2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
U.S. Route 12
U. S. Route 12 is an east–west United States highway, running from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, for 2,500 miles; as a thoroughfare, it has been supplanted by I-90 and I-94, but remains an important road for local and regional travel. The highway's western terminus is in Aberdeen, Washington, at an intersection with US 101, while the highway's eastern terminus is in Downtown Detroit, at the corner of Michigan and Cass avenues, near Campus Martius Park; the western terminus of US 12 is located in Washington. In the 1960s, a portion of US 12 was moved north to the town of Morton, when the Mossyrock Dam was built and flooded the towns of Kosmos and Riffe, along the Cowlitz River in Lewis County. A large portion of old, two-lane US 12 was replaced by Interstate 82 and Interstate 182 in the 1980s, between Yakima and the Tri-Cities, though the freeways are still cosigned with the US 12 designation; the old two-lane highway now bears the name Wine Country Road. The highway loosely follows the eastbound leg of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, between Wallula and Clarkston, thus being marked as part of the Lewis and Clark Trail.
The east end of the highway in the state is at Clarkston, where the highway crosses the Snake River into Idaho at Lewiston. The Washington section of US 12, other than a concurrency with Interstate 5, is defined at Washington Revised Code § 47.17.055. US 12 enters the state at Lewiston, crossing the Snake River from Washington, it ascends the Clearwater River, concurrent with US 95 for 7 miles. It reduces to a two-lane undivided highway with signs that read "winding road next 99 miles" and goes on to Orofino, continuing up the middle fork of that river to Lowell, the junction of the Lochsa and Selway Rivers, it climbs to Lolo Pass at the Montana border. This portion of the highway is designated as part of the Lewis and Clark Trail. Most of the highway in Idaho is within the Clearwater National Forest; the eastern section of US 12, through remote mountain forest and up to Lolo Pass, was built in the early 1960s, making US 12 the last US highway constructed. No services are available between Powell, about 70 miles further east.
U. S. Route 12 through Idaho has been proposed as a route for shipment of huge equipment from Lewiston, an inland port, to oil sands facilities near Fort McMurray, Alberta and to a refinery in Billings, Montana. On two-lane portions of the road, the equipment, weighing as much as 300 tons and as much as 30 feet high and 24 feet wide, would occupy the entire roadway; the route is preferable to other routes due to the lack of underpasses and the great distances involved. The alternative is transport across the Great Plains from Texas or New Orleans On U. S. 12, the major obstacle would be power lines which would have to be buried. That and other alterations to the highway such as turnouts would be paid for by the companies; the trucks would transport only at night, moving short distances between places where they would pull off and let traffic pass. A permit granted by the Idaho Transportation Department to ConocoPhillips in August 2010 is the subject of litigation initiated by householders along the route.
On January 19, 2011 it was announced that the Idaho government would issue permits for four loads of refinery equipment to be transported from Lewiston to Billings. US 12 in Montana has been defined as the Lewis and Clark Highway, despite not being the route followed by Lewis and Clark across the state. US 12's 592 miles through Montana's mountains and plains is the greatest distance that US 12 traverses through any state; the highway enters Montana at Lolo Pass, seven miles southwest of Lolo Hot Springs in the Lolo National Forest. After passing Lolo Peak to the south and traveling east for 33 miles, it meets with US 93 at Lolo and continues as a concurrency northeast for 7.5 miles, where US 93 heads due north on Reserve Street, toward Glacier National Park. US 12 continues northeast through Missoula's downtown meeting I-90, it overlaps I-90 for 69 miles, until Garrison, where it heads east toward Helena for 48.8 miles. This two-lane section of the trip passes through Avon and Elliston winding through the Helena National Forest, over the Continental Divide at MacDonald Pass, through Montana's capital city, Helena.
US 12 passes over Interstate 15 at which, point. US 12 overlaps US 287 and heads southeast, toward Townsend for 33.4 miles, where it splits from US 287, which heads south for 30 miles toward the intersection of I-90 near the town of Three Forks. US 12 heads east toward White Sulphur Springs for 42.2 miles. The route joins US 89 for 8.4 miles before entering White Sulphur Springs, for another 3.0 miles east of town. US 89 splits north and US 12 continues east on its own for 233 miles, until the junction with I-94 at Forsyth as a concurrency northeast for 45.8 miles, to Miles City. At the east exit for Miles City, US 12 splits again from I-94 and heads directly east to the North Dakota border at a distance of 92.4 miles. US 12 is a two-lane undivided highway that runs 87.47 miles, through Adams and Slope counties in southwest North Dakota. The speed limit is 65 miles per hour on rural segments, with slower posted speeds within the cities of Marmarth, Bowman and Hettinger. US 12 meets with US 85 in Bowman, the routes are concurrent for a short distance through the city.
US 12 enters South Dakota from North Dakota, as a rural two lane highway about 10 miles west/northwest of Lemmon. For the next 70 miles
Stearns County, Minnesota
Stearns County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 150,642, its county seat is Saint Cloud. The county was founded in 1855, it was named after Isaac Ingalls Stevens changed to Stearns, after Charles Thomas Stearns. Stearns County is part of the St. Cloud, MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area; the area, Stearns County was occupied by numerous indigenous tribes, such as the Sioux and Winnebago. The first large immigration was of German Catholics in the 1850s. Early arrivals came from eastern states; the county was supposed to be named Stevens County, after Governor Isaac Ingalls Stevens, who conducted an area expedition in 1853. But due to a clerical error, the county was named Stearns after Charles Thomas Stearns, a member of the Territorial Council. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,390 square miles, of which 1,343 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water.
The eastern border of Stearns County is the Mississippi River. The land consists of rolling hills, scenic lakes, prairies and woodlands of a mixture of coniferous and deciduous trees. Stearns is one of 17 Minnesota savanna region counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils. There are 166 lakes in Stearns County; as of the 2000 census, there were 133,166 people, 47,604 households, 32,132 families residing in the county. The population density was 99 people per square mile. There were 50,291 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.99% White, 0.83% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.58% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 56.9% were of German and 9.4% Norwegian ancestry. There were 47,604 households out of which 35.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.50% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 16.10% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 19.10% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,426, the median income for a family was $51,553. Males had a median income of $34,268 versus $23,393 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,211. About 4.30% of families and 8.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over. Fairhaven In its early history Stearns County was Democratic due to being German Catholic and opposed to the pietistic Scandinavian Lutheran Republican Party of that era.
It did not vote Republican until Theodore Roosevelt swept every Minnesota county in 1904. Anti-Woodrow Wilson feeling from World War I caused the county to shift overwhelmingly to Warren G. Harding in 1920 before swinging to Robert La Follette, coreligionist Al Smith and fellow “wet” Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1936 the county’s isolationism gave strong support to William Lemke’s Union Party. Stearns County turned Republican until another Catholic nominee, John F. Kennedy, returned it to the Democratic ranks sufficiently to be one of only 130 counties nationwide to back George McGovern in 1972. Since the “Reagan Revolution”, Stearns County has voted reliably Republican, with no Democrat gaining a majority since Jimmy Carter in 1976, Bill Clinton in 1996 the only one to manage a plurality. Crow Lake National Register of Historic Places listings in Stearns County, Minnesota Stearns County official website Sartell Historical Society - Sartell, MN Stearns History Museum official website
Chippewa County, Minnesota
Chippewa County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 12,441, its county seat is Montevideo. The county was formed in 1862, was organized in 1868; the upper part of the county's western boundary is formed by the outline of Lac qui Parle reservoir, formed when the Minnesota River was dammed in 1939. The Minnesota River flows southeast from the lake, along the county's southwestern border, while the Chippewa River flows south through the western part of the county to discharge into the Minnesota at the county's southern border; the Dry Weather Creek drains the west-central part of the county into the Chippewa, while the Palmer Creek drains the lower central part of the county into the Minnesota near the county's southernmost point. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the south, locally to the river valleys. The county's highest point is at its NE corner, at 1,109' ASL; the county has a total area of 588 square miles, of which 581 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water.
In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Montevideo have ranged from a low of 2 °F in January to a high of 83 °F in July, although a record low of −37 °F was recorded in January 1970 and a record high of 110 °F was recorded in July 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.86 inches in December to 4.24 inches in June. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 13,088 people, 5,361 households, 3,597 families in the county; the population density was 22.5/sqmi. There were 5,855 housing units at an average density of 10.1/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.78% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 1.00% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.94% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 1.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 37.8 % were of 36.8 % German ancestry. There were 5,361 households, out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families.
29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.96. The county population contained 25.40% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 24.50% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 20.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,582, the median income for a family was $45,160. Males had a median income of $30,556 versus $20,384 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,039. About 4.80% of families and 8.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.80% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over. Chippewa County voters have tended to vote Democratic in recent decades. Since 1980 the county has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 67% of national elections.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Chippewa County, Minnesota Chippewa County government's website
Kandiyohi is a city in Kandiyohi County, United States. The population was 491 at the 2010 census. Kandiyohi was laid out in 1869. In 1869 the Minnesota legislature voted Kandiyohi to be the new state capital due to its central location; the bill was vetoed by governor William Rainey Marshall on the grounds that "he western treeless districts" further out from Kandiyohi would place the capital away from the population center. Kandiyohi was derived from a Sioux name meaning "where the buffalo fish come from". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.34 square miles, all of it land. U. S. Route 12 serves as a main route in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 491 people, 202 households, 130 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,444.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 233 housing units at an average density of 685.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.5% White, 0.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 3.5% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population. There were 202 households of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.6% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 32.6 years. 28.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.5% male and 49.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 555 people, 215 households, 147 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,754.2 people per square mile. There were 228 housing units at an average density of 720.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.84% White, 0.54% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.90% from other races, 0.36% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.62% of the population. There were 215 households out of which 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.5% under the age of 18, 15.9% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 15.5% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,364, the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $32,045 versus $19,659 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,897. About 3.4% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.3% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over.
Mary Lou Freeman, Iowa state legislator, was born in Kandiyohi
Ictiobus known as buffalo fish or buffalo, is a genus of freshwater fish common in the United States, but found in Canada and Guatemala. They are the largest North American suckers, reaching up to 1.23 m in length. They are sometimes mistaken for carp because of the flat face and large, silver scales running along the body, though they lack the whisker-like barbels common to carp. Buffalo fish live in most types of freshwater bodies where panfish are found, such as ponds, creeks and lakes. Ictiobus fish were caught by the Clark Expedition. From a fishermen's point of view, the buffalo fish is not a popular game fish because it is difficult to catch. Yet, once on the line, it can put up a good fight; the preferred method of catch is by the use of gill nets. These nets are set by hand during the night. Five species are placed in the genus: Ictiobus bubalus Ictiobus cyprinellus Ictiobus labiosus Ictiobus meridionalis Ictiobus niger Buffalo fish was featured in Andrew Zimmern's Bizarre Foods season nine, episode seven, where Zimmern follows a Mississippi River fisherman who catches buffalo fish and deepfries it.
Haff disease Ictiobinae Research - Ictiobus In Héctor Tobar's 2010 novel Barbarian Nurseries, James "Sweet Hands" Washington remains as the only African-American in a now Hispanic neighborhood because " could still take a couple of buses and find the last place in South Los Angeles that served Louisiana buffalo fish." "Buffalo-fish". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Bizarre Foods Season 9 Episodes 7 Magnificent Mississippi River
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate