Havasu Creek is a stream in the U. S. state of Arizona associated with the Havasupai people. It is a tributary to the Colorado River. Havasu Creek is the second largest tributary of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park; the drainage basin for Havasu Creek is about 3,000 square miles. It includes the town of Williams and Grand Canyon Village. Havasu Creek starts out above the canyon wall as a small trickle of rain water; this water meanders on the plains above the canyon for about 50 miles until it enters Cataract Canyon. It reaches Havasu Springs, where an underground source feeds the creek; this spring can be accessed by heading upstream. The water stays at about 70 °F all year around; the creek is well known for its blue-green color and distinctive travertine formations. This is due to large amounts of calcium carbonate in the water that formed the limestone that lines the creek and reflects its color so strongly; this gives the creek an interesting feature, as it is ever-changing. This occurs because any items that fall into the stream mineralize quickly, causing new formations and changing the flow of the water.
This causes the creek to never look the same from one year to another. The creek runs through the village of Supai, it flows into the Colorado River; until the August 2008 flooding, Navajo Falls was the first prominent waterfall in the canyon. They were named after an old Supai chief, it was located 1.25 miles from Supai and is accessed from a trail located on the left side of the main trail. This side trail leads down to the creek; the trail leads back into the trees, where the main pool and falls were located. The pool was popular for its ease to swimmers; the falls were 70 feet tall and consisted of separate sets of water chutes, the main one located on the right side where the water cascaded down the canyon hill. To the left of the main chute there were other smaller ones that were more vertical. There were a few places. In August 2008, Navajo Falls was bypassed by a flood. According to The New York Times: Within 12 hours, several surges of high water roared down the creek, destroying the campground, stranding a Boy Scout troop from New Jersey and setting off a massive mudslide that obliterated Navajo Falls, one of four spectacular canyon waterfalls that attract tourists from around the world.
Despite this early report, the site of the falls still exists. This waterfall called New Navajo Falls, came into being in the 2008 flood that bypassed Navajo Falls and is now the first waterfall in the canyon; the falls fall into a rocky pool. This waterfall called Rock Falls, is the second one created by the 2008 flood, about.15 miles below Upper Navajo Falls. The creek falls about 30 feet into a swimming hole. Havasu Falls is the third waterfall in the canyon, it is located at 36°15′18″N 112°41′52″W and is accessed from a trail on the right side of the main trail. The side trail drops into the main pool. Havasu is arguably the most visited of all the falls; the falls consist of one main chute. The falls are known for their natural pools, created by mineralization, although most of these pools were damaged and/or destroyed in the early 1990s by large floods that washed through the area. A small man-made dam was constructed to preserve what is left. There are many picnic tables on the opposite side of the creek and it is easy to cross over by following the edges of the pools.
It is possible to enter a small rock shelter behind it. Before the flood of 1910, the falls were called "Bridal Veil Falls" because they fell from the entire width of the now-dry travertine cliffs north and south of the present falls. Mooney Falls is the fourth main waterfall in the canyon, it is named after D. W. "James" Mooney, a miner, who in 1882 – according to his companions – decided to mine the area near Havasu Falls for minerals. The group decided to try Mooney Falls. One of his companions was injured, so James Mooney decided to try to climb up the falls with his companion tied to his back, subsequently fell to his death; the Falls are located 2.25 miles from Supai, just past the campgrounds. The trail leads to the top of the falls, where there is a lookout/photograph area that overlooks the 210-foot canyon wall that the waterfall cascades over. In order to gain access to the bottom of the falls and its pool, a rugged and dangerous descent is required. Extreme care and discretion for the following portion is required.
The trail down is located on the left side, up against the canyon wall. The first half of the trail is only moderately difficult until the entrance of a small passageway/cave is reached. At this point the trail becomes difficult and precarious; the small passageway is large enough for the average human, leads to a small opening in which another pass
Gila County, Arizona
Gila County is a county in the central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 53,597; the county seat is Globe. Gila County comprises Arizona Micropolitan Statistical Area. Gila County contains parts of San Carlos Indian Reservation; the county was formed from parts of Maricopa County and Pinal County on February 8, 1881. The boundary was extended eastward to the San Carlos River by public petition in 1889; the original county seat was in the mining community of Globe City, now Globe, Arizona. Popular theory says that the word Gila was derived from a Spanish contraction of Hah-quah-sa-eel, a Yuma word meaning "running water, salty". In the 1880s, a long range war broke out in Gila County that became the most costly feud in American history, resulting in an complete annihilation of the families involved; the Pleasant Valley War matched the cattle-herding Grahams against the sheep-herding Tewksburys. Once partisan feelings became tense and hostilities began, Frederick Russell Burnham, who became a celebrated scout and the inspiration for the boy scouts, was drawn into the conflict on the losing side.
