Illinois's 14th congressional district
The 14th congressional district of Illinois is represented by Democrat Lauren Underwood. The congressional district covers parts of DeKalb, DuPage, Kendall, Lake, McHenry and Will counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Batavia, Campton Hills, Crystal Lake, Huntley, McHenry, Saint Charles, North Aurora, Plainfield, Sycamore, Wauconda and Yorkville are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Incumbent Randy Hultgren defeated Democratic challenger Dennis Anderson to keep his spot in the House of Representatives; this election was a repeat of the 2012 election, Hultgren keeps his spot. Hultgren wins again, this time against Democrat Jim Walz. Hultgren lost his releection bid to Democrat Lauren Underwood; the 14th district was represented from 1987 to 2007 by Republican Dennis Hastert, who served as Speaker of the House during the 106th through 109th congresses.
Joseph Gurney Cannon, who served as speaker during four congresses, represented the district early in his career, although he was representing the 18th district when he was speaker. Following Hastert's November 2007 resignation from Congress, a special election was held on March 8, 2008 to fill the vacancy. Democrat Bill Foster defeated Republican Jim Oberweis by 52.5% to 47.5%. That November, Foster won a full two-year term. However, Foster failed to win re-election in 2010. Republican Randy Hultgren won back the seat for the GOP and was sworn in when the 112th Congress convened. Hultgren was re-elected in 2012, 2014, 2016. In the 2018 election, Democratic nominee Lauren Underwood defeated Hultgren, 52.5 to 47.5 percent, thus flipping the Cook PVI R+5 district to Democratic. As of January 2019, there are three living former members of the House from the district. Illinois's 14th congressional district special election, 2008 Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Washington Post page on the 14th District of Illinois U. S. Census Bureau - 14th District Fact Sheet
DuPage County, Illinois
DuPage County is a county in the U. S. state of Illinois, one of the collar counties of the Chicago metropolitan area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 916,924, its county seat is Wheaton. DuPage County has become developed and suburbanized, although some pockets of farmland remain in the county's western and northern parts; the county has a high socioeconomic profile and residents of Hinsdale and Oak Brook include some of the wealthiest people in the Midwest. On the whole, the county enjoys above average median household income levels and low overall poverty levels when compared to the national average. In 2018 Niche ranked two DuPage municipalities amongst the top 20 best places to live in America. DuPage County was formed on February 1839 out of Cook County; the county took its name from the DuPage River, which was, in turn, named after a French fur trapper, DuPage. The first written history to address the name, the 1882 History of DuPage County, Illinois, by Rufus Blanchard, relates: The DuPage River had, from time immemorial, been a stream well known.
It took its name from a French trader who settled on this stream below the fork previous to 1800. Hon. H. W. Blodgett, of Waukegan, informs the writer that J. B. Beaubien had spoken to him of the old Frenchman, Du Page, whose station was on the bank of the river, down toward its mouth, stated that the river took its name from him; the county name must have the same origin. Col Gurden S. Hubbard, who came into the country in 1818, informs the writer that the name DuPage, as applied to the river was universally known, but the trader for whom it was named lived there before his time. Mr. Beaubien says; this was in reply to Mr. Blodgett’s inquiry of him concerning the matter; the first white settler in DuPage County was Bailey Hobson, with Lewis Stewart, built a house in 1831 for the Hobson family at a site about 2 miles south of present-day downtown Naperville. Hobson built a mill to serve surrounding farmers. Today, the Hobson house still stands on Hobson Road in Naperville, the location of the mill is commemorated with a millstone and monument in today’s Pioneer Park.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 336 square miles, of which 327 square miles is land and 8.9 square miles is water. The DuPage River and the Salt Creek flow through DuPage County. According to the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County, the highest point in the county is located at the Mallard Lake Landfill, which at its highest point is 982 feet above mean sea level. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Wheaton have ranged from a low of 14 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1995. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.56 inches in February to 4.60 inches in August. Counties that are adjacent to DuPage include: Cook County Will County Kendall County Kane County I-55 I-88 I-290 I-294 I-355 US 20 US 34 IL 19 IL 38 IL 53 IL 56 IL 59 IL 64 IL 83 IL 390 DuPage County's population's distribution by race and ethnicity in the 2010 census was as follows: DuPage County has become more diverse.
The population of foreign-born residents increased from about 71,300 in 1990 to 171,000 by 2009 estimates. There were 325,601 households, out of which 37.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.90% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present and 28.00% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64 and 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females, age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $98,441 and the median income for a family was $113,086. Males had a median income of $60,909 versus $41,346 for females.
