Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
Keikyū Main Line
The Keikyu Main Line is a railway line in Japan, operated by the private railway operator Keikyu. The line connects the Tokyo wards of Minato, Shinagawa, Ōta, the Kanagawa municipalities of Kawasaki and Yokosuka; the Keikyu Main Line began as a short 2 km line in 1895. By 1905 it was extended from Shinagawa Station in Tokyo to central Yokohama, becoming a major interurban line between the two cities. Keikyu operates the following different types including all-stations "Local" trains. Abbreviations: Lo = Local: Stops at all stations AE = Airport Express between Sengakuji and Haneda Airport Domestic Terminal between Shinzushi and Haneda Airport Domestic Terminal LE = Limited Express LE = Limited Express A = Airport Limited Express MW = Morning Wing: A "Home Liner" service with an additional charge for seat reservation. Operates only on weekday mornings from Miurakaigan on the Keikyu Kurihama Line to Shinagawa and Sengakuji. KW = Keikyu Wing: A "Home Liner" service with an additional charge for seat reservation.
Operates only on weekday evenings from Shinagawa to Misakiguchi on the Keikyu Kurihama Line. For connections and distances, see the route diagram. All sections of the line were built as dual track; the Keihin Railway opened the Kawasaki to Omori section in 1901 as a 1,435 mm gauge line electrified at 600 V DC. In 1904, the line was extended to Shinagawa. In 1930, the Shonan Electric Railway opened the Uraga to Koganecho section as a 1,435 mm gauge line electrified at 1,500 V DC. In 1931, the line from Yokohama was extended to connect at Koganecho. Freight services ceased in 1932, the line was regauged to 1,435 mm the following year, in 1936, the voltage on the Shonan line was reduced to 600 V DC. In 1941, the Shonan Electric Railway merged with the Keihin Railway, which merged with Tokyu the following year; the voltage on the entire line was raised to 1,500 V DC in 1945, in 1948, the Keihin Electric Railway was created to operate the railway. From the start of the revised weekday timetable on 7 December 2015, two Morning Wing limited-stop commuter services from Miurakaigan on the Keikyu Kurihama Line to Shinagawa and Sengakuji in Tokyo were introduced.
These stop at Yokosuka-chuo, Kanazawa-Bunko, Kamiōoka en route. On 7 April 1997, at about 2:47 pm, the first three cars of a four-car train derailed after colliding with a mudslide, resulting in 22 people injured; the accident occurred between Keikyū Taura and Anjinzuka stations, with 60 people on board. Heavy rains caused the mudslide, 7 months after a report by the train company to the Transportation Minister that there was little probability of such an occurrence in that area. 500 workers were mobilized as the train service was temporarily suspended between Kanazawa-Hakkei and Horinouchi stations. On 24 November 2000, at about 5:20 am, the front car of a four-car train derailed after a truck collided with the first car of the train at a level crossing, resulting in injuries to three passengers; the accident occurred in Yokosuka, the 100 commuters on board walked about 200 m to the nearest station to continue their journeys via bus. The driver of the truck reported his foot became stuck between the accelerator and brake pedals, sending him through the crossing bar and into the crossing.
Normal operations continued about 4 hours that morning. On 24 September 2012, at about 11:58 pm, the first three cars of an eight-car train derailed after colliding with a mudslide, resulting in injuries to 28 people including the train driver. Seven men and women were injured, including fractures, broken ribs and pelvises; the accident occurred between Oppama and Keikyū Taura stations, between Yokohama and Yokosuka, with 700 passengers on board. Heavy rains caused the mudslide, sweeping away safety nets, installed in 1998, the year after a similar mudslide in the area. An area of soil about 12 metres high and 15 metres wide fell onto the tracks, bringing trees and fencing structures with it; the train was travelling at 75 km/h before the driver applied the brakes, 30 to 40 m before the mudslide. Train services were temporarily suspended between Kanazawa-Hakkei and Hemi stations and temporary bus services were provided by the train company until normal operations resumed 55 hours after the assessment and clean-up process.
On 18 April 2013, at about 4:30 pm, two window panes shattered in the front car of a commuter train while passing an express train going the opposite direction, resulting in minor lacerations to two high school students sitting with their backs to the windows. One window pane was cracked on the passing train with no injuries; the accident occurred between Keikyu Taura and Anjinzuka stations, with 30 people in the car at the time of the accident. List of railway lines in Japan This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia. Keikyu website
The Kamakura shogunate was a Japanese feudal military government of imperial-aristocratic rule that ruled from 1185 to 1333. The heads of the government were the shōguns; the first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan; the last six were minor Imperial princes. These years are known as the Kamakura period; the period takes its name from the city. After 1203, the Hōjō clan held the office of shikken. In effect, the shikken governed in the name of the shōguns. Before the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, civil power in Japan was held by the ruling emperors and their regents appointed from the ranks of the imperial court and the aristocratic clans that vied there. Military affairs were handled under the auspices of the civil government. However, after defeating the Taira clan in the Genpei War, Minamoto no Yoritomo seized powers from the aristocracy. In 1192, Yoritomo and the Minamoto clan established a military government in Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, Hōjō Tokimasa, the clan chief of Yoritomo's widow, Hōjō Masako, former guardian of Yoritomo, claimed the title of regent to Yoritomo's son Minamoto no Yoriie making that claim hereditary to the Hōjō clan.
Tokimasa deposed Yoriie, backed up his younger brother, Minamoto no Sanetomo, as a new shōgun, assumed the post of shikken. The Minamoto clan remained the titular shōguns, with the Hōjō holding the real power. In 1219, Sanetomo was assassinated by his nephew Kugyō. Since Sanetomo died childless, the line of shōguns from the Minamoto clan ended with him. With the Regency, what was an unusual situation became more anomalous when the Hōjō usurped power from those who had usurped it from the Emperor, descending from Emperor Kōkō, who usurped it from the children of Emperor Seiwa; the new regime nonetheless proved to be stable enough to last a total of 135 years, 9 shōguns and 16 regents. With Sanetomo's death in 1219, his mother Hōjō Masako became the shogunate's real center of power; as long as she lived, regents and shōguns would go, while she stayed at the helm. Since the Hōjō family did not have the rank to nominate a shōgun from among its members, Masako had to find a convenient puppet; the problem was solved choosing Kujo Yoritsune, a distant relation of the Minamoto, who would be the fourth shōgun and figurehead, while Hōjō Yoshitoki would take care of day-to-day business.
However powerless, future shōguns would always be chosen from either Fujiwara or imperial lineage to keep the bloodline pure and give legitimacy to the rule. This succession proceeded for more than a century. In 1221 Emperor Go-Toba tried to regain power in what would be called the Jōkyū War, but the attempt failed; the power of the Hōjō remained unchallenged until 1324, when Emperor Go-Daigo orchestrated a plot to overthrow them, but the plot was discovered immediately and foiled. The Mongols under Kublai Khan attempted sea-borne invasions in 1274 and 1281. Fifty years before, the shogunate had agreed to Korean demands that the Wokou be dealt with to stop their raids, this bit of good diplomacy had created a cooperative relationship between the two states, such that the Koreans, helpless with a Mongol occupation army garrisoning their country, had sent much intelligence information to Japan, so that along with messages from Japanese spies in the Korean peninsula, the shogunate had a good picture of the situation of the pending Mongol invasion.
The shogunate had rejected Kublai's demands to submit with contempt. The Mongol landings of 1274 met with some success, but the Japanese had given the Mongols more casualties in an eight-hour engagement than they had had in fighting in China or Korea, there was no rout of the Japanese defenders, who in any case outnumbered the 40,000 combined invasion force of Mongols and Korean conscripts. Noting an impending storm, the Korean admirals advised the Mongols to re-embark so that the fleet could be protected away from shore. After the surviving forces returned to Mongol territory, Kublai was not dissuaded from his intentions on bringing Japan under Mongol control, once again sent a message demanding submission, which infuriated the Hōjō leadership, who had the messengers executed, they responded with decisive action for defense—a wall was built to protect the hinterland of Hakata Bay, defensive posts were established, garrison lists were drawn up, regular manning of the home provinces was redirected to the western defenses, ships were constructed to harass the invaders' fleet when they appeared.
The Mongols returned in 1281 with a force of some 50,000 Mongol-Korean-Chinese along with some 100,000 conscripts from the defeated Song empire in south China. This force embarked and fought the Japanese for some seven weeks at several locations in Kyushu, but the defenders held, the Mongols made no strategic headway. Again, a typhoon approached, the Koreans and Chinese re-embarked the combined Mongol invasion forces in an attempt to deal with the storm in the open sea. At least one-third of the Mongol force was destroyed, half of the conscripted Song forces to the south over a two-day period of August 15–16. Thousands of invading troops were slaughtered by the samurai; such losses in men and the exhaustion of the Korean state in provisioning the two invasions put an end to the Mongol's attempts to conquer Japan. The "divine wind," or kamikaze, was credited for saving Japan from foreign invasion. For two further decades the Kamakura shogunate maintained a watch in case the Mongols attempted another invasion.
However, the s
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Kanezawa Sanetoki called Hōjō Sanetoki was the founder of the Kanazawa Bunko. He was a member of the Kanezawa branch of the Hōjō clan, he was born to Hōjō Saneyasu in 1224. As his talent was discovered by his uncle Hōjō Yasutoki, Sanetoki was given important posts by four shikken: Yasutoki, Tsunetoki and Tokimune, he began his career as the head of Kosamurai-dokoro in 1234 and became Hikitsukeshu in 1252 and Hyojoshu in 1253. Due to illness, he took a rest at his residence at Kanezawa, Yokohama. While attending to government affairs, he was dedicated himself to study, he studied under Kiyohara no Noritaka. In 1258 he established a temple called Shōmyōji at Kanazawa and put a library within the temple to house his huge manuscript collection
Keikyu Corporation known as Keihin Kyūkō or, more Keikyū, is a private railroad that connects inner Tokyo to Kawasaki, Yokohama and other points on the Miura Peninsula in Kanagawa Prefecture. It provides rail access to Haneda Airport in Tokyo. Keihin means the Tokyo - Yokohama area; the company's railway origins date back to 1898, but the current company dates to 1948. The railway pioneered Kantō region's first electric train and the nation's third, after Hanshin Electric Railway and Nagoya Electric Railway with the opening of a short 2 km long section of what will become the Daishi Line in January 1899, it has its headquarters in Minato, Tokyo. The company changed its English name from Keihin Electric Express Railway Co. Ltd. to Keikyu Corporation on 21 October 2010. Trains on the Main Line have a maximum operating speed of 120 kilometres per hour, making it the third fastest private railroad in the Tokyo region, after the Keisei Skyliner and the Tsukuba Express; the track gauge is differing from the more common Japanese track gauge of 1,067 mm.
The Keikyu Main Line runs between south area of Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokosuka. Shinagawa Station is the terminal station in Tokyo of this line, its Kaitoku limited-stop service competes with JR East's Tōkaidō Main Yokosuka Line. From Sengakuji station, Keikyu trains run into the Toei Asakusa Line and Keisei Electric Railway and Hokuso Railway lines. There are a total of 73 “unique” stations on the Keikyu network, or 77 total stations if each station on each line counts as one station. 600 series 800 series N1000 series 1500 series 2100 series 230 series 400 series 500 series 700 series 700 series 800 series 1000 series 2000 series Since 1997, Keikyu has had four accidents, all of which were on the main line, in the vicinity of Yokosuka. On 7 April 1997, at about 2:47 pm, the first three cars of a four-car train derailed after colliding with a mudslide, resulting in 22 people injured; the accident occurred between Taura and Anjinzuka stations, with 60 people on board. Heavy rains caused the mudslide, 7 months after a report by the train company to the Transportation Minister that there was little probability of such an occurrence in that area.
500 workers were mobilized as the train service was temporarily suspended between Kanazawa-Hakkei and Horinouchi Stations. On 24 November 2000, at about 5:20 am, the front car of a four-car train derailed after a truck collided with the first car of the train at a railroad crossing, resulting in 3 passengers being injured; the accident occurred in Yokosuka and the 100 commuters on board walked about 200 m to the nearest station to continue their commute via bus. The driver of the truck reported his foot became stuck between the accelerator and brake pedals, sending him through the crossing bar and into the crossing. Normal operations continued about 4 hours that morning. On 24 September 2012, at about 11:58 pm, the first three cars of an eight-car train derailed after colliding with a mudslide, resulting in injuries to 28 people including the train driver. 7 men and women were injured, including fractures, broken ribs and pelvises. The accident occurred between Oppama and Keikyu Taura stations, between Yokohama and Yokosuka, with 700 passengers on board.
Heavy rains caused the mudslide, sweeping away safety nets, installed in 1998, the year after a similar mudslide in the area. An area of soil about 12 meters high and 15 meters wide fell onto the tracks, bringing trees and fencing structures with it; the train was travelling 75 km/h before the driver applied the brakes, 30 to 40 meters before the mudslide. Train services were temporarily suspended between Kanazawa-Hakkei and Hemi stations and temporary bus services were provided by the train company until normal operations resumed 55 and a half hours after the assessment and clean-up process. On 18 April 2013, at about 4:30 pm, two window panes shattered in the front car of a local commuter train while passing an express train going the opposite direction, resulting in minor lacerations to two high school students sitting with their backs to the windows. One window pane was cracked on the passing train with no injuries; the accident occurred between Taura and Anjinzuka stations, with 30 people in that car at the time of the accident.
Hirooka, Tomoki. The京急電鉄: シーブリーズを感じるエアポートライナー THE 京急電鉄. Japan: Sairyusha. ISBN 978-4779123658. Yajima, Shuichi. 京急電鉄各駅停車. Japan: Yosensha Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-4800306845. Official website Keikyu website