Burnham shot many men in the feud, was himself nearly killed by a bounty hunter. Tom Horn, a famous assassin, was known to have taken part as a killer for hire, but it is unknown as to which side employed him, both sides suffered several murders to which no suspect was identified. In the 1960s, it was home of Gerald Gault, the subject of the 1967 U. S. Supreme Court ruling, in re Gault, that stated juveniles have the same rights as adults when arrested to be notified of the charges against them, the rights to attorneys, for family members to be notified of their arrests and to confront their accusers and to not be punished harsher than adults who are convicted of the same crime if an adult's penalty for the crime would be less than a juvenile convict's. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,795 square miles, of which 4,758 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water. Yavapai County - northwest Maricopa County - west Pinal County - south Graham County - southeast Navajo County - east, northeast Coconino County - north Coconino National Forest Tonto National Forest Tonto National Monument As of the census of 2000, there were 51,335 people, 20,140 households, 14,098 families residing in the county.
The population density was 11 people per square mile. There were 28,189 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.82% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 12.92% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.59% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 16.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 9.84 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 20,140 households out of which 26.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.00% were non-families. 25.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 22.30% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 19.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,917, the median income for a family was $36,593. Males had a median income of $31,579 versus $22,315 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,315. About 12.60% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.90% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 53,597 people, 22,000 households, 14,294 families residing in the county; the population density was 11.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 32,698 housing units at an average density of 6.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.8% white, 14.8% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.3% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 17.9% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 17.4% were German, 13.3% were English, 11.4% were Irish, 3.4% were American. Of the 22,000 households, 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families, 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 47.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,580 and the median income for a family was $46,292. Males had a median income of $41,698 versus $30,023 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,600. About 11.6% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Gila County has been a Democratic-leaning county in Republican Arizona – for instance it voted for Adlai Stevenson II in 1952, Hubert Humphrey in 1968 and for John W. Davis in 1924.
In much of the “dealignment” period from 1960 to 1980, when Arizona was the only state never carried by a De
The Paria River is a tributary of the Colorado River 95 miles long, in southern Utah and northern Arizona in the United States. It drains a rugged and arid region northwest of the Colorado, flowing through roadless slot canyons along part of its course, it is formed in southern Utah, in southwestern Garfield County from several creeks that descend from the edge of the Paunsaugunt Plateau, meeting just north of Tropic. It flows SSE across Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. Along the Arizona state line, it descends through the Vermilion Cliffs in the Paria Canyon and onto the Paria Plateau, it joins the Colorado from the northwest 5 mi southwest of Page and the Glen Canyon Dam. The lower 20 mi of the river are within the Paria Canyon-Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness, administered by the Bureau of Land Management; the Paria is a large creek and is not navigable. A 2004 study estimated that the Tropic Ditch, a historic artificial irrigation canal that diverts water from the East Fork Sevier River, loses 1060 acre-feet per year to seepage, half of that seepage ends up in the Paria River, bringing with it 1829 tons of salt per year.
To help restore the salinity of the Paria and Colorado Rivers to more natural levels, the Tropic and East Fork Irrigation Company has proposed replacing the last 5.5 miles of the ditch with a pipeline. The cost may be supplemented by a grant from the Bureau of Reclamation's Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program; the Paria is one of the most popular destinations for canyoneering in the region. Buckskin Gulch, a side canyon along the river in the narrows section, is considered to be one of the longest and deepest slot canyons in the United States; the Paria is home to a number of important historical and biological resources. Lee's Ferry and the adjoining settlement are located within the canyon just upstream of the confluence with the Colorado River, with a number of other abandoned settlements further north; the Paria and several nearby rivers and canyons are the site of several well-preserved specimens of Native American petroglyphs, prehistoric drawings and symbols carved into stone.
The Paria boasts a vibrant desert riparian habitat, home to a number of sensitive and endangered species, is the location of Wrather Arch, the longest natural arch outside of Utah. About a mile south of the river and the ghost town of Pahreah is the Paria Movie Set, the site for a number of western movies. Among the movies filmed at this site and the surrounding area were The Outlaw Josey Wales, Sergeants 3, Westward the Women, Buffalo Bill; the old film set in the canyon was a popular attraction but was damaged in a flash flood in 1998. The buildings were rebuilt in a nearby location by volunteers. In 2006 these new buildings were destroyed in a suspicious fire. List of Arizona rivers List of Utah rivers List of tributaries of the Colorado River Paria Canyon-Vermillion Cliffs Wilderness AmericanSouthwest.net: Paria River Paria River Natural History Association
The Ancestral Puebloans were an ancient Native American culture that spanned the present-day Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado. The Ancestral Puebloans are believed to have developed, at least in part, from the Oshara Tradition, who developed from the Picosa culture, they lived in a range of structures that included small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, cliff-sited dwellings for defense. The Ancestral Puebloans possessed a complex network that stretched across the Colorado Plateau linking hundreds of communities and population centers, they held a distinct knowledge of celestial sciences. The kiva, a congregational space, used chiefly for ceremonial purposes, was an integral part of this ancient people's community structure. In contemporary times, the people and their archaeological culture were referred to as Anasazi for historical purposes; the Navajo, who were not their descendants, called them by this term.
Reflecting historic traditions, the term was used to mean "ancient enemies". Contemporary Puebloans do not want this term to be used. Archaeologists continue to debate; the current agreement, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BC, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era. Beginning with the earliest explorations and excavations, researchers identified Ancestral Puebloans as the forerunners of contemporary Pueblo peoples. Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and Taos Pueblo. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term originating with the Spanish explorers who used it to refer to the people's particular style of dwelling; the Navajo people, who now reside in parts of former Pueblo territory, referred to the ancient people as Anaasází, an exonym meaning "ancestors of our enemies", referring to their competition with the Pueblo peoples.
The Navajo now use the term in the sense of referring to "ancient people" or "ancient ones". Hopi people used the term Hisatsinom, to describe the Ancestral Puebloans; the Ancestral Puebloans were one of four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest. This area is sometimes referred to as Oasisamerica in the region defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America; the others are the Mogollon and Patayan. In relation to neighboring cultures, the Ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeast quadrant of the area; the Ancestral Puebloan homeland centers on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico on the east to southern Nevada on the west. Areas of southern Nevada and Colorado form a loose northern boundary, while the southern edge is defined by the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Arizona and the Rio Puerco and Rio Grande in New Mexico. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture has been found extending east onto the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers and in the Galisteo Basin.
Terrain and resources within this large region vary greatly. The plateau regions have high elevations ranging from 4,500 to 8,500 feet. Extensive horizontal mesas are capped by sedimentary formations and support woodlands of junipers and ponderosa pines, each favoring different elevations. Wind and water erosion have created steep-walled canyons, sculpted windows and bridges out of the sandstone landscape. In areas where resistant strata, such as sandstone or limestone, overlie more eroded strata such as shale, rock overhangs formed; the Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive building sites. All areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought, wind and water erosion. Summer rains could be unreliable and arrived as destructive thunderstorms. While the amount of winter snowfall varied the Ancestral Puebloans depended on the snow for most of their water. Snow melt allowed the germination of seeds, both cultivated, in the spring.
Where sandstone layers overlay shale, snow melt could accumulate and create seeps and springs, which the Ancestral Puebloans used as water sources. Snow fed the smaller, more predictable tributaries, such as the Chinle, Animas and Taos Rivers; the larger rivers were less directly important to the ancient culture, as smaller streams were more diverted or controlled for irrigation. The Ancestral Puebloan culture is best known for the stone and earth dwellings its people built along cliff walls during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III eras, from about 900 to 1350 AD in total; the best-preserved examples of the stone dwellings are now protected within United States' national parks, such as Navajo National Monument, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Aztec Ruins National Monument, Bandelier National Monument, Hovenweep National Monument, Canyon de Chelly National Monument. These villages, called pueblos by Spanish colonists, were accessible only by rope or through rock climbing.
These astonishing building achievements had modest beginnings. The first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on the pit-house, a common feature in the Basketmaker periods. Ancestral Puebloans are known for their pottery. In general, pottery used for cooking or storage in the region was unpainted gray, either smooth or textured. Pottery used for more formal purposes was more richly adorned. In the n
The Babocomari River is a major tributary of the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona. The river begins in the Sonoita Basin near the community of Elgin and flows eastward for 25 miles before merging with the San Pedro, just south of the Fairbank Historic Townsite in the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area; the Babocomari drains an area of about 310 square miles, including the northern Huachuca Mountains, the northwestern Canelo Hills, the southern Mustang Mountains, is one of three drainages of the Sonoita Basin, the other two being Sonoita Creek and Cienega Creek. Vegetation consists of riparian trees along small marshy grasslands. List of rivers of Arizona
Thunder River (Tapeats Creek tributary)
Thunder River is a river within the Grand Canyon National Park. It flows southeast from its source near the North Rim of the canyon to Tapeats Creek; the 0.5-mile-long river is one of the shortest in the United States, drops 1,200 feet over a series of waterfalls, making it the steepest river in the country. It is a rare instance where a river is a tributary of a creek. While Tapeats Creek was named by the second Powell Expedition in the winter of 1871–1872, the expedition did not discover Thunder River; the river can be reached by Thunder River Trail from the North Rim, only accessible from mid-May to late October. The upper portions of the trail were built in 1876 when rumors of placer gold led speculators to need a way into the area. Further trail work was performed beginning in 1925 under the US Forest Service and continued under the National Park Service with the final sections to Tapeats Creek completed in 1939; the creek is fed from the second-largest spring on the North Rim. Water emerges from the Muav Limestone in a deep cave system at 54 °F.
Since the spring flows year round, the river is a perennial river. In 1970, the spring was estimated to discharge twenty-one million US gal of water per day into the river. Common trees near the spring include Fremont's cottonwoods and white sumac. Along the river are willows, other shrubs, crimson monkeyflower, maidenhair fern and other riparian fauna. Common aquatic invertebrate found in the creek include caddisflies. List of rivers of Arizona Wallkill River, in New Jersey and New York drains into a creek