Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport
Québec City Jean Lesage International Airport known as Jean Lesage International Airport is the primary airport serving the Canadian city of Québec. Located 6 nautical miles west southwest of the city, it is the eleventh-busiest airport in Canada, with 1,670,880 passengers and 121,680 aircraft movements in 2017. More than 10 airlines offer 360 weekly flights to destinations across Canada, the United States, Central America, the Caribbean and Europe; the airport was established in a year after the closure of the Aérodrome Saint-Louis. First established as a training facility for air observers, the first flight occurred on September 11, 1941. First known as the Aéroport de l'Ancienne Lorette the Aéroport de Sainte-Foy, the Aéroport de Québec, it was renamed to Aéroport international Jean-Lesage in 1993, in honour of the former Premier of Quebec, Jean Lesage; the airport is operated by Aéroport de Québec inc.. A non-profit and non-share corporation; the current terminal building has a capacity of 1.4 million passengers annually.
Beginning in 2006, with a budget of $65.8 million, Québec/Jean Lesage International Airport underwent a modernization designed to increase the terminal's capacity and enhance the level of passenger service. The modernization included a reconfiguration of the terminal on 2 levels, a restructuring of the baggage handling area and arrivals area, as well as a reconfiguration and enlargement of the waiting rooms. Fifty-four percent of the financing was provided directly by Aéroport de Québec inc. Completed in June 2008, the new configuration of the airport now enables it to handle 1.4 million passengers a year. Based on the passenger figures for 2009 and 2010, it became clear that the terminal building would reach its design capacity by 2012. Aéroport de Québec inc. is therefore planning further investments of nearly $300 million to further expand the terminal building. Presently the terminal has 17 gates: 5 walk-out aircraft positions; this number will increase to 24 gates by 2025. On July 4, 2011, work began on the second phase of the airport expansion, which lasted until 2017.
Funded through an Airport Improvement Fee, the terminal building doubled the size, at a cost of $224.8 million. The work included an expansion of the international facilities, construction work on the runways, taxiways and de-icing pads, as well as enhancements to customer service facilities. On September 19, 2013, runway 12/30 was renamed to runway 11/29; the airport charges an Airport Improvement Fee to each passenger, it is amongst the highest in Canada at $35 per passenger. In 2015 the airport was the 12th-busiest airport by total passengers and in 2014 it was the 14th-busiest by aircraft movements in Canada. On 10 March 2016, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced the addition of the airport to the list of Canadian airports containing U. S. border preclearance facilities. On December 11th 2017, the first phase of YQB2018, the expansion project, was completed with the opening of the new international terminal; the new facility features more dedicated baggage carousels serving international flights, new customs area, expanded food court and restaurant areas including banners such as Starbucks and Nourc, four new gates and larger loading area for cars and buses and a larger capacity bagage area.
The last expansion phase is scheduled to be completed for summer 2019 with the domestic and international terminals being linked all together. It is important to note here. Many other companies with daily services such as Air Creebec, Air Liaison, Chrono Aviation, Max Aviation and Strait Air are not using the airport's terminal facilities but, are intrinsic of the airport's traffics and statistics. ^A Statistics prior to 2009 are from Transport Canada. From 2009 on statistics are from Aéroport de Québec. Transport Canada's statistics are higher than those of ADQ. Public transportation to the airport is infrequently provided by Réseau de transport de la Capitale route 78 to Terminus Les Saules, west of the centre of Quebec City. On 9 September 1949, Canadian Pacific Airlines Flight 108 on a flight from Montreal to Baie-Comeau with a stopover in Quebec City crash-landed east of Quebec City when a bomb exploded on-board shortly after departing from Quebec City Jean Lesage Airport, killing all 19 passengers and 4 crew.
The incident and trial that followed up would be known as the Albert Guay affair. On 29 March 1979, Québecair Flight 255, a Fairchild F-27, crashed after take-off killing 17 and injuring 7. On 23 June 2010, a Beechcraft A100 King Air of Aeropro crashed north of the airport just after taking off from Runway 30, killing all seven people on board. On 12 October 2017, for the first time in North America, a drone collided with a passenger plane; the drone struck. The drone was operating above the 90m flight height restriction and within the 5 km exclusion zone around airports, violating drone operating regulations. Québec/Lac Saint-Augustin Water Airport Aérodrome Saint-Louis Aéroport de Québec official website Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Québec/Jean Lesage International Airport from Nav Canada as available
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s
Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport
Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport or Montréal–Trudeau known as Montréal–Dorval International Airport, is an international airport serving Montreal, Canada, located on the Island of Montreal, 20 km from Downtown Montreal. The airport terminals are located in the suburb of Dorval, while one runway is located in the Montreal borough of Saint-Laurent. Air Canada, the country's flag carrier has its corporate headquarters complex on the Saint-Laurent side of the airport, it serves Greater Montreal and adjacent regions in Quebec and eastern Ontario, as well as the states of Vermont and northern New York in the United States. The airport is named in honour of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the 15th Prime Minister of Canada and father of current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau; the airport is one of two managed and operated by Aéroports de Montréal, a not-for-profit corporation without share capital. Montréal–Trudeau is owned by Transport Canada which has a 60-year lease with Aéroports de Montréal, as per Canada's National Airport Policy of 1994.
Trudeau is the busiest airport in the province of Quebec and the third-busiest airport in Canada by both passenger traffic and aircraft movements, with 19.42 million passengers and 240,159 movements in 2018. It is one of eight Canadian airports with United States border preclearance and is one of the main gateways into Canada with 12.2 million or 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights, the highest proportion amongst Canada's airports during 2018. It is one of four Air Canada hubs and, in that capacity, serves Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces and Eastern Ontario. On an average day, 53,000 passengers transit through Montréal-Trudeau. Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Europe, North America and South America, it is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more, the other being Toronto Pearson International Airport. Trudeau airport is the headquarters of and a large hub for Air Canada, the country's largest airline.
It is the headquarters of Air Inuit and Air Transat, an operation base for Sunwing Airlines and Porter Airlines. It plays a role in general aviation as home to the headquarters of Innotech-Execair, Starlink, ACASS and Maintenance Repair & Overhaul facilities of Air Transat and Air Inuit. Transport Canada operates a Civil Aviation Maintenance and Overhaul facility on site, with a fleet of Government owned and operated civil aircraft. Bombardier Aerospace has an assembly facility on site where they build regional jets and Challenger business jets. By the 1940s, it was clear that Montreal's original airport, Saint-Hubert Airport, in operation since 1927, was no longer adequate for the city's needs; the Minister of Transport purchased land at the Dorval Race Track, considered the best location for an enlarged airport because of its good weather conditions and few foggy days. The airport opened on September 1941, as Dorval Airport/Aéroport Dorval with three paved runways. By 1946 the airport was hosting more than a quarter of a million passengers a year, growing to more than a million in the mid-1950s.
During World War II thousands of Allied aircraft passed through Dorval on the way to England. At one time Dorval was the major transatlantic hub for commercial aviation and the busiest airport in Canada, with flights from airlines such as British Overseas Airways Corporation; until 1959, it doubled as RCAF Station Lachine. Airport diagram for 1954 In November 1960 the airport was renamed Montreal–Dorval International Airport/Aéroport international Dorval de Montréal. On December 15 of that year the Minister of Transport inaugurated a new $30 million terminal; the structure was built by Illsley, Templeton and Larose. At its height, it was one of the biggest in the world, it was the gateway to Canada for all European air traffic and served more than two million passengers per year. Eight years Montréal–Dorval International Airport underwent a major expansion program. Despite this, the government of Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau predicted that Dorval would be saturated by 1985 and projected that 20 million passengers would be passing through Montreal's airports annually.
They decided to construct a new airport in Sainte-Scholastique, what became Montréal–Mirabel International Airport. As the first phase in the transition that would have seen Dorval closed, all international flights were to be transferred to the new airport in 1975. On November 29, 1975, Mirabel International Airport went into service. With an operations zone of 70 km2 and a buffer zone of 290 km2, it became the largest airport in the world. Many connecting flights to Canadian centres were transferred to Mirabel and 23 international airlines moved their overseas activities there; as a consequence, Montréal–Dorval was repurposed to serve domestic flights and transborder flights to the United States. Mirabel's traffic decreased due to the advent in the 1980s of longer-range jets that did not need to refuel in Montreal before crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Montreal's economic decline in the late 1970s and 1980s had a significant effect on the airport's traffic, as international flights bypassed Montreal altogether in favour of Toronto Pearson International Airport.
Kangirsuk is an Inuit village in northern Nunavik, Canada. It is 230 kilometres north between Aupaluk and Quaqtaq; the community is only accessible by air and, in late summer, by boat. The village used to be known as Payne Bay and Bellin. Kangirsuk is located above the tree line near the mouth of the Arnaud River on the north shore of Payne Bay, 13 kilometres inland from the western coast of Ungava Bay. A rocky cliff to the north and a large, rocky hill to the west surround the village. In the 11th century the area was visited by Vikings. Not far from the village on Pamiok Island, Thomas E. Lee, an archaeologist from Laval University, discovered a stone foundation of what is believed to be a Viking long house. Another archeological site, Hammer of Thor, is located on north shores of Payne River about 25 km west of the village. Inuit have fished along the Ungava Bay coast for centuries. Permanent European settlement did not occur until 1921 when the Revillon Frères company set up a trading post here, named Payne River in memory of Frank F. Payne, who explored the region during the winter of 1885-1886.
Four years the competing Hudson's Bay Company set up a post. The Inuit remained nomadic however and only visited the site as a summer encampment because of the abundance of game. In 1945, the location was known as Payne Bay. In 1959, the federal day school was founded. From on permanent settlement by Inuit began. In 1961, the federal government provided healthcare facilities and social services; that same year, the Quebec Government decided to give French names to places of the northern Quebec coast and changed the name of the post to Francis-Babel, in honour of Louis-François Babel. But this name did not take root, was replaced a year with Bellin, named after Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, it was subsequently known as Bellin until 1980. That year, the name was changed to Kangiqsuk when the village was incorporated as a Northern Village Municipality. Local authorities disagreed with this transliteration, in 1982 it was corrected to Kangirsuk. Since 1996, the police services in Kangirsuk are provided by the Kativik Regional Police Force.
Population trend: Population in 2011: 549 Population in 2006: 466 Population in 2001: 436 Population in 1996: 394 Population in 1991: 351 The Kativik School Board operates the Sautjuit School. Payne Bay and the Arnaud River are renowned for its excellent mussel harvesting. Numerous nearby lakes and rivers provide an abundance of Arctic lake trout. On the islands of Kyak Bay and Virgin Lake located to the east and north-east of Kangirsuk important colonies of eider ducks nest every year. Northern Village of Kangirsuk
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the nation's official airport directory, it contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes and certified airports. The CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule; the CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada and the Department of National Defence until 15 March 2007 edition, at which time Nav Canada took over production. The CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome; as well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including interception instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search and rescue information. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary.
The Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections: Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures. General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, other introductory information. Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings and tower. Included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Planning — general flight planning information, including flight plans and position reports, lists of significant new towers and other obstructions, chart updating, preferred IFR routes, similar information. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together with all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations and frequencies. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada and the U. S. Emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc.
Carrying "current aeronautical charts and publications covering the route of the proposed flight and any probable diversionary route" is a requirement under CAR 602.60 for night VFR, VFR Over-The-Top and instrument flight rules flights. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not require carriage of a copy of the CFS, but, one way to satisfy the regulation; because information in the CFS may be out of date with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre. While Nav Canada's CFS has the monopoly on paper-version airport directories in Canada, there are several competing internet publications, including the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association's Places to Fly user-editable airport directory. Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts and other information such as navaids. The WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions. Official website
Tasiujaq Airport, is located 1.5 nautical miles southwest of Tasiujaq, Canada. Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Tasiujaq Airport from Nav Canada as available
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000