The mean or average income for a family in DuPage County is $121,009, according to the 2005 census. The per capita income for the county was $38,458. About 2.40% of families and 3.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.90% of those under age 18 and 4.30% of those age 65 or over. DuPage County has several hundred Christian churches. Well-known churches include Community Christian Church of Naperville, College Church of Wheaton, Wheaton Bible Church, First Baptist Church of Wheaton. There is a large Catholic contingency, part of the Diocese of Joliet, a Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Glendale Heights; the Theosophical Society in America in Wheaton, the North American headquarters of the Theosophical Society Adyar, provides lectures and classes on theosophy, yoga and New Age spirituality. Islamic mosques are located in Villa Park, Glendale Heights, Westmont, Bolingbrook, Woodale, West Chicago, unincorporated Glen Ellyn. There are Hindu temples in Bartlett, Bloomingdale, Carol Stream and Medinah, an Arya Samaj center in West Chicago.
There is a Nichiren Shōshū Zen Buddhist temple in West Chicago and a Theravada Buddhist Temple, called the Budd
Naperville is a city in DuPage and Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Located 28 miles west of Chicago, Naperville was founded in 1831 and developed into the fifth-largest city in Illinois; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 141,853, estimated to have increased to 147,682 by 2017. In a 2010 study assessing cities with populations exceeding 75,000, Naperville was ranked as the wealthiest city in the Midwest and the eleventh wealthiest in the nation, it was ranked among the nation's safest cities by Business Insider. Naperville was voted the second-best place to live in the United States by Money magazine in 2006 and it was rated first on the list of best cities for early retirement in 2013 by Kiplinger. In 2015, it was named as one of the most educated large cities in America with populations over 50,000. In July 1831, Joseph Naper arrived at the west bank of the DuPage River with his family and friends to found what would be known as Naper's Settlement. Among those original settlers were Naper's wife Almeda Landon, his brother John with wife Betsy Goff, his sister Amy with husband John Murray, his mother Sarah.
Their arrival followed a nearly two-month voyage across three Great Lakes in the Naper brothers' schooner, the Telegraph. On the journey were several families who remained in the settlement that would become Chicago, including that of Dexter Graves, memorialized in Graceland Cemetery by the well-known Lorado Taft statue "Eternal Silence". By 1832, over one hundred settlers had arrived at Naper's Settlement. Following the news of the Indian Creek massacre during the Black Hawk War, these settlers were temporarily displaced to Fort Dearborn for protection from an anticipated attack by the Sauk tribe. Fort Payne was built at Naper's Settlement, the settlers returned and the attack never materialized; the Pre-Emption House was constructed in 1834, as the Settlement became a stage-coach stop on the road from Chicago to Galena. Reconstructions of Fort Payne and the Pre-Emption House stand as part of Naper Settlement outdoor museum village, established by the Naperville Heritage Society and the Naperville Park District in 1969 to preserve some of the community's oldest buildings.
In 1855 Sybil Dunbar came to Naperville as its first recorded black female resident. A commemorative marker honoring her was placed in the cemetery in 2015. After DuPage County was split from Cook County in 1839, Naper's Settlement became the DuPage county seat, a distinction it held until 1868. Naper's Settlement was incorporated as the Village of Naperville in 1857, at which time it had a population of 2,000. Reincorporation as a city occurred in 1890. In 1887, Peter Edward Kroehler established the Kroehler Manufacturing Company's factory in Naperville along the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy tracks. Kroehler Manufacturing became the world's largest furniture manufacturer, a major employer in Naperville; the company closed the Naperville factory in 1978. In 1987, the site was redeveloped into upscale commercial and apartment properties, as Fifth Avenue Station. On April 26, 1946, Naperville was the site of one of the worst train disasters in Chicago history. Two Chicago and Quincy Railroad trains, the Advance Flyer and the Exposition Flyer, collided'head to tail' on a single track just west of the Loomis Street grade crossing.
The accident killed 45 and injured 127 passengers and/or crew members. This event is commemorated in a metal inlay map of Naperville on the southeast corner of the Nichols Library's sidewalk area. In 2012, author Chuck Spinner published The Tragedy at the Loomis Street Crossing which details the tragedy and gives the stories of the 45 persons who perished. On April 26, 2014, a memorial entitled Tragedy to Triumph was dedicated at the train station; the sculpture by Paul Kuhn is dedicated not only to the crash victims but to the rescuers at the site. A predominantly rural community for most of its existence, Naperville experienced a population explosion beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s and 1990s, following the construction of the East-West Tollway and Interstate 355, it has nearly quadrupled in size as the Chicago metropolitan area's urban sprawl brought corporations and wealth to the area. The March 2006 issue of Chicago magazine cites a mid-1970s decision to make and keep all parking in downtown Naperville free to keep downtown Naperville "alive" in the face of competition with Fox Valley Mall in Aurora and the subsequent sprawl of strip shopping malls.
Parking meters were taken down, parking in garages built in the 1980s and 1990s is free, parking is still available on major thoroughfares during non-peak hours. Naperville marked the 175th anniversary of its 1831 founding in 2006; the anniversary events included concerts and a balloon parade. According to the 2010 census, Naperville has an area of 39.323 square miles, of which 38.77 square miles is land and 0.553 square miles is water. Portions of the city of Naperville drain to the West Branch of the DuPage River within DuPage County. In the flood of 1996, downtown businesses in the City of Naperville incurred significant damage. Overall, Forest Preserve District ownership of a large amount of property along the West Branch has minimized development in flood plains and has helped reduce the damages from overbank flooding that have occurred in the county's more developed watersheds. Naperville borders the communities of Warrenville, Lisle
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
McHenry County, Illinois
McHenry County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 308,760, making it the sixth-most populous county in Illinois, its county seat is Woodstock. McHenry County is one of the five collar counties of the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Long known as a center of agriculture and recreation, it has more experienced rapid rates of suburbanization and urbanization, but the northern and western portions of the county remain agricultural and rural. McHenry County was formed in 1836 out of LaSalle counties; the county was named for Major William McHenry, a member of the Illinois Militia during Tecumseh's War, a major during the Blackhawk War in 1832, a member of the Illinois House of Representatives and Senate. He died in Vandalia in 1835. McHenry County stretched all the way east to Lake Michigan, with the county seat centrally in McHenry, but in 1839, the eastern townships of the county were carved out to form Lake County.
The Count's House, 3803 Waukegan Rd, McHenry Charles H. Hibbard House, 413 W Grant Hwy, Marengo Col. Gustavus A. Palmer House, 5516 Terra Cotta Rd. Crystal Lake Orson Rogers House, 19621 E Grant Hwy, Marengo Lucein Boneparte Covell House, 5805 Broadway, Richmond Memorial Hall, 10308 Main St, Richmond Old McHenry County Courthouse, Woodstock City Square, Woodstock Woodstock Opera House, 110 Van Buren St, Woodstock Woodstock Square Historic District, Woodstock George Stickney House, 1904 Cherry Valley Rd, Bull Valley Terwilliger House, Mason Hill Rd & Cherry Valley Rd, Bull Valley According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 611 square miles, of which 603 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. Walworth County, Wisconsin - north Kenosha County, Wisconsin - northeast Lake County - east Cook County - southeast Kane County - south DeKalb County - southwest Boone County - west In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Woodstock have ranged from a low of 11 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 1979 and a record high of 109 °F was recorded in July 1936.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.29 inches in February to 4.56 inches in June. McHenry County is like much of the Upper Midwest, as it sees hot, humid summers, cold, snowy winters; the county is notably susceptible to high wind events, severe thunderstorms and flooding. Some of the most notable weather events in the county include the 1965 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak, the Blizzard of 1967, the 1967 Belvidere - Oak Lawn tornado outbreak, the Blizzard of 1979, the Flood of 1996, the Blizzard of 1999, the Early Winter 2006 North American Storm Complex, the 2007 Midwest flooding event, the January 2008 tornado outbreak sequence, the Blizzard of 2011; as of the 2010 census, there were 308,760 people, 109,199 households, 82,288 families residing in the county. The population density was 511.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 116,040 housing units at an average density of 192.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.1% white, 2.5% Asian, 1.1% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 4.3% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 34.4% were of German heritage, 18.7% were of Irishancestry, 14.2% Polish, 10.8% Italian, 7.8% English, 3.7% of American heritage. Of the 109,199 households, 40.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.6% were non-families, 19.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.81 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age was 38.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $76,482 and the median income for a family was $86,698. Males had a median income of $61,971 versus $42,125 for females; the per capita income for the county was $31,838. About 4.9% of families and 6.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.3% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over. Crystal Lake Harvard Marengo McHenry Woodstock Chemung Pistakee Highlands McHenry County government is based out of Woodstock, the county seat.
The McHenry County Government Center, located on the north end of Woodstock along Illinois Route 47, features county offices as well as judicial facilities. The current Sheriff of McHenry County, Illinois is Bill Prim, first elected in 2014. McHenry County has voted for the Republican candidate for President in all but two elections since 1880, the first being when “Bull Moose” candidate and former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt won the county in 1912. Recent elections in 2004 and 2000 saw George W. Bush capture 59.72% and 58.5% of the county vote, respectively. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama captured McHenry County with 52% of the vote—the first time a Democrat had carried the county since 1852. In the 2012 Presidential Election, Obama only received 44% of the vote whereas Republican Mitt Romney captured 53% of the vote. In the 2016 presidential election, Republican Donald Trump received 50% of the vote whereas Democratic Hillary Clinton received 42% of the vote.
McHenry County College, a growing community college established in 1967, serves the majority of county residents. The college includes 5,800 part-time students; the main campus is located on the northwest side of Crystal Lake, along U. S. Route 14. Secondary facilities exist in Crystal McHenry. M
United States Census
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers.... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, within every subsequent Term of ten Years." Section 2 of the 14th Amendment states: "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce; the first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. The current national census was held in 2010. For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the American Community Survey.
Title 13 of the United States Code governs how its data is handled. Information is confidential as per 13 U. S. C. § 9. Refusing or neglecting to answer the census is punishable by fines of $100, for a property or business agent to fail to provide correct names for the census is punishable by fines of $500, for a business agent to provide false answers for the census is punishable by fines of $10,000, pursuant to 13 U. S. C. § 221-224. The United States Census is a population census, distinct from the U. S. Census of Agriculture, no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau, it is distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions. Decennial U. S. Census figures are based on actual counts of persons dwelling in U. S. residential structures. They include citizens, non-citizen legal residents, non-citizen long-term visitors and undocumented immigrants; the Census Bureau bases its decision about. Usual residence, a principle established by the Census Act of 1790, is defined as the place a person lives and sleeps most of the time.
The Census Bureau uses special procedures to ensure that those without conventional housing are counted. The Census uses hot deck imputation to assign data to housing units where occupation status is unknown; this practice is seen by some as controversial. However, the practice was ruled constitutional by the U. S. Supreme Court in Utah v. Evans. Certain American citizens living overseas are excluded from being counted in the census though they may vote. Only Americans living abroad who are "Federal employees and their dependents living overseas with them" are counted. "Private U. S. citizens living abroad who are not affiliated with the Federal government will not be included in the overseas counts. These overseas counts are used for reapportioning seats in the U. S. House of Representatives."According to the Census Bureau, "Census Day" has been April 1 since 1930. From 1790 to 1820, the census counted the population as of the first Monday in August, it moved to June in 1830, April 15 in 1910, January 1 in 1920.
The Census Bureau estimates that in 1970 over six percent of blacks went uncounted, whereas only around two percent of whites went uncounted. Democrats argue that modern sampling techniques should be used so that more accurate and complete data can be inferred. Republicans argue against such sampling techniques, stating the U. S. Constitution requires an "actual enumeration" for apportionment of House seats, that political appointees would be tempted to manipulate the sampling formulas. Groups like the Prison Policy Initiative assert that the census practice of counting prisoners as residents of prisons, not their pre-incarceration addresses, leads to misleading information about racial demographics and population numbers. In 2010 Jaime Grant director of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force's Policy Institute, thought of the idea of a bright pink sticker for people to stick on their census envelope which had a form for them to check a box for either "lesbian, bisexual, transgender or straight ally," which her group called "queering the census."
Although the sticker was unofficial and the results were not added to the census and others hope the 2020 census will include such statistics. In 2015 Laverne Cox called for transgender people to be counted in the census. On March 26, 2018 the U. S. Dept of Commerce announced plans to re-include a citizenship question in the 2020 census questionnaire which has not been included on the long form since 1950 but was part of the short form starting in 1910 until its removal in 2010; the citizenship question will be the same as the one, asked on the yearly American Community Survey. Proponents of including the question claimed it is necessary to gather an accurate statistical count, while opponents claimed it might suppress responses and therefore lead to an inaccurate count. Multiple states have sued the Trump administration arguing that the proposed citizenship question is unconstitutional and will intimidate immigrants, resulting in inaccurate data on minority communities. In January 2019 a federal judge in New York ruled against the proposal.
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi