Kitakyushu is one of two designated cities in Fukuoka Prefecture, together with Fukuoka, with a population of just under 1 million people. Kokura Prefecture was founded separately from Fukuoka Prefecture in 1871 when the clan system was abolished; the old wooden-built Kokura Prefectural Office is being restored. It is opposite Riverwalk Kitakyūshū. In 1876, Kokura Prefecture was absorbed by Fukuoka Prefecture; the city of Kokura was founded in 1900. Yahata in Kitakyushu was the target for the beginning of the US bombing raids on the home islands on June 16, 1944, when 75 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses flew out from mainland China. Kokura was the primary target of the nuclear weapon "Fat Man" on August 9, 1945. Major Charles Sweeney had orders to drop the bomb visually. All three attempts failed due to clouds and smoke from Yahata, only 7 km west of Kokura and had air raids on the previous day, preventing him from identifying the target clearly. Additionally, a smoke screen was created by industrial workers burning barrels of coal tar and/or electric plant workers releasing steam.
The bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, the secondary target, at 11:02 JST. The city of Kitakyushu was founded on February 10, 1963 and was designated on April 1, 1963 by government ordinance; the city was born from the merger of five municipalities centered around the ancient feudal city of Kokura. The city's symbol mark is a flower with the character "north" in the middle and five petals representing the towns that merged. Kitakyushu has seven wards: The city of Nakama, Fukuoka was to become the eighth ward of Kitakyushu in 2005. However, the merger was rejected on December 24, 2004 by Nakama's city council, despite having been initiated by Nakama City; as of 1 October 2018, the city had an estimated population of 945,595 and a total area of 491.95 km2. The average population density is 1,922 persons /km2, it is now the country's 15th most populated city. It has a much larger total area than that of Fukuoka, only 343.39 km2. The 1986 family movie Koneko Monogatari was filmed here; the English version of the film, the story of the friendship of a kitten and a pug dog, was released in America in 1989 as The Adventures of Milo and Otis.
The 1958 comedy Rickshaw Man is based on a local folk hero of Kokura called Muhomatsu or "Wild Pine" and has been called the Japanese "Desperado." He is celebrated in the Kokura Gion Yamagasa festival. Toshiro Mifune plays the taiko drum in this movie. Kitakyushu is featured in the late 2012 Call of Duty: Black Ops II game developed by Treyarch and published by Activision as a DLC map called Magma. In the map the city has been abandoned due to a volcanic eruption, parts of the city are covered in lava. There are festivals held in the summer in the city, including the Tobata Gion Yamagasa festival in Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū. Kurosaki Gion It has been designated as an intangible cultural asset of Fukuoka Prefecture. People spin decorated “battle floats” as they pull them through the streets. Tobata Gion People carry yamagasa on their shoulders. Kokura Gion People pull. All the Gion festivals date back about 400 years, they were instituted to celebrate surviving an epidemic. Moji Minato Festival This port-city festival involves colorfully costumed people pulling floats through the streets.
Wakamatsu Minato Festival This port-city festival celebrates fire and kappa. Wasshoi Hyakuman Festival The Wasshoi Hyakuman Natsumatsuri brings all the festivals together for a grand parade and finale near City Hall in Kokura Kita ward. Kitakyushu was formed by the merging of Kokura, Wakamatsu and Tobata; as a result, the city began, on its tenth anniversary. On the 25th anniversary, it was renamed Wasshoi Hyakuman because the city population had reached one million. Green Park Flea Market There are over 200 shops; the Center for Contemporary Art opened in May 1997 and has shown works of internationally renowned artists, e.g. Maurizio Cattelan and Anri Sala. Kokura Castle was built by Hosokawa Tadaoki in 1602, it was the property of the Ogasawara clan between 1632 and 1860. The castle was burnt down in 1865 in the war between the Choshu clans. Hiraodai karst plateau and Mount Adachi in Kokura Minami ward and Mount Sarakura and Kawachi Dam in Yahata Higashi ward are noted walking areas with fine scenery.
The limestone outcroppings on Hiraodai are said to resemble grazing sheep, so the plateau, the highest in Kyushu at 400–600 meters, is known as the Yogun Plain. Some of the limestone caverns are open to the public; the area contains the Nanae Waterfalls. Sugao is about 20 meters. Nanae means "seven stages." Nippon Steel Corporation is a major employer, but the Yahata and Tobata plants are much reduced from their heyday of the 1960s. The Zenrin company known for its mapping and navigation software is based here and so is Toto Ltd. and Yaskawa Electric Corporation. StarFlyer, an airline, is headquartered on the grounds of Kitakyushu Airport in Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyūshū; the airline's headquarters were in the Shin Kokura Building in Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyūshū. A smaller scale shopping center known as Cha Cha Town, next to the Sunatsu
The Kanmon Straits or the Straits of Shimonoseki is the stretch of water separating two of Japan's four main islands. On the Honshu side of the water is Shimonoseki and on the Kyushu side is Kitakyushu, whose former city and present ward, gave the strait its "mon"; the straits silt up at the rate of about 15 centimetres per annum, dredging has made it possible to build the New Kitakyushu Airport at low cost. The total population of the Kanmon area is about 1.3 million, counting the whole of Kitakyushu and Shimonoseki, although detailed definitions vary widely. The New Kitakyushu Airport opened in Kitakyushu on March 16, 2006, is expected to bring further prosperity in the form of increased tourism and trade to the area; the Kanmon Straits Summer Fireworks Festival is held in August every year. The Voyager pleasure boat cruises the straits. Helicopter joyrides are available from Kaikyo Dramaship in Moji-kō. In October 2005, one of the world's largest airships flying passed through Moji on an all-Japan tour.
This airship was purchased by Nippon Airship Corporation in June 2004 and was used in the Tokyo area and at the Aichi Expo 2005. The Kanmon Straits can be crossed in a number of ways. There is a car ferry between Nishiminato and Hikinoshima which takes about ten minutes, a passenger ferry from Moji-ko to Shimonoseki. There is a bridge which carries an expressway. By far the most used method is a number of Kanmon Tunnels which carry the Sanyō Shinkansen, trains and one for pedestrians at the narrowest point; the first railway tunnel was opened on November 15, 1942. The highway tunnel was opened on March 9, 1958; the Kanmonkyo Bridge was opened to vehicles on November 14, 1973. The Shinkansen tunnel was opened on March 10, 1975; the Kanmon straits is the connection between the Sea of Japan and the Inland Sea. It is used by many cargo ships as a shortcut to Osaka and Tokyo from China; the New Kitakyushu Airport is nearby. Battle of Dan-no-ura Battle of Shimonoseki Straits Bombardment of Shimonoseki Treaty of Shimonoseki Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International Terminal: The Kanpu ferry to Pusan in South Korea The Orient ferry to Qingdao in China The Orient ferry to Shanghai in China Mekari Shrine Kanmon straits guide
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first modern examples of this type of bridge were built in the early 1800s. Simple suspension bridges, which lack vertical suspenders, have a long history in many mountainous parts of the world; this type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below, upon which traffic crosses. This arrangement allows the deck to arc upward for additional clearance. Like other suspension bridge types, this type is constructed without falsework; the suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge, since any load applied to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables. The main cables continue beyond the pillars to deck-level supports, further continue to connections with anchors in the ground; the roadway is supported by called hangers. In some circumstances, the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span, otherwise the bridge will have two smaller spans, running between either pair of pillars and the highway, which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection.
In the latter case there will be little arc in the outboard main cables. The earliest suspension bridges were ropes slung across a chasm, with a deck at the same level or hung below the ropes such that the rope had a catenary shape; the Tibetan saint and bridge-builder Thangtong Gyalpo originated the use of iron chains in his version of simple suspension bridges. In 1433, Gyalpo built eight bridges in eastern Bhutan; the last surviving chain-linked bridge of Gyalpo's was the Thangtong Gyalpo Bridge in Duksum en route to Trashi Yangtse, washed away in 2004. Gyalpo's iron chain bridges did not include a suspended deck bridge, the standard on all modern suspension bridges today. Instead, both the railing and the walking layer of Gyalpo's bridges used wires; the stress points. Before the use of iron chains it is thought that Gyalpo used ropes from twisted willows or yak skins, he may have used bound cloth. The first iron chain suspension bridge in the Western world was the Jacob's Creek Bridge in Westmoreland County, designed by inventor James Finley.
Finley's bridge was the first to incorporate all of the necessary components of a modern suspension bridge, including a suspended deck which hung by trusses. Finley patented his design in 1808, published it in the Philadelphia journal, The Port Folio, in 1810. Early British chain bridges included the Dryburgh Abbey Bridge and 137 m Union Bridge, with spans increasing to 176 m with the Menai Bridge, "the first important modern suspension bridge"; the first chain bridge on the German speaking territories was the Chain Bridge in Nuremberg. The Clifton Suspension Bridge is one of the longest of the parabolic arc chain type; the current Marlow suspension bridge was designed by William Tierney Clark and was built between 1829 and 1832, replacing a wooden bridge further downstream which collapsed in 1828. It is the only suspension bridge across the non-tidal Thames; the Széchenyi Chain Bridge, spanning the River Danube in Budapest, was designed by William Clark and it is a larger scale version of Marlow bridge.
An interesting variation is Thornewill and Warham's Ferry Bridge in Burton-on-Trent, where the chains are not attached to abutments as is usual, but instead are attached to the main girders, which are thus in compression. Here, the chains are made from flat wrought iron plates, eight inches wide by an inch and a half thick, rivetted together; the first wire-cable suspension bridge was the Spider Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill, a modest and temporary footbridge built following the collapse of James Finley's nearby Chain Bridge at Falls of Schuylkill. The footbridge's span was 124 m. Development of wire-cable suspension bridges dates to the temporary simple suspension bridge at Annonay built by Marc Seguin and his brothers in 1822, it spanned only 18 m. The first permanent wire cable suspension bridge was Guillaume Henri Dufour's Saint Antoine Bridge in Geneva of 1823, with two 40 m spans; the first with cables assembled in mid-air in the modern method was Joseph Chaley's Grand Pont Suspendu in Fribourg, in 1834.
In the United States, the first major wire-cable suspension bridge was the Wire Bridge at Fairmount in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Designed by Charles Ellet, Jr. and completed in 1842, it had a span of 109 m. Ellet's Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge was abandoned before completion, it was used as scaffolding for John A. Roebling's double decker railroad and carriage bridge; the Otto Beit Bridge was the first modern suspension bridge outside the United States built with parallel wire cables. The main forces in a suspension bridge of any type are tension in the cables and compression in the pillars. Since all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are stabilized by the main cables, the pillars can be made quite slender, as on the Severn Bridge, on the Wales-England border. In a suspended deck bridge, cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck; the weight is transferred by the cables to the towers, which in turn transfer the weight to the ground. Assuming a negligible weight as compared to the weight of the deck and vehicles being supported, the main cables of a suspension bridge will form a parabola (very similar
The Kanmon Railway Tunnel, Kanmon Roadway Tunnel, Shin-Kanmon Tunnel are undersea tunnels crossing the Kanmon Straits between Shimonoseki and Kitakyushu, Fukuoka in western Japan. When opened in 1942, the railway tunnel provided the first direct link between Honshu and Kyushu, two of Japan's four main islands; the Kanmon Railway Tunnel was the first undersea tunnel in Japan. It goes underneath the Kanmon Straits, connecting the islands of Kyushu, it is an important link in the Japanese rail network. Its construction began in 1936, it was completed in November 1942, during the Pacific War; the Honshu-bound tunnel is 3,604 m long, the Kyushu-bound tunnel is 3,614 m. Track gauge is 1.067 m, its electric power supply is at 1,500 volts DC. Near the end of the Pacific War the Allies planned to blow up the two tunnels with 50,000 pounds of explosives as part of the invasion of Japan. 250 Office of Strategic Services agents trained for the task, but the surrender of Japan occurred before they were needed.
The Kyushu Railway Company assumed ownership of this tunnel following the breakup of the Japanese National Railways system in 1987. Shimonoseki entrance: 33°56′03″N 130°55′00″E Moji entrance: 33°54′37″N 130°56′11″E The Kanmon Roadway Tunnel carries National Route 2 under the Kanmon Straits, it is the longest undersea road in the world. It opened in 1958; the overall length is 3,461 meters, it is 58 meters below sea level at the deepest point. The endpoints are in Shimonoseki and Moji-ku, Kitakyushu. Work on the Kanmon Roadway Tunnel began in 1937, but was halted in 1939 by World War II. Work resumed in 1952, the tunnel was opened on March 9, 1958; the event was marked by a Japanese commemorative postage stamp. Major repairs were conducted in 2008. Shimonoseki entrance for cars: 33°58′30″N 130°56′51″E Shimonoseki entrance for pedestrians and bicycles: 33°57′55″N 130°57′22″E Moji entrance for cars: 33°57′05″N 130°58′08″E Moji entrance for pedestrians and bicycles: 33°57′41″N 130°57′47″E The more modern Shin-Kanmon Tunnel is 18.713 km long and carries the Sanyo Shinkansen high-speed railway line under the Kanmon Straits.
Shimonoseki entrance: 34°00′11″N 130°56′53″E Moji entrance: 33°52′58″N 130°53′55″E
Kyushu Expressway is one of the Expressways of Japan from Kitakyūshū to west of Kagoshima linking with the Higashikyushu Expressway and the Ibusuki Skyline. It runs through the prefectures of Fukuoka, the eastern half of the Saga, Kumamoto and the Kagoshima prefectures; the freeway runs on the island of Kyūshū. The total length is 346.2 km. It does not cover Nagasaki. June 30, 1971, a section from Ueki to Kumamoto was opened to traffic October 21, 1972, a section from Nankan to Ueki opened to traffic November 16, 1973, Tosu Interchange and Junction to Nankan was opened to traffic December 13, 1973, Kajiki Interchange to Satsuma-Yoshida was opened to traffic March 13, 1975, Koga Interchange to Tosu Junction was opened to traffic March 4, 1976, Ebuno Junction with the Miyazaki Expressway to Ebuno Interchange was opened. November 26, 1976, The section was opened to traffic from Kumatoto to Mifune Interchanges November 29, 1976, a section from Mizobe Kagoshimna Airport to Kajiki Interchanges was opened July 21, 1977, a section from Wakamiya to Koga was open to traffic November 15, 1977, a section from Satsuma-Yoshida to Kagoshima-Kita Interchanges was opened December 15, 1978, a section from Mifune to Matsubase Interchanges was opened March 8, 1979, a section from Wakamiya to Yahata Interchanges was opened March 12, 1980, a section from Matsubase to Yatsushiro Interchanges was opened March 22, 1980 a section from Kurino to Mizobe-Kagoshima Airport was opened October 1, 1981, a section from Ebuno Junction to Kurino Interchange opened made that section ran from Ebuno to Kagoshima-Kita interchanges that time March 27, 1984, a section from Moji to Kokura-Higashi was opened which made access to the bridge with Honshū March 28, 1985, the Tosu Junction in the west was opened.
February 5, 1987, the Tosu Junction in the east was opened. March 29, 1988, a section from Kagoshima-Kita to Kagoshima was opened with an interchange with the expressway. March 31, 1988, a section from Kokura-Higashi to Yahata was opened to traffic October 19, 1988, a section in the Kagoshima Interchange with the Minami Kyushu Expressway was opened December 7, 1989, a section from Yatsushiro to Hitoyoshi was opened to traffic March 25, 1992, a section in the Kajiki Interchange with the road was opened March 31, 1993, the Shin-Moji Interchange was opened July 27, 1995, a section from Hitoyoshi to Ebuno was opened to traffic which made the Kyushu Expressway from Moji to Kagoshima accessible with no gaps. April 20, 1998, the Yatsushiro Junction was opened to traffic with another freeway December 19, 2001, Kajiki Junction was opened to traffic December 12, 2004, the tunnel from Hitoyoshi to Ebino Interchanges which made Kyushu Expressway with four lanes now being connected with no gaps February 26, 2006, Kitakyushu Junction was opened to traffic with another freeway March 29, 2009, the Miyama-Yanagawa Interchange was opened February 19, 2011, the Kurate Interchange was opened April 14, 2016, Many sections of the expressway were damaged during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes.
April 29, 2016, The expressway reopened. IC - interchange, SIC - smart interchange, JCT - junction, SA - service area, PA - parking area, BS - bus stop, TN - tunnel, TB - toll gate, BR - bridge Bus stops labeled "○" are in use; the section between Yatsushiro Junction and Ebino Interchange consists of tunnels that run in the mountainous areas. 6-lane, Dazaifu to Kurume Interchanges 4-lane, Moji to Dazaifu Interchange and from Kurume to Kagoshima Interchanges NEXCO West-Japan official website
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku and Tsukushi-no-shima; the historical regional name Saikaidō referred to its surrounding islands. In the 8th century Taihō Code reforms, Dazaifu was established as a special administrative term for the region; as of 2016, Kyushu covers 36,782 square kilometres. The island is mountainous, Japan's most active volcano, Mt Aso at 1,591 metres, is on Kyushu. There are many other signs including numerous areas of hot springs; the most famous of these are in Beppu, on the east shore, around Mt. Aso, in central Kyushu; the island is separated from Honshu by the Kanmon Straits. The name Kyūshū comes from the nine ancient provinces of Saikaidō situated on the island: Chikuzen, Hizen, Buzen, Bungo, Hyūga, Satsuma. Today's Kyushu Region is a politically defined region that consists of the seven prefectures on the island of Kyushu, plus Okinawa Prefecture to the south: Northern Kyushu Fukuoka Prefecture Kumamoto Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture Ōita Prefecture Saga Prefecture Southern Kyushu Kagoshima Prefecture Miyazaki Prefecture Okinawa Prefecture Kyushu comprises 10.3 percent of the entire population of Japan.
Most of Kyushu's population is concentrated along the northwest, in the cities of Fukuoka and Kitakyushu, with population corridors stretching southwest into Sasebo and Nagasaki and south into Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Excepting Oita and Miyazaki cities, the eastern seaboard shows a general decline in population. Kyushu is described as a stronghold of the LDP political party. Designated citiesFukuoka Kitakyushu Kumamoto Core citiesKagoshima Ōita Nagasaki Miyazaki Naha Kurume Sasebo Saga Parts of Kyushu have a subtropical climate Miyazaki prefecture and Kagoshima prefecture. Major agricultural products are rice, tobacco, sweet potatoes, soy; the island is noted for various types of porcelain, including Arita, Imari and Karatsu. Heavy industry is concentrated in the north around Fukuoka, Kitakyushu and Oita and includes chemicals, automobiles and metal processing. In 2010, the graduate employment rate in the region was the lowest nationwide, at 88.9%. Besides the volcanic area of the south, there are significant mud hot springs in the northern part of the island, around Beppu.
These springs are the site of occurrence of certain extremophile micro-organisms, that are capable of surviving in hot environments. Major universities and colleges in Kyushu: National universities Kyushu University – One of seven former "Imperial Universities" Kyushu Institute of Technology Saga University Nagasaki University Kumamoto University Fukuoka University of Education Oita University Miyazaki University Kagoshima University National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya University of the Ryukyus Universities run by local governments University of Kitakyushu Kyushu Dental College Fukuoka Women's University Fukuoka Prefectural University Nagasaki Prefectural University Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences Prefectural University of Kumamoto Miyazaki Municipal University Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University Okinawa Prefectural University of Arts Major private universities Fukuoka University – University with the largest number of students in Kyushu Kumamoto Gakuen University Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University Seinan Gakuin University Kyushu Sangyo University – Baseball team won the Japanese National Championship in 2005 University of Occupational and Environmental Health Kurume University The island is linked to the larger island of Honshu by the Kanmon Tunnels, which carry both the San'yō Shinkansen and non-Shinkansen trains of the Kyushu Railway Company, as well as vehicular and bicycle traffic.
The Kanmon Bridge connects the island with Honshu. Railways on the island are operated by the Kyushu Railway Company, Nishitetsu Railway. Northern Kyushu Southern Kyushu Azumi people, an ancient group of people who inhabited parts of northern Kyūshū Geography of Japan Group Kyushu Western Army United States Fleet Activities Sasebo Hoenn, a fictional region in the Pokémon franchise, based on Kyushu Kanmonkyo Bridge, that connects Kyūshū with Honshū Kyushu National Museum List of regions in Japan Kyushu dialects Hichiku dialect, Hōnichi dialect and Kagoshima dialect Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word