Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, rushes, heather, or palm branches, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. Since the bulk of the vegetation stays dry and is densely packed—trapping air—thatching functions as insulation, it is a old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates. Thatch is still employed by builders in developing countries with low-cost local vegetation. By contrast, in some developed countries it is the choice of some affluent people who desire a rustic look for their home, would like a more ecologically friendly roof, or who have purchased an thatched abode. Thatching methods have traditionally been passed down from generation to generation, numerous descriptions of the materials and methods used in Europe over the past three centuries survive in archives and early publications. In some equatorial countries, thatch is the prevalent local material for roofs, walls.
There are diverse building techniques from the ancient Hawaiian hale shelter made from the local ti leaves, lauhala or pili grass. Palm leaves are often used. For example, in Na Bure, thatchers combine fan palm leave roofs with layered reed walls. Feathered palm leaf roofs are used in Dominica. Alang-alang thatched roofs are used in Bali. In Southeast Asia, mangrove nipa palm leaves are used as thatched roof material known as attap dwelling. In Bali, the black fibres of Arenga pinnata called ijuk is used as thatched roof materials used in Balinese temple roof and meru towers. Sugar cane leaf roofs are used in Kikuyu tribal homes in Kenya. Wild vegetation such as water reed, bulrush/cat tail, broom and rushes was used to cover shelters and primitive dwellings in Europe in the late Palaeolithic period, but so far no direct archaeological evidence for this has been recovered. People began to use straw in the Neolithic period when they first grew cereals—but once again, no direct archaeological evidence of straw for thatching in Europe prior to the early medieval period survives.
Many indigenous people of the Americas, such as the former Maya civilization, the Inca empire, the Triple Alliance, lived in thatched buildings. It is common to spot thatched buildings in rural areas of the Yucatán Peninsula as well as many settlements in other parts of Latin America, which resemble the method of construction from distant ancestors. After the collapse of most extant American societies due to diseases introduced by Europeans, wars and genocide, the first Americans encountered by Europeans lived in structures roofed with bark or skin set in panels that could be added or removed for ventilation and cooling. Evidence of the many complex buildings with fiber-based roofing material was not rediscovered until the early 2000s. French and British settlers built temporary thatched dwellings with local vegetation as soon as they arrived in New France and New England, but covered more permanent houses with wooden shingles. In most of England, thatch remained the only roofing material available to the bulk of the population in the countryside, in many towns and villages, until the late 1800s.
Commercial distribution of Welsh slate began in 1820, the mobility provided by canals and railways made other materials available. Still, the number of thatched properties increased in the UK during the mid-1800s as agriculture expanded, but declined again at the end of the 19th century because of agricultural recession and rural depopulation. A 2013 report estimated. Thatch became a mark of poverty, the number of thatched properties declined, as did the number of professional thatchers. Thatch has become much more popular in the UK over the past 30 years, is now a symbol of wealth rather than poverty. There are 1,000 full-time thatchers at work in the UK, thatching is becoming popular again because of the renewed interest in preserving historic buildings and using more sustainable building materials. Although thatch is popular in Germany, The Netherlands, parts of France, Sicily and Ireland, there are more thatched roofs in the United Kingdom than in any other European country. Good quality straw thatch can last for more than 50 years.
Traditionally, a new layer of straw was applied over the weathered surface, this "spar coating" tradition has created accumulations of thatch over 7’ thick on old buildings. The straw is bundled into "yelms" before it is taken up to the roof and is attached using staples, known as "spars", made from twisted hazel sticks. Over 250 roofs in Southern England have base coats of thatch that were applied over 500 years ago, providing direct evidence of the types of materials that were used for thatching in the medieval period. All of these roofs are thatched with wheat, rye, or a "maslin" mixture of both. Medieval wheat grew to 6 feet tall in poor soils and produced durable straw for the roof and grain for baking bread. Technological change in the farming industry affected the popularity of thatching; the availability of good quality thatching straw declined in England after the introduction of the combine harvester in the late 1930s and 1940s, the release of short-stemm
The Sundanese are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number 40 million, form Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, after the neighboring Javanese. In their language, the Sundanese refer to themselves as Urang Sunda, while Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda is its Indonesian equivalent; the Sundanese have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of West Java, Banten and the western part of Central Java. Sundanese migrants can be found in Lampung and South Sumatra, to lesser extent in Central Java and East Java; the name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality". An example is suvarna used to describe gold. Sunda is another name for Hindu God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara or Sundari means "beautiful" or "excellence"; the term Sunda means bright, purity and white. The Sundanese are of Austronesian origins who are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated through the Philippines, reached Java between 1,500 BC and 1,000 BC.
There is a hypothesis that argues that the Austronesian ancestors of contemporary Sundanese people came from Sundaland, a sunken massive peninsula that today forms the Java Sea, the Malacca and Sunda straits, the islands between them. According to recent genetic study, together with Javanese and Balinese has equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages; the Sunda Wiwitan belief contains the mythical origin of Sundanese people. The oldest of these bataras is called Batara Cikal and is considered the ancestor of the Kanekes people. Other six bataras ruled various locations in Sunda lands in Western Java. A Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contain the memory of the prehistoric ancient lake in Bandung basin highland, which suggest that Sundanese inhabit the region since Mesolithic era, at least 20,000 years ago. Another popular Sundanese proverb and legend mentioned about the creation of Parahyangan highlands, the heartland of Sundanese realm; this legend suggested the Parahyangan highland as the playland or the abode of gods, as well as suggesting its natural beauty.
The earliest historical polity which appeared in the Sundanese realm in the Western part of Java was the kingdom of Tarumanagara, which flourished between the 4th and 7th century. Hindu influences reached the Sundanese people as early as the 4th century CE as is evident in Tarumanagara inscriptions; the adoption of this dharmic faith in Sundanese way of life was, never as intense as their Javanese counterparts. It seems that despite the central court beginning to adopt Hindu-Buddhist culture and institution, the majority of common Sundanese still retained their native natural and ancestral worship. By the 4th century, the older megalithic culture was still alive and well next to the penetrating Hindu influences. Court cultures flourished in ancient times, for example, during the era of Sunda Kingdom, however the Sundanese appear not to have had the resources nor desire to construct large religious monuments similar to those built by Javanese in Central and East Java; the traditional rural Sundanese method of rice farming, by ladang or huma, in contrast to Javanese irrigated sawah wet rice cultivation contributed to small populations of sparsely inhabited Sundanese villages.
Geographic constraints that isolate each region led Sundanese villages to enjoy their simple way of life and their independence more. That was the factor that would contribute to the carefree nature, conservative and somewhat individualistic social outlook of Sundanese people; the Sundanese seem to love and revere their nature in spiritual ways, leading to them adopting some taboos in order to conserve the nature and maintain the ecosystem. The conservative tendency and their somewhat opposition to foreign influences, is demonstrated in extreme isolationist measures adopted keenly by Kanekes or Baduy people, they have rules against interacting with outsiders and adopting foreign ideas and ways of life. They have set some taboos, such as not cutting trees nor harming forest creatures, in order to conserve their natural ecosystem. One of the earliest historical records that mentions the name "Sunda" appears in the Sanghyang Tapak inscription dated 952 saka discovered in Cibadak, near Sukabumi.
In 1225, a Chinese writer named Chou Ju-kua, in his book Chu-fan-chi, describes the port of Sin-t'o, which refers to the port of Banten or Kalapa. By examining these records, it seems that the name "Sunda" started to appear in the early 11th century as a Javanese term used to designate their western neighbours. A Chinese source more refers to it as the port of Banten or Sunda Kelapa. After the formation and consolidation of the Sunda Kingdom's unity and identity during the Pajajaran era under the rule of Sri Baduga Maharaja, the shared common identity of Sundanese people was more established, they adopted the name "Sunda" to identify their people and their language. Inland Pasundan is mountainous and hilly, until the 19th century, was thickly forested and sparsely populated; the Sundanese traditionally live in small and isolat
Garut is a town in the West Java province of Indonesia and is the capital of the Garut Regency. It is located about 75 km to the southeast of the major city of Bandung; the modern history of Garut started on March 2, 1811 when Balubur Limbangan Regency was dissolved by Governor General Herman Willem Daendels, because the area's production of coffee had decreased and the Regent, Tumenggung Wangsakusumah II had refused a command to plant indigo. Balubur Limbangan Regency comprised 6 districts: Balubur, Wanaraja, Wanakerta and Papandak; the Limbangan Regency, which has now become the Garut Regency, was founded by Lieutenant-Governor Stamford Raffles on 16 February 1813. RAA. Adiwijaya, who governed from the 1813 until 1821, was the first Regent of the Garut Regency, he was well known as Dalem Cipeujueh. The town of Suci was the capital of the new Limbangan Regency; however it was thought that Suci did not meet the requirements of a capital because the area was crowded and quite narrow. Regarding this matter, Regent Limbangan Adipati Adiwijaya formed a committee to find a suitable place for the capital of the Regency.
In the beginning, the committee found about 3 km to the East Suci. However, in this place clean water was difficult to obtain so the place not regarded as suitable to become the capital; the committee decided that a suitable place was about 5 km to west of Suci. In addition to fertile land, the place has a spring that flows to the River Cimanuk and is surrounded by mountains, like Mount Cikuray, Mount Papandayan, Mount Guntur, Mount Galunggung, Mount Talaga Bodas and Mount Karacak; when the site was first found, there was a spring nearby, said to have been surrounded by a small pond closed off by thorny scrub. According to local stories, one person in the group had his hands badly scratched by the thorns. A European in the team asked about the bleeding and was told that the problem was "kakarut!" The answer was misheard by the European visitor as "gagarut" rather than "kakarut". Team members of the committee thus named the thorny plant "Ki Garut" and the pond was named "Ci Garut"; the area around the pond was named "Garut".
The name of "Garut" was approved by Regent Limbangan Adipati Adiwijaya to be made the Capital of the Limbangan Regency. On 15 September 1813 the development of capital facilities and infrastructure, such as residence, the hall, office assistant resident and square was started. In front of the hall, between the town square and the hall was gotten by "Babancong" where the Regent as well as the official of the other government gave the speech in front of the public. After the place was completed earlier, the Capital of the Limbangan Regency moved from Suci to Garut around 1821. Based on the Governor General Decree No: 60 dated May 7, 1913, the name of the Limbangan Regency was replaced to the Garut Regency and had a capital the Garut city on July 1, 1913. At that time, the Regent was RAA is Wiratanudatar. Garut city at that time covering the three villages, namely Kota Kulon village, the Kota Wetan Village, Margawati Village; the Garut Regency covered Garut districts, Cibatu, Leles, Balubur Limbangan, Pakenjeng and Pameungpeuk.
In the year 1915, RAA Wiratanudatar replaced by his nephew of Adipati Suria Karta Legawa. On August 14, 1925, a decision based on the Governor General, Garut Regency government passed a stand-alone. Garut was well known before World War II; the legendary film star Charlie Chaplin is said to have visited Garut twice. He is reported to have visited in 1927 and 1935, staying at the Grand Hotel Ngamplang in Cilawu region, a hilly resort around 3.4 kilometers from the city center. More Garut is a centre of tourism in the region south of Bandung for hiking, hot spas, nearby lakes and villages, so on. Nearby sites include the following: Mount Papandayan, about 15 km to the southwest of Garut; the Kamojang crater, a geothermal field and tourist spot, is located on the slopes of Mount Guntur 25 km to the northwest of Garut. The Cangkuang Hindu temple, near the village of Leles, is around 10 km towards the north of the town of Garut on the road to Bandung; the temple, said to have been built during the period of the Galuh Sundanese kingdom in the 8th century, is one of the few Hindu sites in West Java.
The restored temple is on the edge of Cangkuang lake where there is a few bungalows. Curug Orok, a group of waterfalls. Masjid Asy-Syuro is a mosque. Therefore, this mosque loks like a church because of its architectural style; this is a conserved building in Garut. Built in 1934 and finished in 1936, it consists of a hall, a "mimbar", a tower. This building has a thick stone decoration at its lower part; this mosque is located at Desa Sukarasa, Kecamatan Pangatikan. This building had been functioned as a shelter and fortress while a civil and political conflict of Darul Islam or Tentara Islam Indonesia movement. Now this mosque is still used as a normal mosque for praying and a center of Pesantren Cipari, a traditional and modern Islamic boarding school complex. Kawah Talaga Bodas, a with and cyan crater. Kebun Mawar Situhapa, a rose plantation garden at the District of Samarang. Kampung Bali, a gallery of ancient heritage such as Keris, Script, etc; this place is located at District of Cibatu. Taman Satwa Cikembulan, a mini zoo and kids play ground at the District of
West Java is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western part of the island of Java and its capital and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the larger urban area of Jakarta, though that city itself lies outside the administrative province. With a population of 46.3 million West Java is the most populous of Indonesia's provinces. The city proper of Bandung, largest city in West Java, has one of the highest population density worldwide, while Bekasi and Depok are the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world. All these cities are suburban to Jakarta; the oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were unearthed in Anyer with evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium AD. The prehistoric Buni culture clay pottery were developed with evidence found in Anyer to Cirebon. Artefacts, such as food and drink containers, were found as burial gifts.
There is archaeological evidence in Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from the 2nd century and, according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya, West Java was built around this time. One of the earliest known recorded history in Indonesia is from the former Tarumanagara kingdom, where seven fourth century stones are inscribed in Wengi letters and in Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom Tarumanagara. Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya, as stated in the Kota Kapur inscription; the Sunda Kingdom subsequently became the ruling power of the region, as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription. An Ulama, Sunan Gunung Jati, settled in Cirebon, with the intention of spreading the word of Islam in the pagan town. In the meantime, the Sultanate of Demak in central Java grew to an immediate threat against the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa signed a treaty with the Portuguese in 1512.
In return, the Portuguese were granted an accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international treaty of West Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung River in 1522. Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it could not come to realization. Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the alliance of the Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Cirebon in 1524, after their troops under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops under Sunan Gunung Jati seized the port of Banten and established the Sultanate of Banten, affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak; the war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon sultanates continued for five years until a peace treaty was made in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the Sunda kingdom declined under the pressure from Sultanate of Banten.
After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at Pakuan Pajajaran and the Sultanate of Banten took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram Sultanate from central Java seized the Priangan region, the southeastern part of the kingdom. In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies established their trading ships in West Java after the falldown of Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West Java fell under the Dutch East Indies' administration. West Java was declared as a province of Indonesia in 1950, referring to a statement from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide political decentralization, Banten was separated from West Java and made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename the province Pasundan after the historical name for West Java. Since the creation of West Bandung Regency in 2008, the Province of West Java has been subdivided into 9 cities and 17 regencies; these 26 cities and regencies are divided into 620 districts, which comprise 1,576 urban villages and 4,301 rural villages.
An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 - Pangandaran Regency - from the southern half of Ciamis Regency. Notes* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung Regency, of which West Bandung Regency was part. ** - the figures for Ciamis Regency include those for the new Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012. West Java borders Jakarta and Banten province to the west, Central Java to the east. To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean. Unlike most other provinces in Indonesia which have their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung, is loc
The Baduy are a traditional Bantenese community living in the southeastern part of the Indonesian province of Banten, near Rangkasbitung. They are considered an uncontacted people, a group who are completely isolated from the outside world; the Baduy region is geographically located at coordinates 6°27’27" – 6°30’0" south latitude and 108°3’9" – 106°4’55" east longitude. Their population of 11,700 is centered at the foothill of Kendeng mountains at the Kanekes settlement, Leuwidamar district, Lebak Regency, Banten with a distance of 40 km from Rangkasbitung; this region, part of the Kendeng mountains with an elevation of 300–500 meters above sea level. The average temperature is 20 °C, their homeland in Banten, Java is contained in just 50 km2 of hilly forest area 120 km from Jakarta, Indonesia's capital. The three main settlements of the Kanekes people are Cikeusik and Cibeo. Ethnically the Baduys belong to the Sundanese ethnic group, their racial and linguistic traits bear much resemblance to the rest of the Sundanese people.
Baduy people resist foreign influences and vigorously preserve their ancient way of life, while modern Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and a majority are Muslims. The Baduy are divided into two sub-groups. No foreigners were allowed to meet the Inner Baduy, though the Outer Baduy do foster some limited contacts with the outside world; the word Baduy is a name given by outsiders to refer to this community of people, beginning from the Dutch East Indies observers that might have thought to equate them with the nomadic community of the Bedouin Arabs. Another possibility of the origin of the word Baduy may come from the term "Bedouin", although other sources claim the source is a name of a local river. However, they themselves would prefer to be referred to as Orang Kanekes; the Baduy speak a dialect derived from archaic Sundanese. However, modern Sundanese and Javanese influences in their archaic dialect can be heard in their speech. In order to communicate with outsiders, they speak Indonesian language fluently though they did not have formal learning of the language in schools.
The Inner Kanekes people are illiterate, hence their customary, religious belief system and ancestral folktales are preserved in a form of oral tradition. Formal education for the children of Baduy people is against their traditional customs, they reject government proposal to build educational facilities in the villages. Up till today, since the Suharto era, governmental efforts to force them to change their lives and build modern schools in their territory, the Baduy still opposed the government; as a result few Baduy people are able to read or write. According to belief system that they practice, Kanekes people regard themselves as descendants of Batara Cikal, one of the seven deities or gods, sent to earth; that origin is associated with Adam, as the first man of mankind. In their belief system and his descendants, including the Kanekes people have been given the task to meditate or practice asceticism in order to preserve the harmony of the world; the opinion of the mythological origins of the Kanekes people differs from the opinions of historians, who base their opinions by the synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, written records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, as well as the'Tatar Sunda' folklore which few had remained in existence.
Some people believe that the Baduy are the descendants of the aristocracy of the Sunda Kingdom of Pajajaran who lived near Batutulis in the hills around Bogor but there is no strong evidence to support this belief yet. Pakuwan Pajajaran port known as Sunda Kelapa, was destroyed by invading Faletehan Muslim soldiers in 1579, Dayeuh Pakuan the capital of Pajajaran, was invaded by Banten Sultanate some time later. Before the establishment of the Banten Sultanate, the end of the western tip region in Java Island plays an important role for the Sunda Kingdom. Banten was a large trading port. Various types of vessel entered the Ciujung River, most of them are used to transport crops that were harvested from the interior regions. Therefore, the ruler of the region, Prince Pucuk Umun considers that the sustainability of the river needs to be maintained. So an army of trained royal troops was commanded to guard and to manage the dense and hilly jungle areas in the region of Mount Kendeng; the existence of the troops with their specific duties to that area seems to be the pioneer of the Kanekes community which still inhabit the upstream of Ciujung River at Gunung Kendeng.
The disagreement of this theory led to the notion that in the past, their identity and historicity had been intentionally concealed, to protect the Kanekes community themselves from the attacks of the Sunda Kingdom of Pajajaran's enemies. Van Tricht, a doctor who had done medical research in 1928, denied the theory. According to him, the Kanekes people are natives of the region who have strong resistance to external influences; the Kanekes people themselves refuse to acknowledge that they are from the fugitives of Pajajaran, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According to Danasasmita an
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision or satellite entity to a larger settlement; the word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church; the word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French hamel. This, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām and Modern English home. In Afghanistan the counterpart of the hamlet is the qala meaning "fort" or "hamlet"; the Afghan qala is a fortified group of houses with its own community building such as a mosque, but without its own marketplace. The qala is the smallest type of settlement in Afghan society, trumped by the village, larger and includes a commercial area.
In Australia a hamlet is a small village. A hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, but has residences and may have community buildings such as churches and public halls. In Canada's three territories, hamlets are designated municipalities; as of January 1, 2010: Northwest Territories had 11 hamlets, each of which had a population of less than 900 people as of the 2016 census. In Canada's provinces, hamlets are small unincorporated communities within a larger municipality, such as many communities within the single-tier municipalities of Ontario or within Alberta's specialized and rural municipalities. Canada's two largest hamlets—Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park—are located in Alberta, they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60,000—well in excess of the 10,000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta. As such, these two hamlets have been further designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery and grant eligibility.
During the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of some houses or farms with rustic appearance, but in fact were comfortable; the best known is the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles. Or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet; the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited. The German word for hamlet is Weiler. A Weiler has, compared to no infrastructure; the houses and farms of a Weiler can be scattered. In North West Germany, a group of scattered farms is called Bauernschaft. In a Weiler there are no street names, the houses are just numbered. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet. In Haryana and Rajasthan it is called "dhani" or "Thok". In Gujarat a hamlet is called a "nesada". In Maharashtra it's called a "pada". In southern Bihar in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a "bigha".
All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as kampung. They are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra. In Pakistan a hamlet is called a gron. In Poland a hamlet is called osada, is a small rural settlement differing by type of buildings or inhabited by population connected with some place or workplace, it can be a part of other settlement, like village. In Romania hamlets are called cătunuri, they represent villages that contain several houses at most, they are considered villages, statistically, they are placed in the same category. Like villages, they do not have a separate administration, thus are not an administrative division, but are part of a parent commune. In the Russian language there are several words which mean "a hamlet", but all of them are equal; the most common word is деревня. A hamlet in Russia has a church, some little shops, a school and a local culture center, in which different culture events and national holidays take place.
A hamlet in Russia consists of several tens of wooden houses. In the past hamlets were the most common kind of settlement in Russia, but nowadays many hamlets in Russia are settled only during the summer as places for vacation because people go to towns and cities in order to find better
Sundanese traditional house
Sundanese traditional house refers to the traditional vernacular houses of Sundanese people predominantly inhabited Western parts of Java island, Indonesia. The architecture of a Sundanese house is characterized by its functionality, modesty, uniformity with a little details, its use of natural thatched materials, its quite faithful adherence to the harmony with the nature and environment; the Sundanese traditionally maintain the knowledge of their ancestors and their traditional lifestyles in a close harmony with nature, which extends to their construction methods. Sundanese traditional houses take basic form of gable roofed structure called kampung style roof, made of thatched materials covering wooden frames and beams, woven bamboo walls, its structure is built on short stilts, its roof variations might includes gablet roof. The more elaborate overhanging gablet roof is called julang ngapak, which means "bird spreading wings". Other traditional Sundanese house forms including Buka Pongpok, Capit Gunting, Jubleg Nangkub, Badak Heuay, Tagog Anjing, Perahu Kemureb.
The ornamentation includes the "o" or "x" shaped roof edges that called capit gunting, similar to a certain "x" design of Malay houses' roof. Next to houses, rice barn or called leuit in Sundanese, is an essential structure in traditional Sundanese agricultural community. Leuit is important during Seren Taun harvest ceremony. Compared to Javanese houses, Dayak longhouses or Minangkabau houses, Sundanese traditional houses are much smaller with only consists of three parts or rooms for a single nuclear family. A more traditional house of Baduy people, a sub-ethnic of Sundanese people is called Sulah Nyanda, it is regarded as the blue print of common Sundanese traditional houses. It is made from wooden frame, woven bamboo wall, dried palm leaves roof; the traditional house of Sulah Nyanda is divided into 3 parts. Each room functions according to the family requirements; the veranda-like front of the house or called sosoro serves as a guests' reception area. This is because guests are not allowed to get into the house.
Other functions including a place to relax and weave for women. The front is shaped to the side with an opening gap as the entrance; the middle room is called tepas, used for sleeping family meetings. While at the back of the house or called as imah used as a place to cook and store the produce of fields rice; each room is equipped with holes on the floor for air circulation. The architecture of Sundanese house reflects the culture of Sundanese people. Unlike its Javanese neighbor which adhere to such social hierarchy reflected in the stratification of roof types in their houses, Sundanese houses are more egalitarian with a touch of uniformity; this layout can be found in numbers of Sundanese traditional villages. The houses of Baduy people is the example of traditional Sundanese architecture that still adheres to traditional life and taboos. Baduy people are well known for their hermit-like self-imposed isolationism which rejects modern way of life and outside influences. For example, it is forbidden for them to apply masonry technique, such as using earthenware or terracotta tiles for roof, nor using bricks and cements as building materials.
It is forbidden for them to excessively altering the terrain or leveling the topography. The example of Sundanese traditional houses can be found in numbers of Sundanese traditional villages; such as Kampung Naga in Tasikmalaya Regency, Kampung Ciptagelar on the southern slopes of Mount Halimun, Sukabumi Regency, Kampung Urug and Kampung Sindang Barang in Bogor Regency. After the era of Javanese expansion during Sultan Agung of Mataram era in 17th century, Sundanese began to adopt Javanese architectural themes more extensively, thus the limasan and tajug pyramidal roof more appeared in Sundanese settlements and principalities. Traditional Sundanese architecture still abundant in rural Western Java; the era of European colonialism of VOC and Dutch East Indies after 17th century brought European architectural techniques, including stone and brick masonry. There were gradual adaptation started in this era to create a colonial architecture in Preanger. Yet, the architectural influence went both ways, as numbers of colonial architecture began to adopt native architecture including Sundanese traditional styles.
The Halls of Tecnische Hogeschool in Bandung, now Bandung Institute of Technology, designed by Henri Maclaine Pont, has its roof inspired by vernacular architecture of Indonesia, with influences derived from Batak Karo house, Minangkabau Atap Bagonjong of Rumah Gadang, to Sundanese Julang Ngapak roof. Today, there is a steady decline of traditional Sundanese houses, as modern families began to adopt and construct houses in modern style and techniques. More concrete masonry houses were erected in Sundanese cultural area, those of traditional wooden and bamboo structure, with thatched roofed Sundanese houses, were only left in rural areas. Indonesian architecture Rumah adat Dutch Indies country houses Salura, Sundanese Architecture, Rosda, ISBN 9789796925414