The Chippiparai is a sighthound breed of dog from the south of India. It is Solid and single coloured version of indigenous Hound dog of Tamil Nadu, today it is found in the area around Periyar Lake while Black and tan and sable versions are called as Kanni, it is used for hunting wild boar and hare. It is used for guarding the home. Bred by royal families in Chippiparai in Virudhunagar district Tamil Nadu, it was kept as a symbol of royalty and dignity in Tirunelveli and Madurai rulers; the typical color is a fawn, reddish brown, black tinged coat, silver-grey, with limited or no white markings and long curved tail. Other colors variations of grey and fawn occur; this is a medium dog, around 25 inches or 63.5 cm at the withers. in a recent study males averaged 63.0 cm and females 56.0 cm at the withers. It has a short coat, close. A shining, shell-like appearance is desired; this kind of coat makes it ideal for hot climates. This hound is less prone to ticks and fleas, with their short coat providing easy detection.
The overall appearance is similar to that of the Sloughi, or the Rampur Greyhound. The Chippiparai is a robust animal needing no veterinary care, it is so active during young stages. It does need lots of exercise, as it is a breed meant to hunt. Chippiparai is a wonderful watch dog. Contrary to the belief that it is a one -man dog, Chippiparai gets along well with people if it is properly socialized. Chippiparai loves human companionship and it hates to be in isolation, it can overtake a hare with ease. The Chippiparai is not a fussy eater, it does not shed much due to its short coat length. The breed is healthy. Though sturdy enough to cope within limited means and harsh weather conditions, the breed does suffer from cold weather, they have certain general health issues such as: sensitivity to food allergies. The breed is rare in dog show circles. However, there are multiple recent campaigns by breeders based at southern districts of TamilNadu to increase the awareness about this breed; these campaigns are showing progress and there is an increased interest in people living in rural areas, with large open farms, on this dog variety.
Besides other Native dogs Chippiparai take place at Kolkata also. Lalu a Chippiparai won So many KCI show prizes in Kolkata. 4. Karuppi, from the film Pariyerum Perumal BA BL, is a cross-breed that has a close resemblance to a Chippiparai. Though it has a close resemblance to a Chippiparai, a breed known for its running and hunting skills, Karuppi is not a pure-breed. “It is a cross-breed,” said Mari Selvaraj, director of the film Chippiparai – magazine article
A landlord is the owner of a house, condominium, land or real estate, rented or leased to an individual or business, called a tenant. When a juristic person is in this position, the term landlord is used. Other terms include owner; the term landlady may be used for female owners, lessor may be used regardless of gender. The manager of a UK pub speaking a licensed victualler, is referred to as the landlord/lady; the concept of a landlord may be traced back to the feudal system of manoralism, where a landed estate is owned by a Lord of the Manor members of the lower nobility which came to form the rank of knights in the high medieval period, holding their fief via subinfeudation, but in some cases the land may be directly subject to a member of higher nobility, as in the royal domain directly owned by a king, or in the Holy Roman Empire imperial villages directly subject to the emperor. The medieval system continues the system of villas and latifundia of the Roman Empire. In modern times, landlord describes any individual or entity providing housing for persons who cannot afford or do not want to own their own homes.
They may be peripatetic, stationed on a secondment away from their home, not want the risk of a mortgage and/or negative equity, may be a group of co-occupiers unwilling to enter into the ties of co-ownership, or may be improving their credit rating or bank balance to obtain a better-terms future mortgage. Renters at the lowest end of the payment scale may be in social or economic difficulty and due to their address or length of tenure may suffer a social stigma. A sometimes promoted social stigma can impact certain for-profit owners of rental property in troubled neighborhoods; the term "slumlord" / "slum landlord" is sometimes used to describe landlords in those circumstances. Public improvement money/private major economic investment can negate the stigma. In the extreme government compulsory purchase powers in many countries enable slum clearance to replace the worst of neighbourhoods. Examples: In Minneapolis, downmarket landlords vocally and financially opposed a major reform and redevelopment plan of city officials and, in the 2001 election, succeeded in defeating the incumbent mayor and half the city council.
Peter Rachman was a landlord who operated in Notting Hill, London in the 1950s and until his 1962 death. He became notorious for exploitation of his tenants, with the word "Rachmanism" entering the Oxford English Dictionary, his henchmen included Michael de Freitas, who created a reputation as a black-power leader, Johnny Edgecombe, who became a promoter of jazz and blues, which helped to keep him in the limelight. A rental agreement, or lease, is the contract defining such terms as the price paid, penalties for late payments, the length of the rental or lease, the amount of notice required before either the homeowner or tenant cancels the agreement. In general, responsibilities are given as follows: the homeowner is responsible for making repairs and performing property maintenance, the tenant is responsible for keeping the property clean and safe. Many owners hire a property management company to take care of all the details of renting their property out to a tenant; this includes advertising the property and showing it to prospective tenants and preparing the written leases, once rented, collecting rent from the tenant and performing repairs as needed.
In the United States, residential homeowner–tenant disputes are governed by state law regarding property and contracts. State law and, in some places, city law or county law, sets the requirements for eviction of a tenant. There are a limited number of reasons for which a landlord or landlady can evict his or her tenant before the expiration of the tenancy, though at the end of the lease term the rental relationship can be terminated without giving any reason; some cities and States have laws establishing the maximum rent a landlord can charge, known as rent control, or rent regulation, related eviction. There is an implied warranty of habitability, whereby a landlord must maintain safe and habitable housing, meeting minimum safety requirements such as smoke detectors and a locking door; the most common disputes result from either the landlord's failure to provide services or the tenant's failure to pay rent—the former can lead to the latter. The withholding of rent is justifiable cause for eviction, as explained in the lease.
In Canada, residential homeowner–tenant disputes are governed by provincial law regarding property and contracts. Provincial law sets the requirements for eviction of a tenant. There are a limited number of reasons for which a landlord can evict a tenant; some provinces have laws establishing the maximum rent a landlord can charge, known as rent control, or rent regulation, related eviction. There is an implied warranty of habitability, whereby a landlord must maintain safe and habitable housing, meeting minimum safety requirements. Residential rental market Private sector renting is governed by many of the Landlord and Tenant Acts, in particular the Landlord and Tenant Act 1985 which sets bare minimum standards in tenants' rights against their landlords. Another key statute is the Housing Act 2004. Rents can be increased at the end of a usual six-month duration, on proper notice given to the tenant. A Possession Order under the most common type, the Assured Shorthold Tenanc
Tirunelveli pronunciation known as Nellai and as Tinnevelly, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of the Tirunelveli District, it is the fifth-largest municipal corporation in the state after Chennai, Coimbatore and Trichy. Tirunelveli is located 700 km southwest of the state capital Chennai, 58 km away from Thoothukudi and 73Km from Kanyakumari. Tirunelveli is an ancient city, is more than 2000 years old. Tirunelveli is the capital of Tirunelveli District; the city is located on the west bank of the Thamirabarani River. Palayamkottai is called as the Oxford of the south India, it is a hub of many schools and many important government offices. Tirunelveli is believed to be an ancient settlement of great importance, it has been ruled at different times by the Early Pandyas, the Medieval and Later Cholas, the Pandyas, the Ma'bar, the Vijayanagar Empire, the Madurai Nayaks, Chanda Sahib, the Carnatic kingdom and the British. The Polygar War, involving Palaiyakkarars led by Veerapandiya Kattabomman and forces of the British East India Company, was waged on the city's outskirts from 1797 to 1801.
Tirunelveli has a number of historical monuments, the Swami Nellaiappar Temple being the most prominent. Industries in Tirunelveli include administrative services, agricultural trading, banking, agricultural machinery, information technology and educational services; the city is an educational hub of southern India, with institutions such as Anna University Regional Campus - Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli Medical College, The Tirunelveli Veterinary College and Research Institution, Tirunelveli Law College, the Government College of Engineering and much more. Tirunelveli is administered by a Municipal Corporation, established on 1st June, 1994 by the Municipal Corporation Act; the city covers an area of 189.9 km2, had a population of 473,637 in 2011 excluding some Municipal corporation region then. The total population after expansion is 968,984. Tirunelveli is well-connected by rail with the rest of Tamil Nadu and India; the nearest domestic airport is in Vagaikulam Location Thoothukudi Airport. The Nearest International Airports are Madurai International Airport and Thiruvananthapuram International Airport.
The nearest Seaport is Thoothukudi Port. Tirunelveli is one of the many temple towns in the state, named after the grooves, clusters or forests dominated by a particular variety of a tree or shrub and the same variety of tree or shrub sheltering the presiding deity; the region hence called Venuvanam. Tirunelveli was known in Sambandar's seventh-century Saiva canonical work Tevaram as Thirunelveli. Swami Nellaiappar temple inscriptions indicate that Shiva descended in the form of a hedge and roof to save the paddy crop of a devotee. In Hindu legend, the place was known as Venuvana due to the presence of bamboo in the temple under which the deity is believed to have appeared; the early Pandyas named the city Thenpandya Nadu or Thenpandya Seemai, the Cholas Mudikonda Cholamandalam and the Nayaks Tirunelveli Seemai. The word Tirunelveli is derived from three Tamil words: thiru and veli, meaning "sacred paddy hedge"; the history of Tirunelveli was researched by Robert Caldwell, a Christian missionary who visited the area.
Tirunelveli was under the rule of Pandya kings as their secondary capital. The Pandya dynasty in the region dates to several centuries before the Christian era from inscriptions by Ashoka and mention in the Mahavamsa, the Brihat-Samhita and the writings of Megasthenes; the province came under the rule of Cholas under Rajendra Chola I in 1064 CE. Tirunelveli remained under control of the Cholas until the early 13th century, when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai as its capital; the Nellaiappar temple was the royal shrine of the Pandyas during the 13th and 14th centuries, the city benefited from dams constructed with royal patronage during the period. After the death of Kulasekara Pandian, the region was occupied by Vijayangara rulers and Marava chieftains during the 16th century; the Maravars occupied the western foothills and the Telugas, the Kannadigas settled in the black-soil-rich eastern portion. Tirunelveli was the subsidiary capital of the Madurai Nayaks. Inscriptions from the Nellaiappar temple indicate generous contributions to the temple.
Nayak rule ended in 1736, the region was captured by Chanda Sahib, Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan during the mid-18th century. In 1743 Nizam-ul-mulk, lieutenant of the Deccan Plateau, displaced most of the Marathas from the region and Tirunelveli came under the rule of the Nawabs of Arcot; the original power lay in the hands of the polygars, who were military chiefs of the Nayaks. The city was the chief commercial town during the Nayak era; the city was known as Nellai Cheemai, with Cheemai meaning "a developed foreign town". The polygars had 30,000 troops and waged war among themselves. In 1755, the British government sent a mission under Major Heron and Mahfuz Khan which restored some order and bestowed the city to Mahfuz Khan; the poligars were defeated. The failure of Mahfuz Khan led the East India Comp
Deer are the hoofed ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. The two main groups of deer are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk, the fallow deer, the chital. Female reindeer, male deer of all species except the Chinese water deer and shed new antlers each year. In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family within the same order of even-toed ungulates; the musk deer of Asia and chevrotains of tropical African and Asian forests are separate families within the ruminant clade. They are no more related to deer than are other even-toed ungulates. Deer appear in art from Paleolithic cave paintings onwards, they have played a role in mythology and literature throughout history, as well as in heraldry, their economic importance includes the use of their meat as venison, their skins as soft, strong buckskin, their antlers as handles for knives. Deer hunting has been a popular activity since at least the Middle Ages and remains a resource for many families today.
Deer live in a variety of biomes. While associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets and prairie and savanna; the majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, savanna habitats around the world. Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. Additionally, access to adjacent croplands may benefit deer. However, adequate forest or brush cover must still be provided for populations to thrive. Deer are distributed, with indigenous representatives in all continents except Antarctica and Australia, though Africa has only one native deer, the Barbary stag, a subspecies of red deer, confined to the Atlas Mountains in the northwest of the continent. However, fallow deer have been introduced to South Africa. Small species of brocket deer and pudús of Central and South America, muntjacs of Asia occupy dense forests and are less seen in open spaces, with the possible exception of the Indian muntjac.
There are several species of deer that are specialized, live exclusively in mountains, swamps, "wet" savannas, or riparian corridors surrounded by deserts. Some deer have a circumpolar distribution in Eurasia. Examples include the caribou that live in Arctic tundra and taiga and moose that inhabit taiga and adjacent areas. Huemul deer of South America's Andes fill the ecological niches of the ibex and wild goat, with the fawns behaving more like goat kids; the highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species can be found. This region has several clusters of national parks including Mount Revelstoke National Park, Glacier National Park, Yoho National Park, Kootenay National Park on the British Columbia side, Banff National Park, Jasper National Park, Glacier National Park on the Alberta and Montana sides. Mountain slope habitats vary from moist coniferous/mixed forested habitats to dry subalpine/pine forests with alpine meadows higher up.
The foothills and river valleys between the mountain ranges provide a mosaic of cropland and deciduous parklands. The rare woodland caribou have the most restricted range living at higher altitudes in the subalpine meadows and alpine tundra areas of some of the mountain ranges. Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. Elk inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer; the White-tailed deer have expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing to conversion of land to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes. They live in the aspen parklands north of Calgary and Edmonton, where they share habitat with the moose; the adjacent Great Plains grassland habitats are left to herds of elk, American bison, pronghorn antelope. The Eurasian Continent boasts the most species of deer in the world, with most species being found in Asia.
Europe, in comparison, has lower diversity in animal species. However, many national parks and protected reserves in Europe do have populations of red deer, roe deer, fallow deer; these species have long been associated with the continent of Europe, but inhabit Asia Minor, the Caucasus Mountains, Northwestern Iran. "European" fallow deer lived over much of Europe during the Ice Ages, but afterwards became restricted to the Anatolian Peninsula, in present-day Turkey. Present-day fallow deer populations in Europe are a result of historic man-made introductions of this species, first to the Mediterranean regions of Europe eventually to the rest of Europe, they were park animals that escaped and reestablished themselves in the wild. Europe's deer species shared their deciduous forest habitat with other herbivores, such as the extinct tarpan, extinct aurochs (fo
A zamindar, zomidar, or jomidar, in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat. The term means land owner in Persian. Hereditary, zamindars held enormous tracts of land and control over their peasants, from whom they reserved the right to collect tax on behalf of imperial courts or for military purposes, their families carried titular suffixes of lordship. In the 19th and 20th centuries, with the advent of British imperialism, many wealthy and influential zamindars were bestowed with princely and royal titles such as Maharaja and Nawab. During the Mughal Empire, zamindars belonged to the nobility and formed the ruling class. Emperor Akbar granted them mansabs and their ancestral domains were treated as jagirs. Under British colonial rule in India, the permanent settlement consolidated what became known as the zamindari system; the British rewarded supportive zamindars by recognizing them as princes. Many of the region's princely states were pre-colonial zamindar holdings elevated to a greater protocol.
However, the British reduced the land holdings of many pre-colonial aristocrats, demoting their status to a zamindar from higher ranks of nobility. The system was abolished during land reforms in East Bengal in 1950, India in 1951 and West Pakistan in 1959; the zamindars played an important role in the regional histories of the subcontinent. One of the most notable examples is the 16th century confederation formed by twelve zamindars in the Bhati region, according to the Jesuits and Ralph Fitch, earned a reputation for successively repelling Mughal invasions through naval battles; the confederation was led by a zamindar-king, Isa Khan, included both Muslims and Hindus, such as Pratapaditya. The zamindars were patrons of the arts; the Tagore family produced India's first Nobel laureate in literature in 1913, Rabindranath Tagore, based at his estate. The zamindars promoted neoclassical and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Before Mughal rule in India, the aristocracy collected and retained revenue from land and production.
The Mughals appointed people to act as tax officers, sending them around the country to oversee collection of revenue and remit it to the capital city of Delhi. These people were known as the zamindari and they collected revenue from the Ryots The zamindari system was more prevalent in the north of India because Mughal influence in the south was less apparent. Primary and secondary zamindars were a landowning class with superior rights in the land, but working as part of the Mughal administration for the collection of land revenue; the third category was of semiautonomous rulers. These hereditary rulers were known by various names such as Rais, Rajas and Rawals; the zamindari system ensured proper collection of taxes in a period when the power and influence of the Mughal emperors were in decline. With the Mughal conquest of Bengal, "zamindar" became a generic title embracing people with different kinds of landholdings and responsibilities ranging from the autonomous or semi-independent chieftains to the peasant-proprietors.
All categories of zamindars under the Mughals were required to perform certain police and military duties. Zamindars under the Mughals were, in fact, more the public functionaries than revenue collecting agents. Although zamindaris were allowed to be held hereditarily, the holders were not considered to be the proprietors of their estates; the territorial zamindars had judicial powers also. This conferred status with attendant power, which made them the lords of their domains, they held regular courts, called zamindari adalat. The courts gave them not only power and status but some income as well by way of fines and perquisites; the petty zamindars had some share in the dispensation of criminal justice. Many zamindars had authority to deal with the complaints of debts and petty quarrels and to impose paltry fines; the British colonists of India adopted the extant zamindari system of revenue collection in the north of the country. They recognised the zamindars as landowners and proprietors as opposed to Mughal government and in return required them to collect taxes.
Although some zamindars were present in the south, they were not so in large numbers and the British administrators used the ryotwari method of collection, which involved selecting certain farmers as being land owners and requiring them to remit their taxes directly. The Zamindars of Bengal were influential in the development of Bengal, they played pivotal part during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Unlike the autonomous or frontier chiefs, the hereditary status of the zamindar class was circumscribed by the Mughals, the heir depended to a certain extent on the pleasure of the sovereign. Heirs were set by descent or a times adoption by religious laws. Under the British Empire, the zamindars were to be subordinate to the crown and not act as hereditary lords, but at times family politics was at the heart of naming an heir. At times, a cousin could be named an heir with closer family relatives present; the zamindari system was abolished in independent India soon after its creation with the first amendment to the constitution of India which amended the right to property as shown in Articles 19 and 31.
This allowed the states to make their own "Zamindari Abolition Acts". In Bangladesh, the East Bengal State Acquisition and Tenancy Act of 1950 had a similar effect of ending the system. Indian feudalism Indian honorifics Maratha titles Jagirdar Mankari List of amendments of the Constitution of India Zamindars of Bengal Zamindars of Bihar
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Rodents are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents, they are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments. Species can be fossorial, or semiaquatic. Well-known rodents include mice, squirrels, prairie dogs, chinchillas, beavers, guinea pigs, hamsters and capybaras. Other animals such as rabbits and pikas, whose incisors grow continually, were once included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order, the Lagomorpha. Nonetheless and Lagomorpha are sister groups, sharing a most recent common ancestor and forming the clade of Glires. Most rodents are small animals with robust bodies, short limbs, long tails, they use their sharp incisors to gnaw food, excavate burrows, defend themselves. Most eat seeds or other plant material, they tend to be social animals and many species live in societies with complex ways of communicating with each other.
Mating among rodents can vary from monogamy, to polygyny, to promiscuity. Many have litters of altricial young, while others are precocial at birth; the rodent fossil record dates back to the Paleocene on the supercontinent of Laurasia. Rodents diversified in the Eocene, as they spread across continents, sometimes crossing oceans. Rodents reached both South America and Madagascar from Africa and were the only terrestrial placental mammals to reach and colonize Australia. Rodents have been used as food, for clothing, as pets, as laboratory animals in research; some species, in particular, the brown rat, the black rat, the house mouse, are serious pests and spoiling food stored by humans and spreading diseases. Accidentally introduced species of rodents are considered to be invasive and have caused the extinction of numerous species, such as island birds isolated from land-based predators; the distinguishing feature of the rodents is their pairs of continuously growing, razor-sharp, open-rooted incisors.
These incisors little enamel on the back. Because they do not stop growing, the animal must continue to wear them down so that they do not reach and pierce the skull; as the incisors grind against each other, the softer dentine on the rear of the teeth wears away, leaving the sharp enamel edge shaped like the blade of a chisel. Most species have up to 22 teeth with no canines or anterior premolars. A gap, or diastema, occurs between the cheek teeth in most species; this allows rodents to suck in their cheeks or lips to shield their mouth and throat from wood shavings and other inedible material, discarding this waste from the sides of their mouths. Chinchillas and guinea pigs have a high-fiber diet. In many species, the molars are large, intricately structured, cusped or ridged. Rodent molars are well equipped to grind food into small particles; the jaw musculature is strong. The lower jaw is pulled backwards during chewing. Rodent groups differ in the arrangement of the jaw muscles and associated skull structures, both from other mammals and amongst themselves.
The Sciuromorpha, such as the eastern grey squirrel, have a large deep masseter, making them efficient at biting with the incisors. The Myomorpha, such as the brown rat, have enlarged temporalis muscles, making them able to chew powerfully with their molars; the Hystricomorpha, such as the guinea pig, have larger superficial masseter muscles and smaller deep masseter muscles than rats or squirrels making them less efficient at biting with the incisors, but their enlarged internal pterygoid muscles may allow them to move the jaw further sideways when chewing. The cheek pouch is a specific morphological feature used for storing food and is evident in particular subgroups of rodents like kangaroo rats, hamsters and gophers which have two bags that may range from the mouth to the front of the shoulders. True mice and rats do not contain this structure but their cheeks are elastic due to a high degree of musculature and innervation in the region. While the largest species, the capybara, can weigh as much as 66 kg, most rodents weigh less than 100 g.
The smallest rodent is the Baluchistan pygmy jerboa, which averages only 4.4 cm in head and body length, with adult females weighing only 3.75 g. Rodents have wide-ranging morphologies, but have squat bodies and short limbs; the fore limbs have five digits, including an opposable thumb, while the hind limbs have three to five digits. The elbow gives the forearms great flexibility; the majority of species are plantigrade, walking on both the palms and soles of their feet, have claw-like nails. The nails of burrowing species tend to be long and strong, while arboreal rodents have shorter, sharper nails. Rodent species use a wide variety of methods of locomotion including quadrupedal walking, burrowing, bipedal hopping and gliding. Scaly-tailed squirrels and flying squirrels, although not related, can both glide from tree to tree using parachute-like membranes that stretch from the fore to the hind limbs; the agouti is antelope-like, being digitigrade and having hoof-like nails. The majority of rodents have tails, which can be of many shapes and siz