The Edith Falls is a series of cascading waterfalls and pools on the Edith River in the Nitmiluk National Park, located 60 kilometres north of Katherine, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The falls descend from an elevation of 176 metres above sea level and range in height between 8.7–12 metres. There are trails to the top of the escarpment, allowing visitors to view the waterfalls. Edith Falls is connected to Katherine Gorge via the 66-kilometre Jatbula walk; the traditional custodians of the land surrounding the waterfall are the Jawoyn people. List of waterfalls of the Northern Territory "Leliyn". Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory. Government of the Northern Territory. September 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013
Tin Mine Falls
The Tin Mine Falls is a cascade waterfall located in the remote Pilot Wilderness Area within the Kosciuszko National Park in the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. Described from top to bottom, the falls consist of non-segmented tiered cascades over bedrock with a few smaller plunges, followed by a single large plunge into a pool; the falls are recessed into a punchbowl feature making it impossible to view the entire waterfall from a single location on the ground. The falls are located in remote country within the Kosciuszko National Park; the closest access point is the Cascade Fire Trail, a hiking trail that runs south from the Alpine Way, west of Thredbo Village. The height of Tin Mine Falls is listed as 459 metres or 360 metres, quote a story concerning the origin of this figure: "The falls were measured in 1990 by a Dr. John Pease... using a plumb line". According to the World Waterfall Database, Tin Mine Falls is the 462nd tallest waterfall in the world, with a total height of 213 metres.
Official data from Geoscience Australia list the most significant waterfalls in Australia as: Wallaman Falls - Queensland, 305m Wollomombi Falls - New South Wales, 220 metres with a 100-metre single drop Ellenborough Falls - New South Wales 160 metres in a single drop The estimated height of 160–180 metres corresponds with topography but contradicts Geoscience Australia's list of the tallest waterfalls in Australia. Unless the upper limit of the falls is fixed well upstream, to include a long section of shallow-slope non-bedrock streambed, the rumoured height of 360–459 metres cannot be substantiated. List of waterfalls of New South Wales
The Flinders Ranges are the largest mountain range in South Australia, which starts about 200 km north of Adelaide. The discontinuous ranges stretch for over 430 km from Port Pirie to Lake Callabonna, its most characteristic landmark is Wilpena Pound, a large, sickle-shaped, natural amphitheatre that covers 80 km2, contains the range's highest peak, St Mary Peak which adjoins the Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park. The northern ranges are protected by the Arkaroola Protection Area and the Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park; the southern ranges are notable for the Pichi Richi scenic railway and Mount Remarkable National Park. The Adnyamathanha people are the indigenous inhabitants of the range. Several small areas in the Ranges have protected area status; these include the Ikara-Flinders Ranges National Park near Wilpena Pound, the Mount Remarkable National Park in the south near Melrose, the Arkaroola Protection Area in the north, The Dutchmans Stern Conservation Park west of Quorn, the Mount Brown Conservation Park south of Quorn.
The Heysen Trail and Mawson Trail run for several hundred kilometres along the ranges, providing scenic long distance routes for walkers and horse-riders. The Flinders Ranges are composed of folded and faulted sediments of the Adelaide Geosyncline; this thick sequence was deposited in a large basin during the Neoproterozoic on the passive margin of the ancient continent of Rodinia. During the Cambrian the area underwent the Delamerian orogeny, when this sequence of rocks was folded and faulted into a large mountain range; the area has undergone subsequent erosion resulting in the low ranges today. Most of the high ground and ridgetops are sequences of quartzites; the high walls of Wilpena Pound are formed by the outcropping beds of the eponymous Pound Quartzite in a synclinal structure. Synclines form other high parts of the Flinders, including the plateau of the Gammon Ranges and the Heysen Range. Cuesta forms are very common; the Ranges are renowned for the Ediacara Hills, South-west of Leigh Creek, where in 1946 some of the oldest fossil evidence of animal life was discovered.
Similar fossils have subsequently been found in the ranges, although their locations are kept secret to protect the sites. In 2004 a new geological period, the Ediacaran Period, was created to mark the appearance of Ediacara biota; the region has a semi-arid climate with cool winters. Summer temperatures exceed 38 °C, while winters have highs around 13–16 °C, depending on the elevation. Although rainfall is erratic, most of the precipitation falls in winter. There are some monsoonal showers and storms that move in from the north during the summer; the area gets around 250 mm of rain annually, at 350 mm. Frost is common on winter mornings and temperatures have dropped as low as −8 °C. Snow has been recorded in the Wilpena Pound and at Blinman; the last significant snowfall was in 1995. The flora of the Ranges are species adapted to a semi-arid environment, including sugar gum, cypress-pine and black oak. Moister areas near Wilpena Pound support grevilleas, Guinea flowers and ferns. Reeds and sedges grow near permanent water sources such as waterholes.
Since the eradication of dingos and the establishment of permanent waterholes for stock, the number of red kangaroos, western grey kangaroos and wallaroos in the Flinders Ranges has increased. The yellow-footed rock-wallaby, which neared extinction after the arrival of Europeans due to hunting and predation by foxes, has now stabilised. Other endemic marsupials include planigales. Insectivorous bats make up a significant proportion of the mammals. There are a large number of bird species including parrots, emus, the wedge-tailed eagle and small numbers of water birds. Reptiles include goannas, dragon lizards and geckos; the streambank froglet is an endemic amphibian. The Ranges are part of the Tirari–Sturt stony desert ecoregion; the first humans to inhabit the Flinders Ranges were the Adnyamathanha people whose descendants still reside in the area, the Ndajurri people who no longer exist. Cave paintings, rock engravings and other artefacts indicate that the Adnyamathana and Ndajurri lived in the Flinders Ranges for tens of thousands of years.
Occupation of the Warratyi rock shelter dates back 49,000 years. The first European explorers were an exploration party from Matthew Flinders' seagoing visit to upper Spencer Gulf aboard HMS Investigator, they climbed Mount Brown in March 1802. In the winter of 1839 Edward John Eyre, with five men, two drays and ten horses, further explored the region, setting out from Adelaide on 1 May; the party set up a depot near Mount Arden, explored the surrounding region and upper Spencer Gulf, before heading east to the Murray River and returning to Adelaide. There are records of squatters in the Quorn district as early as 1845, the first pastoral leases were granted in 1851. William Pinkerton is credited as being the first European to find a route through the Flinders Ranges via Pichi Richi Pass. In 1853 he drove 7,000 sheep along the eastern plains of the range to where Quorn would be built 25 years later. In 1851 Wilpena and Aroona were established as sheep stations, within a few years other runs were marked out through the hills and along the adjoining eastern and western slopes.
In 1852 Kanyaka Station was established by Hugh Proby. During the late 1870s the push to open agricultural land for wheat north of the Goyder's Line h
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Govetts Leap Falls
The Govetts Leap Falls called the Bridal Veil Falls or Govetts Leap, is a bridal veil waterfall on the Govetts Leap Brook where it falls over Taylor Wall, located at Govetts Leap Lookout 2.4 kilometres east of Blackheath in the Blue Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. The archaeologist, V. Gordon Childe committed suicide at the falls in 1957. Govetts Leap Falls is situated overlooking the Grose Valley in the Blue Mountains National Park; the falls takes its name from William Romaine Govett, a Government Surveyor who discovered the falls in c. 1831. The waterfall has a single drop of about 180 metres. Above the falls there are picnic tables and access to water. There is a viewing platform and walking trails. List of waterfalls in New South Wales
Fitzroy Falls, New South Wales
Fitzroy Falls is a village in the Wingecarribee Shire, located within the Southern Highlands region of New South Wales, Australia. The locality was renamed after the 81-metre waterfall. At the 2016 census, Fitzroy Falls had a population of 216; the waterfall was known to the indigenous Wodi Wodi people. The first European settler to see it was Charles Throsby, in the early 19th century. Near the head of the Yarrunga Creek in the Morton National Park, the waterfall was named in honour of Sir Charles Fitzroy, the Governor of New South Wales during his visit to the area in 1850. While a town was planned for the area in the 1860s, little development occurred. With the advent of motor vehicles, Fitzroy Falls became, still remains, a popular stopping point for tourists travelling towards the Southern Highlands. Substantial parking and catering facilities have been provided, together with pathways and boardwalks that enable able-bodied visitors to view the falls and other natural features. List of waterfalls of Australia Fitzroy Falls Reservoir "Fitzroy Falls Visitor Centre: Morton National Park".
Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South Wales. "Fitzroy Falls Visitor Centre economic report". NSW Dept of Environment. "Fitzroy Falls - Morton National Park". The Southern Highlands of New South Wales. Furry Software Pty. Ltd. and Berrima District Historical and Family History Society. 15 June 2010. Village of Fitzroy Falls and adjoining lands: Parishes - Burrawang & Yarrunga, County - Camden, Land District - Moss Vale, Shire - Wingecarribee / printed & published by Dept. of Lands, NSW Dept. of Lands, 1967
Ellenborough Falls, a horsetail waterfall on the headwaters of the Ellenborough River, is located in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia. Ellenborough Falls is situated in the Greater Taree area and is near Elands and Comboyne, on the Bulga Plateau; the waterfall has a single drop of about 160 metres although some estimates place it at 150 metres or 200 metres. At the falls there is picnic tables and a barbecue area. There is a viewing platform and walking trails. List of waterfalls of Australia