The Zeppelin NT is a class of helium-filled airships being manufactured since the 1990s by the German company Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik GmbH in Friedrichshafen. The initial model is the NT07; the company considers itself the successor of the companies founded by Ferdinand von Zeppelin which constructed and operated the successful Zeppelin airships in the first third of the 20th century. There are, however, a number of notable differences between the Zeppelin NT and the airships of those days, as well as between the Zeppelin NT and usual non-rigid airships known as blimps; the Zeppelin NT is classified as a semi-rigid airship. There are various roles for the Zeppelin NT, traditional roles have been used for aerial tourism purposes and for conducting passenger services; the hull surfaces of the aircraft have been used for advertising purposes. The Zeppelin NT have been used for observation platforms, such as for aerial photographers and by television commentators covering major events. Due to their capability for low-vibration flight for up to 24 hours at a time, ZLG considers the airships suitable for research missions for environmental observation, troposphere research and natural resources prospecting.
The modern development and construction, embodied by the Zeppelin NT had been financed by a long-standing endowment, funded with money left over from the earlier Zeppelin company, under the trusteeship of the Mayor of Friedrichshafen. A stipulation had been placed upon the endowment that limited the use of its funds to the field of airships. Over the many years, the investment value of the endowment grew to a point where it had become viable for the funds to be put to use for the purpose of designing and constructing of a new generation of Zeppelins. In 1988, the first considerations into the technological and economic feasibility of reviving the Zeppelin industry began. In December 1990, a feasibility study and accompanying market research program found an initial sales potential for around 80 Zeppelin airships for purposes such as tourism and scientific research. In mid 1991, the newly formed development team filed several patents on various technologies that would be used on the subsequent airship, these included propeller arrangements and girder design, ballonet implementation.
In March 1991, a flyable remote control proof of concept model was demonstrated, claimed to have revealed excellent flight characteristics from the onset. In September 1993, the Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik GmbH was founded in Friedrichshafen as a corporate spin-off of the original Zeppelin company to pursue development and production of the new generation of Zeppelins known as the Zeppelin NT. By spring 1994, preparatory studies for a full-sized prototype were underway. In 1995, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, Germany's civil aviation authority recognized ZLT as a design organisation, approved new construction regulations for airships. In November 1995, final assembly of the first airship prototype commenced, it was promoted as being the first rigid airship to be produced by the firm since the Second World War. In July 1996, the under-construction prototype of the Zeppelin NT 07 was presented to the public and the media. In September 1997, the prototype performed its maiden flight at Friedrichshafen.
On 8 August 1998, the Zeppelin NT 07 prototype performed a cross-country flight via Altenrhein. Switzerland, to Echterdingen near Stuttgart, Germany; the test program included noise level measurements, avionics tests, take-offs and landings. In October 1999, the prototype completed a 680 km journey, its longest distance flight at that point. According to the manufacturer, the Zeppelin NT 07 prototype had proven the technical design by mid 1998, thus could be applied to production models without major modifications. On 2 July 2000, the centennial of the first Zeppelin flight, the prototype was christened D-LZFN Friedrichshafen by Count Zeppelin’s granddaughter, Elisabeth Veil. In July 2000, the prototype performed a high-profile tour of Germany, travelled more than 3,600 km in about 75 flight hours and appearing at the Expo 2000 at Hannover. By December 2000, the flight test programme was completed. In June 2001, the prototype appeared at the Paris Air Show, the occasion being the first time that a Zeppelin had cruised above Paris since the 1920s.
In May 1999, the production of the components for the first production airship was started. In February 2000, the support structure assembly of the first series airship was completed, while the envelope was attached to the support structure in May that year. In 2001, the company formally commenced series manufacturing of the Zeppelin NT, began the commercial exploitation of the airships. In April 2001, the Luftfahrt-Bundesamt issued type certification for the Zeppelin NT 07, a key step towards commercial operations. On 19 May 2001, the first production airship conducted its maiden flight, flying for two and a half hours. On 10 August 2001, the first production airship SN 02 was christened D-LZZR Bodensee by Carl, Duke of Württemberg.
Kitakyushu Airport, sometimes called Kokuraminami Airport, is an airport in Kokuraminami-ku, Fukuoka Japan. It is built on an artificial island in the western Seto Inland Sea, 3 km away from the main body of the city, it opened on March 16, 2006, as New Kitakyushu Airport but was renamed in 2008. It is designated a second class airport, it has some international charter flights, it is the fourth airport in Japan to begin operating 24 hours a day, after New Chitose Airport, Kansai International Airport, Chūbu Centrair International Airport. The former Kitakyushu Airport had restrictions on aircraft operation due to its small size and location, close to mountains and residential areas. Heavy fog resulted in flight cancellations. There were similar problems at the nearby Fukuoka Airport, which cannot engage in nighttime operations due to proximity to residential areas. A new airport was intended to be free from such problems due to its offshore location, making possible 24-hour operation. Large cargo planes can use the airport, making possible convenient freight movement to and from nearby industrial zones.
Toyota has a factory just across the bay from the airport. A committee to promote the construction of the new airport was founded in 1978, with the governor of Fukuoka as chairman. Construction began in October 1994; the new airport was anticipated by residents around the cities of Kitakyushu and Shimonoseki. The Kitakyushu municipal government organized bus tours to the construction site for interested citizens in an attempt to defuse controversy over the construction; the airport opened on March 16, 2006. The first aircraft to land at the airport was a StarFlyer Airbus on March 26, 2006; the first international flight from Shanghai landed on March 30, 2006. A Korean low-cost carrier, Jeju Air, flew eight charter flights from Kitakyushu to Incheon International Airport in summer 2008. Scheduled service on the route started in March 2009. Several events were held to commemorate the opening of the airport. A marathon was held on February 5, 2006 with half-marathon, 10 kilometre and five kilometre courses to celebrate the opening of the new airport.
On June 4, 2006, a rugby game was played at Honjo Stadium between Japan and Tonga as part of the inaugural IRB Pacific 5 Nations series. On August 2, 2006, the one-millionth user of the airport was presented with souvenirs. By July 11, 2007, 3 million passengers had used the airport; the runway is 2,500 by 60 m, enough to accommodate other large jet aircraft. The manmade island on which the airport is built is 900 m wide. Due to the island's size and the relative shallowness of the surrounding water, about 7 m in depth, future expansion is possible; the airline StarFlyer has its head office on the airport property. A 2.1 km toll-free bridge connects the island to the Higashikyūshū Expressway via the Kanda-Kitakyushukūkō interchange. A direct rail link from Kokura Station, 15 km away, may be established depending on demand. Airport buses ferry passengers to and from nearby rail stations and bus terminals: Official website Official website "Official brochure in English about the airport". Archived from the original on 2007-07-01.
Current weather for RJFR at NOAA/NWS Accident history for KKJ at Aviation Safety Network
Mekari Shrine is a Shinto shrine located in Moji-ku, Kitakyūshū, Japan. The wife of Emperor Chūai, Empress Jingū, came here sometime during the legendary military invasion of Korea in the 3rd century, she had Mekari Shrine built as a way of giving thanks to the Kami. The present main shrine was rebuilt in 1767 by the Ogasawara clan from Harima. In the shrine’s Shinto ritual called Mekari Shinji, wakame seaweed is cut from the ocean at low tide and offered to an altar in a ceremony conducted in the early morning hours of the first day of the New Year according to the old lunar calendar; the ritual is thought to bring about good luck and has been designated an Intangible Folk Cultural Asset by Fukuoka prefecture. List of Shinto shrines Official website Crossroad Fukuoka - Fukuoka Prefecture Tourist Information
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from large gasbags filled with a lifting gas, less dense than the surrounding air. In early dirigibles, the lifting gas used was hydrogen, due to its high lifting capacity and ready availability. Helium gas has the same lifting capacity and is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, but is rare and expensive. Significant amounts were first discovered in the United States and for a while helium was only used for airships in that country. Most airships built; the envelope of an airship may form a single gasbag, or may contain a number of internal gas-filled cells. An airship has engines and optionally payload accommodation housed in one or more "gondolas" suspended below the envelope; the main types of airship are non-rigid, semi-rigid, rigid. Non-rigid airships called "blimps", rely on internal pressure to maintain their shape. Semi-rigid airships maintain the envelope shape by internal pressure, but have some form of supporting structure, such as a fixed keel, attached to it.
Rigid airships have an outer structural framework that maintains the shape and carries all structural loads, while the lifting gas is contained in one or more internal gasbags or cells. Rigid airships were first flown by Count Zeppelin and the vast majority of rigid airships built were manufactured by the firm he founded; as a result, rigid airships are called zeppelins. Airships were the first aircraft capable of controlled powered flight, were most used before the 1940s, their decline was accelerated by a series of high-profile accidents, including the 1930 crash and burning of British R101 in France, the 1933 and 1935 storm-related crashes of the twin airborne aircraft carrier U. S. Navy helium-filled rigids, the USS Akron and USS Macon and the 1937 burning of the German hydrogen-filled Hindenburg. From the 1960s, helium airships have been used in applications where the ability to hover in one place for an extended period outweighs the need for speed and manoeuvrability, such as advertising, camera platforms, geological surveys, aerial observation.
During the pioneer years of aeronautics, terms such as "airship", "air-ship", "air ship" and "ship of the air" meant any kind of navigable or dirigible flying machine. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "air yachts." In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". Nowadays the term "airship" is used only for powered, dirigible balloons, with sub-types being classified as rigid, semi-rigid or non-rigid. Semi-rigid architecture is the more recent, following advances in deformable structures and the exigency of reducing weight and volume of the airships, they have a minimal structure. An aerostat is an aircraft that remains aloft using buoyancy or static lift, as opposed to the aerodyne, which obtains lift by moving through the air. Airships are a type of aerostat; the term aerostat has been used to indicate a tethered or moored balloon as opposed to a free-floating balloon.
Aerostats today are capable of lifting a payload of 3,000 pounds to an altitude of more than 4.5 kilometers above sea level. They can stay in the air for extended periods of time when powered by an on-board generator or if the tether contains electrical conductors. Due to this capability, aerostats can be used as platforms for telecommunication services. For instance, Platform Wireless International Corporation announced in 2001 that it would use a tethered 1,250-pound airborne payload to deliver cellular phone service to a 140-mile region in Brazil; the European Union's ABSOLUTE project was reportedly exploring the use of tethered aerostat stations to provide telecommunications during disaster response. Airships were called dirigible balloons, from the French ballon dirigeable or shortly dirigeable; this was the name that inventor Henri Giffard gave to his machine that made its first flight on 24 September 1852. A blimp is a non-rigid aerostat. In American usage it refers to a non-rigid type of dirigible balloon or airship.
In British usage it refers to any non-rigid aerostat, including barrage balloons and other kite balloons, having a streamlined shape and stabilising tail fins. The term zeppelin is a genericized trademark that referred to airships manufactured by the German Zeppelin Company, which built and operated the first rigid airships in the early years of the twentieth century; the initials LZ, for Luftschiff Zeppelin prefixed their craft's serial identifiers. Streamlined rigid airships are referred to as "Zeppelin", because of the fame that this company has acquired due to the number of airships it produced. Hybrid airships fly with a positive aerostatic contribution equal to the empty weight of the system, the variable payload is sustained by propulsion or aerodynamic contribution. Airships are classified according to their method of construction into rigid, semi-rigid and non-rigid types. A rigid airship has a rigid framework covered by envelope; the interior contains one or more gasbags, balloons to provide lift.
Rigid airships are unpressurised and can be made to any size. Most, but not all, of the Ge
Battle of Shimonoseki Straits
The Battle of Shimonoseki Straits was a naval engagement fought on July 16, 1863, by the United States Navy warship USS Wyoming against the powerful daimyō Mōri Takachika of the Chōshū clan based in Shimonoseki. The USS Wyoming under Captain David McDougal, sailed into the strait and single-handedly engaged the US-built but poorly manned Japanese fleet. Engaged for two hours before withdrawing, McDougal sank two enemy vessels and damaged the other one, inflicted some forty Japanese casualties; the Wyoming suffered considerable damage with seven wounded. The battle was a prelude to the larger-scale 1863 and 1864 Shimonoseki Campaign by allied foreign powers, it took place among the troubled events of the Late Tokugawa shogunate from 1854 to 1868, associated with the opening of Japan to the European and American powers. In 1863, the Japanese Emperor Kōmei, breaking with centuries of imperial tradition and dissatisfied with Japan's opening to the United States and Europe, began to take an active role in matters of state and issued on March 11 and April 11, 1863, an "Order to expel barbarians".
The Shimonoseki-based Chōshū clan, under Lord Mori, followed the order and began to take action to expel all foreigners by the date fixed, May 10 on a lunar calendar. Defying the shogunate, Mori ordered his forces to fire without warning on all foreign ships traversing Shimonoseki Strait between Honshu and Kyushu; the Chōshū clan was equipped with antiquated cannon firing round shot, but some modern armament, such as five 8-inch Dahlgren guns, presented to Japan by the United States and three steam warships of American construction: the barque Daniel Webster of six guns, the brig Kosei of ten guns, the steamer Koshin of four guns. The first attack occurred on June 25, 1863; the American merchant steamer Pembroke, under Captain Simon Cooper, was riding at anchor outside Shimonoseki Strait when it was intercepted and unexpectedly fired upon by two European-built warships belonging to the Choshu clan. The crew of one enemy vessel taunted the frantic American seamen with the loud and unnerving cry, "Revere the Emperor and drive out the barbarians!".
Under incessant cannon fire, Pembroke managed to get under way and escape through the adjacent Bungo Strait, with only slight damage and no casualties. Upon arrival in Shanghai, Cooper filed a report of the attack and dispatched it to the U. S. Consulate in Yokohama, Japan; the next day, June 26, the French naval dispatch steamer Kienchang was riding at anchor outside the strait when Japanese artillery, atop the bluffs surrounding Shimonoseki, opened fire on her. Damaged in several places, the French vessel escaped with one wounded sailor. On July 11, despite warnings from the crew of the Kienchang, with whom they had rendezvoused earlier, the 16-gun Dutch warship Medusa cruised into Shimonoseki Strait, her skipper, Captain François de Casembroot was convinced that Lord Mori would not fire on his vessel due to the strength of his ship and longstanding relations between the Netherlands and Japan. But Mori opened fire, pounding Medusa with more than thirty shells and killing or wounding nine seamen.
De Casembroot returned fire and ran the rebel gauntlet at full speed, fearful of endangering the life of the Dutch Consul General, aboard. Within a short time, the Japanese warlord had fired on vessels of most of the foreign nations with consulates in Japan. Under the sanction by Minister Pruyn, in an apparent swift response to the attack on the Pembroke, Comdr. McDougal called all hands at 4:45 a.m. on July 14, 1863, Wyoming got under way 15 minutes for the strait. After a two-day voyage, she arrived off the island of Himeshima on the evening of 15 July and anchored off the south side of that island. At five o'clock in the following morning, Wyoming weighed anchor and steamed toward the Strait of Shimonoseki, she went to general quarters at nine, loaded her pivot guns with shell, cleared for action. The warship beat to quarters. Soon, three signal guns boomed from the landward, alerting the batteries and ships of Lord Mori of Wyoming's arrival. At about 11:15, after being fired upon from the shore batteries, Wyoming hoisted her colors and replied with her 11-inch pivot guns.
Momentarily ignoring the batteries, McDougal ordered Wyoming to continue steaming toward a bark, a steamer, a brig at anchor off the town of Shimonoseki. Meanwhile, four shore batteries took the warship under fire. Wyoming answered the Japanese cannon "as fast as the guns could be brought to bear," while shells from the shore guns passed through her rigging. USS Wyoming passed between the brig and the bark on the starboard hand and the steamer on the port, steaming within pistol shot range. One shot from either the bark or brig struck near Wyoming's forward broadside gun, killing two men and wounding four. Elsewhere on the ship, a Marine was struck dead by a piece of shrapnel. Wyoming grounded in uncharted waters; the Japanese steamer, in the meantime, had slipped her cable and headed directly for Wyoming —possibly to attempt a boarding. Wyoming, managed to work free of the mud and unleashed her 11-inch Dahlgrens on the enemy ship, hulling her and damaging her severely. Two well-directed shots exploded her boilers and, as she began to sink, her crew abandoned the ship.
Wyoming passed the bark and the brig, firing into them and methodically. Some shells were "overs" and landed in the town; as McDougal wrote in his report to Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles on July 23, "the punishment inflicted and in store for him will, I trust, teac
The Kanmon Bridge is a suspension bridge crossing the Kanmon Straits, a stretch of water separating two of Japan's four main islands. On the Honshū side of the bridge is Shimonoseki and on the Kyūshū side is Kitakyushu, whose former city and present ward, gave the strait its mon; the Kanmon Bridge was opened to vehicles on November 14, 1973 and connected to the Kyūshū Expressway on March 27, 1984. It is among the 50 largest suspension bridges in the world with a central length of 1,068 metres. Kanmon Tunnel Kanmon Bridge at Structurae
Moji-ku is a Japanese ward of the city of Kitakyūshū in Fukuoka Prefecture. It is the former city of Moji, one of five merged to create Kitakyūshū in 1963, it faces the city of Shimonoseki across the Kanmon Straits between Honshū and Kyūshū. The ward's area is 73.37 km². It had a population of 114,754 as of 2000. Moji was first made into a port by Suematsu Kenchō with the financial backing of Shibusawa Eiichi in 1889, it was chiefly used for the transportation of coal, though there is a traditional song about the sale of bananas imported into Moji from Southeast Asia which survives to this day. An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Moji as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom. In 1905, Moji was the departure point for many troops in the Russo-Japanese War who were ferried to Korea. Mojiko Retro, which opened under this name as a tourist site in 1995, is a historical area centered on JR Kyushu's Mojiko Station, a replica of Rome's Termini Station and is designated an Important Cultural Property of Japan.
The area boasts many interesting historic buildings. For instance, the former Moji Mitsui Club once hosted Dr. Albert Einstein and his wife when they visited Japan in the 1920s. Recent developments along the waterfront, such as the renovated customs building, a striking new hotel and the a unique pedestrian Blue Wing drawbridge add to the charm of Mojiko and make it a pleasant place to stroll; the Shiranoe botanical gardens face the Seto Inland Sea. Large ferries for Tokyo and Osaka leave from Shin-Moji port on the Seto Inland Sea. Moji Station, a Kyushu Railway Company station on the Kagoshima and Sanyō Main Lines, is in the district. Moji and Shimonoseki Moji ward office, official page Two large pictures of Mojiko train station