Lee Chang-dong is a South Korean film director and novelist. He has directed six feature films: Green Fish, Peppermint Candy, Secret Sunshine and Burning. Burning won the Fipresci International Critics' Prize at the 71st Cannes Film Festival, Best Foreign Language Film in Los Angeles Film Critics Association, Best Foreign Language Film in Toronto Film Critics Association, it became the first Korean film to make it to the 91st Academy Awards' final nine-film shortlist for Best Foreign Language Film. Lee has won Special Director's Award at the 2002 Venice Film Festival and the Best Screenplay Award at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, he won the award for Achievement in Directing at the 4th Asia Pacific Screen Awards in 2017, Jury Grand Prize at the 2018 Asia Pacific Screen Awards, Best Director and Lifetime Achievement Award at the 13th Asian Film Awards in 2019, he has been nominated for the Golden Lion and the Palme d'Or. Lee served as South Korea's Minister of Culture and Tourism from 2003 to 2004.
Lee was born in the hub of Korea's main conservative party. He graduated in 1981 with a degree in Korean Literature from Kyungpook National University in Daegu, where he spent much of his time in the theater and directing plays. After a spell teaching Korean Language in high school, he established himself as a renowned novelist with his first novel Chonri in 1983. In his career, to the surprise of many, he turned to movie making. All of his films have received critical acclaim and awards. Lee did not study filmmaking before starting out, he penned two screenplays, Park Kwang-su's To the Starry Island in 1993 and A Single Spark in 1995. The film won Best Film at the Blue Dragon Film Awards in 1995. After being encouraged by his contemporaries to step behind the directors chair, Lee made Green Fish, a "critique of Korean society told through the eyes of a young man who becomes enmeshed in the criminal underworld", in 1997. Green Fish won Best Film at Blue Dragon Film Awards and Tigers Award at the Vancouver International Film Festival, had NETPAC Award's Special Mention at Rotterdam International Film Festival.
In 2000, Lee made Peppermint Candy, a story following a single man in reverse chronology through 20 years of South Korean history—from 1980's student uprising, to the film's 2000 release. Peppermint Candy won Special Jury Prize at Bratislava International Film Festival, got three awards at Karlovy Vary International Film Festival including Don Quijote Award, Special Jury Prize and NETPAC Award; the film won Best Film at Grand Bell Awards. Lee released Oasis in 2002, a story involving a mentally ill man and a woman with cerebral palsy, winning the prestigious Director's Award at the 2003 Venice Film Festival. Oasis was selected as Korean entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 75th Academy Awards; the film was awarded Chief Dan George Humanitarian Award at 2003 Vancouver International Film Festival. It won 2003 Venice International Film Festival's Special Director's Award, FIPRESCI Prize, SIGNIS Award. Lee won Baeksang Arts Awards for Best Director. Oasis was nominated at the 2005 Independent Spirit Awards for Best Foreign Film.
From 2003 to 2004, Lee served as the minister of Tourism in the South Korean Government. On the political appointment, Lee said: At the time of President Roh Moo-hyun’s election campaign, one of the things he promised was that his Minister of Culture would be selected from the field of culture and art rather than a professional politician. Well, he got elected, a lot of people recommended me as this new Minister of Culture. I never thought that this was an outfit that suited me well, but had to accept it as one of those bitter cups one has to accept in the course of life. In October 2006, Lee was awarded with the Chevalier order of the Legion d'Honneur by the French government for "his contribution to maintaining the screen quota to promote cultural diversity as a cultural minister." It was delivered to the French embassy in South Korea by the French Minister of Culture, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres during an official visit. Lee's fourth film, Secret Sunshine about a grieving mother who loses her son, was completed in 2007.
At the 60th Cannes Film Festival, the film was entered in the competition category with lead actress Jeon Do-yeon, winning the Prix d'interprétation féminine. It was released to theaters in South Korea in 2007, was South Korea's submission for the Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film in 2008. Secret Sunshine won Best Feature Film at Asia Pacific Screen Awards, it won Best Director at 2008 Asian Film Awards. It won Best Picture and Best Director at Korean Film Awards, Best Director at Director's Cut Awards, Special Award at Grand Bell Awards. In 2009, Lee was appointed as a jury member of the international competition in 61st Cannes Film Festival along with Isabelle Huppert, Shu Qi and Robin Wright Penn; the following year, Lee's film Poetry was released. The film tells a story of a suburban woman in her 60s who begins to develop an interest in poetry while struggling with Alzheimer's disease and her irresponsible grandson, it garnered positive critical reviews, won the Best Screenplay Award at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival.
Notably, the film's starring role was played by Yoon Jeong-hee, returning to the screen after an absence of 16 years. For this film, Lee won Achievement in Directing in Asia Pacific Screen Awards. Poetry won Best Film and Best Screenplay at 2010 Grand Bell Awards, Lee won Best Director at 2011 Baeksang Arts Awards. Lee returned after eight years of hiatus with a 2018 psychological drama mystery film Burning, based on one of Haruki
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Hong Sang Soo is a South Korean film director and screenwriter. Hong Sang Soo's parents owned the film production company Cinetel Soul. Hong took the entrance exam and entered the theater department at Chung-Ang University in South Korea, he studied in the United States where he received his bachelor's degree from the California College of Arts and Crafts and his master's at the Chicago Art Institute. Hong made his directorial debut at age 35 with The Day a Pig Fell into the Well in 1996. Hong's Woman is the Future of Man was his first film to screen in competition at the Cannes Film Festival. Hong's films have screened at the Berlin International Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival, the Locarno Film Festival. Hong has received the Prix Un Certain Regard at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival for Hahaha, the Silver Leopard Award for Best Director at the 2013 Locarno International Film Festival for Our Sunhi, the Golden Leopard at the 2015 Locarno International Film Festival for Right Now, Wrong Then.
There are certain elements that are found in Hong's films. A typical Hong film highlights a theme of domestic realism with many of the scenes set on residential streets, hotels, in the stairwells of apartment buildings. Characters in the film are seen walking around the city, drinking soju, having sex; the budget for his movies average about $100,000. Hong is spontaneous when shooting, delivering the day's scene on the morning of the shoot and changing stories while on set, he prepares scripts in advance. Hong instead begins with a basic guideline and writes his scenes on the morning of the filming day, making changes throughout the day Hong starts the filming day at 4 AM when he begins to write the dialogue for that day's shoot. Hong is develops close relationships with the actors over alcohol and cigarettes and sometimes shoots certain scenes while the actors are under the influence. In 2016, Hong was reported to be having an extramarital affair with actress Kim Min-hee who appeared in the 2015 film Right Now, Wrong Then.
At the Seoul premiere of On the Beach at Night Alone in March 2017, Hong admitted his affair with the actress, present. The Day a Pig Fell into the Well The Power of Kangwon Province Virgin Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors On the Occasion of Remembering the Turning Gate Woman Is the Future of Man Tale of Cinema Woman on the Beach Night and Day Like You Know It All Jeonju Digital Project "Visitors": Lost in the Mountains Hahaha Oki's Movie The Day He Arrives List In Another Country Nobody's Daughter Haewon Our Sunhi "Hong Sang-soo": Venice 70: Future Reloaded Hill of Freedom Right Now, Wrong Then Yourself and Yours On the Beach at Night Alone Claire's Camera The Day After Grass Gangbyun Hotel 1996 17th Blue Dragon Film Awards: Best New Director 1996 16th Korean Association of Film Critics Awards: Best New Director 1998 19th Blue Dragon Film Awards: Best Director.
Ryoo Seung-wan is a South Korean film director. Ryoo Seung-wan was born in 1973 in a small town in South Chungcheong Province. With the choice of domestic films limited to propaganda and hostess films due to extreme government censorship, young Ryoo opted for the more kinetic and free-spirited action films from the Shaw Brothers canon. Watching Jackie Chan's Drunken Master turned him into a lifelong fan, Ryoo spent his youth building his knowledge and love for Hong Kong action. Dreaming of becoming a film director someday, he took taekwondo lessons and saved lunch money for three years in middle school to buy an 8mm camera, with which he shot short films. Ryoo became his family's sole breadwinner, he dropped out of high school in 1992 and worked for six months to raise enough money to cover a year's worth of basic living expenses for his family. After that he joined a private film workshop, paid his tuition through several part-time jobs: as a construction worker, hotel janitor, vegetable cart driver, an instructor at an illegal driving school.
Ryoo, a fan of a young unknown director named Park Chan-wook's 1992 debut The Moon Is... the Sun's Dream and his work as a critic, went to meet Park and the two became friends. Those formative years saw Ryoo's debut as a'real' director, with the 1996 short Transmutated Head; the 19-minute short's DP was Jang Joon-hwan, it featured many familiar faces in the Korean indie scene, including character actor Heo Jong-soo and Lee Mu-young. With a few years of experience as assistant director on Whispering Corridors and Park's 1997 film Trio, Ryoo was ready to jumpstart his own career. Ryoo's debut was planned as a full-fledged feature film, but various issues forced him to instead shoot separate short films sharing common characters and themes. In 1998 his short film Rumble won him the Best Film at the 1998 Busan Short Film Festival, a year he signed a contract to develop a feature film out of Rumble and three following sequels, one of, his short Modern Man, not only the audience's favorite, but won Best Film at a Short Film Festival in 1999.
The four shorts, shot on an ultra-low budget of around ₩65 million, became Ryoo's first feature film: Die Bad. In an era when blockbusters like Shiri and Joint Security Area were the rage in Korean cinema, the action dramedy became an instant sensation. Starring in the film himself along with some industry friends and his little brother Ryoo Seung-bum, Ryoo became an instant cult hit, praised left and right for his masterful debut. With his directorial debut, Ryoo became known as the "Action Kid." With the country experiencing tremendous growth in high-speed Internet penetration, a few companies tried to bank on this momentum by producing online short films. In 2000 the now defunct Cine4M website released a short film by Ryoo alongside Jang Jin's A Terrible Day and Kim Jee-woon's Coming Out. Titled after industry slang, the short Dachimawa Lee was a wild and hilarious parody of the films he grew up with: Korean action films of the 60s and 70s, Bruce Lee and Shaw Brothers flicks, the machismo kitsch of old Korean melodramas, of course Jackie Chan.
Coupling over-the-top voice dubbing with deliberately mistimed action, Dachimawa Lee was an enormous success online, making lead actor Im Won-hee a minor star and the Ryoo Brothers bigger names. Big expectations lead to big disappointments, what industry insiders and critics felt about Ryoo's first real feature film, the gritty action noir No Blood No Tears; the film mixed big stars like Jeon Do-yeon with talented actors from the theater world like Jung Jae-young. Joining Director Ryoo once again was his younger brother Seung-bum, starting to make a name for himself in the industry independent of his brother. Misunderstood as a Guy Ritchie or Quentin Tarantino clone, Ryoo's film was an exhilarating mix of all the elements that made Die Bad one of the best debuts films in Chungmuro's recent history, but it added a nasty streak of ultra-realism; the latter was contributed by Jung Doo-hong an actor, but better known as the best action choreographer in the country, whose extreme realism balanced Ryoo's more fantasy-oriented cinematic sensibilities.
With No Blood No Tears a flop at the box office, it was a difficult period for Ryoo, who felt betrayed by the same people who had put impossible expectations on his shoulders. After that disappointment, Ryoo collaborated again with Jung Doo-hong and brother Seung-bum, along with newcomer Yoon So-yi; the four embarked on part modern-day wuxia and part local comedy. Despite its commercial success, critics still weren't pleased, continuing to lament the loss of Chungmuro's enfant prodige, it took another two years for Ryoo to come back, but 2005's Crying Fist was in many ways proof he had matured beyond easy labels and traditional genre boundaries. Ryoo was more than just an action kid. Starring acclaimed veteran actor Choi Min-sik, the film saw the official birth of a new star, Ryoo Seung-bum. Impressing critics and audiences since his debut in 2000, Ryoo displayed amazing energy and range in the film, such that he overshadowed his older, more prestigious colleague, but the real star of Crying Fist was none other than Ryoo Seung-wan.
Stripping himself from genre tropes, he was able to draw an incredible emotional portrayal of two people winning the most important boxing game of their life: the match against their own inner demons. More a story of survival than a simple sports drama, Crying Fist opened on A
Awaiting is a 2014 South Korean short film written and directed by Kang Je-gyu, starring Moon Chae-won and Go Soo. It is one of four short films comprising Beautiful 2014, the third annual omnibus project commissioned by Chinese online platform Youku Tudou and the Hong Kong International Film Festival; the other short films were The Dream directed by Shu Kei, HK 2014 - Education for All directed by Christopher Doyle, Boss I Love You directed by Zhang Yuan. Beautiful 2014 premiered at the 38th Hong Kong International Film Festival on March 27, 2014. Awaiting received a theatrical release in South Korea on December 18, 2014. A young woman named; as she flips through old photographs, she remembers telling her husband Min-woo that she wouldn't allow him to "cross over" to North Korea given the political situation of the day. But Min-woo left anyway and never returned home, their marriage was torn apart by the Korean War. Now, sixty years after the division of Korea, she looks forward to reuniting with her beloved Min-woo again.
Moon Chae-won as Yeon-hee Go Soo as Min-woo Son Sook as Yeon-hee Yoo Ho-jeong as Sa-ra Choi Kyu-hwan Yoon Da-hoon as truck driver Kim Su-ro Lee Dong-jin as officer Awaiting at the Korean Movie Database Awaiting on IMDb Awaiting at HanCinema
A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea. In the Korean language, ireum or seongmyeong refers to the family name and given name together. Traditional Korean family names consist of only one syllable. There is no middle name in the English language sense. Many Koreans have their given names made of a generational name syllable and an individually distinct syllable, though this practice is declining in the younger generations; the generational name syllable is shared by siblings in North Korea, by all members of the same generation of an extended family in South Korea. Married men and women keep their full personal names, children inherit the father's family name unless otherwise settled when registering the marriage; the family names are subdivided into bon-gwan, i.e. extended families which originate in the lineage system used in previous historical periods. Each clan is identified by a specific place, traces its origin to a common patrilineal ancestor.
Early names based on the Korean language were recorded in the Three Kingdoms period, but with the growing adoption of the Chinese writing system, these were replaced by names based on Chinese characters. During periods of Mongol influence, the ruling class supplemented their Korean names with Mongolian names; because of the many changes in Korean romanization practices over the years, modern Koreans, when using languages written in Latin script, romanize their names in various ways, most approximating the pronunciation in English orthography. Some keep the original order of names, while others reverse the names to match the usual Western pattern. According to the population and housing census of 2000 conducted by the South Korean government, there are a total of 286 surnames and 4,179 clans. Fewer than 300 Korean family names were in use in 2000, the three most common account for nearly half of the population. For various reasons, there is a growth in the number of Korean surnames; each family name is divided into one or more clans.
For example, the most populous clan is Gimhae Kim. Clans are further subdivided into various pa, or branches stemming from a more recent common ancestor, so that a full identification of a person's family name would be clan-surname-branch. For example, "Gyeongju Yissi" romanized as "Gyeongju Leessi" and "Yeonan-Yissi" are, technically speaking different surnames though both are, in most places referred to as "Yi" or "Lee"; this means people from the same clan are considered to be of same blood, such that marriage of a man and a woman of same surname and bon-gwan is considered a strong taboo, regardless of how distant the actual lineages may be to the present day. Traditionally, Korean women keep their family names after their marriage, but their children take the father's surname. In the premodern, patriarchal Korean society, people were conscious of familial values and their own family identities. Korean women keep their surnames after marriage based on traditional reasoning that it is inherited from their parents and ancestors, cannot be changed.
According to traditions, each clan publishes a comprehensive genealogy every 30 years. Around a dozen two-syllable surnames are used; the five most common family names, which together make up over half of the Korean population, are used by over 20 million people in South Korea. After the 2015 census, it was revealed that foreign-origin family names were becoming more common in South Korea, due to naturalised citizens transcribing their surnames in hangul. Between 2000 and 2015, more than 4,800 new surnames were registered. During the census, a total of 5,582 distinct surnames were collected, 73% of which do not have corresponding hanja characters, it was revealed that despite the surge in the number of surnames, the ratio of top 10 surnames had not changed. 44.6% of South Koreans are still named Kim, Lee or Park, while the rest of the top 10 are made up of Choi, Kang, Jo, Yoon and Lim. Traditionally, given names are determined by generation names, a custom originating in China. One of the two characters in a given name is unique to the individual, while the other is shared by all people in a family generation.
In both North and South Korea, generational names are no longer shared by cousins, but are still shared by brothers and sisters. Given names are composed of hanja, or Chinese characters. In North Korea, the hanja are no longer used to write the names, but the meanings are still understood. In South Korea, section 37 of the Family Registry Law requires that the hanja in personal names be taken from a restricted list. Unapproved hanja must be represented by hangul in the family registry. In March 1991, the Supreme Court of South Korea published the Table of Hanja for Personal Name Use, which allowed a total of 2,854 hanja in new South Korean given names; the list was expanded in 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015. Thus, 8,142 hanja are now permitted in South Korean names, in addition to a small number of alternative forms; the use of an official list is similar to Japan's use of the jinmeiyō kanji. While the traditional practice is still followed, since the lat
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea