostec intends to change the Russian economic model by putting less emphasis on weaponry, aviation components, software and more emphasis on electronics, telecommunications and other high-tech industries; this in turn would diversify the Russian economy, increasing the share of high-tech civilian products and non-primary exports. The Supervisory Board, the Management Board, the General Director are all appointed by the President of Russia. Sergey Chemezov – General Director of Rostec Sergey Ivanov – Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation on the Issues of Environmental Activities and Transport Denis Manturov – Russian Minister of Industry and Trade Yury Borisov – Deputy Prime Minister of Russia for Defence and Space Industry, Russian Deputy Minister of Defence Larisa Brychyova – Aide to the President of Russia and Head of the Presidential State-Legal Directorate Igor Levitin – Aide to the President of Russia Anton Siluanov – Russian Minister of Finance Vladimir Ostrovenko – Deputy Chief of the Presidential administration Dmitry Shugaev – Director of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation Sergey Chemezov – General Director Vladimir Artyakov – First Deputy General Director Nikolay Volobuev – Deputy CEO Igor Zavyalov – Deputy CEO of Finance Aleksandr Nazarov – Deputy General Director Dmitry Lelikov – Deputy General Director for Investment Activity Oleg Yevtushenko – Executive Director Sergey Kulikov – Industrial Director of Electronics Anatoly Serdyukov – Industrial Director of Aviation Sergey Abramov – Industrial Director of Conventional Armament and Special Chemistry Viktor Kiryanov – Managing Director of Infrastructure Projects Vladimir Litvin – Managing Director of Direct Administration Maksim Vybornykh – State Secretary Alla Laletina – Head of Legal Department Yury Koptev – Chairman of the Scientific and Technical Council Natalya Borisova – Head of Bookkeeping and Fiscal Accounting Yury Koptev – Chairman of the Science and Engineering Board, Doctor of Technical Sciences Vladimir Verba – General Director, General Director of JSC Concern Vega, Doctor of Technical Sciences Valery Gheykin –
Coaxial rotors or "coax rotors" are a pair of helicopter rotors mounted one above the other on concentric shafts, with the same axis of rotation, but turning in opposite directions. This configuration is a feature of helicopters produced by the Russian Kamov helicopter design bureau; the idea of coaxial rotors originates with Mikhail Lomonosov. He had developed a small helicopter model with coaxial rotors in July 1754 and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1859, the British Patent Office awarded the first helicopter patent to Henry Bright for his coaxial design. From this point, coaxial helicopters developed into operational machines as we know them today. Two pioneering helicopters, the Corradino D'Ascanio-built "D'AT3" of 1930, the more successful French mid-1930s Gyroplane Laboratoire, both used coaxial rotor systems for flight. Having two coaxial sets of rotors provides symmetry of forces around the central axis for lifting the vehicle and laterally when flying in any direction.
Because of the mechanical complexity, many helicopter designs use alternate configurations to avoid problems that arise when only one rotor is used. Common alternatives are tandem rotor arrangements. One of the problems with any single set of rotor blades is the torque exerted on the helicopter fuselage in the direction opposite to the rotor blades; this torque causes the fuselage to rotate in the direction opposite to the rotor blades. In single rotor helicopters, the antitorque rotor or tail rotor counteracts the main rotor torque and controls the fuselage rotation. Coaxial rotors solve the problem of main rotor torque by turning each set of rotors in opposite directions; the opposite torques from the rotors cancel each other out. Rotational maneuvering, yaw control, is accomplished by increasing the collective pitch of one rotor and decreasing the collective pitch on the other; this causes a controlled dissymmetry of torque. Dissymmetry of lift is an aerodynamic phenomenon caused by the rotation of a helicopter's rotors in forward flight.
Rotor blades provide lift proportional to the amount of air flowing over them. When viewed from above, the rotor blades move in the direction of flight for half of the rotation, move in the opposite direction for the remainder of the rotation. A rotor blade produces more lift in the advancing half; as a blade moves toward the direction of flight, the forward motion of the aircraft increases the speed of the air flowing around the blade until it reaches a maximum when the blade is perpendicular to the relative wind. At the same time, a rotor blade in the retreating half produces less lift; as a blade moves away from the direction of flight, the speed of the airflow over the rotor blade is reduced by an amount equal to the forward speed of the aircraft, reaching its maximum effect when the rotor blade is again perpendicular to the relative wind. Coaxial rotors avoid the effects of dissymmetry of lift through the use of two rotors turning in opposite directions, causing blades to advance on either side at the same time.
Another benefit arising from a coaxial design includes increased payload for the same engine power. Reduced noise is a second advantage of the configuration. Helicopters using coaxial rotors tend to be more compact, though at the price of increased height, have uses in areas where space is at a premium. Another benefit is increased safety on the ground. A principal disadvantage of the coaxial rotor design is the increased mechanical complexity of the rotor hub; the linkages and swashplates for two rotor systems need to be assembled atop the mast, more complex because of the need to drive two rotors in opposite directions. Because of the greater number of moving parts and complexity, the coaxial rotor system is more prone to mechanical faults and possible failure. Coaxial helicopters are more prone to the "whipping" of blades and blade self-collision according to critics; the system's inherent stability and quick control response make it suitable for use in small radio controlled helicopters. These benefits come at the cost of a limited forward speed, higher sensitivity to wind.
These two factors are limiting in outdoor use. Such models are fixed-pitch, simplifying the model but eliminating the ability to compensate with collective input. Compensating for the slightest breeze causes the model to climb rather than to fly forward with full application of cyclic. Multirotor type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles exist in numerous configurations including duocopter, quadcopter and octocopter. All of them can be upgraded to coaxial configuration in order to bring more stability and flight time while allowing carrying much more payload without gaining too much weight. Indeed, coaxial multirotors are made by having each arm carrying two motors facing in opposite directions (one up and