Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
The Nihon Shoki, sometimes translated as The Chronicles of Japan, is the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history. The book is called the Nihongi, it is more elaborate and detailed than the Kojiki, the oldest, has proven to be an important tool for historians and archaeologists as it includes the most complete extant historical record of ancient Japan. The Nihon Shoki was finished in 720 under the editorial supervision of Prince Toneri and with the assistance of Ō no Yasumaro dedicated to Empress Genshō; the Nihon Shoki begins with the Japanese creation myth, explaining the origin of the world and the first seven generations of divine beings, goes on with a number of myths as does the Kojiki, but continues its account through to events of the 8th century. It is believed to record the latter reigns of Emperor Tenji, Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō; the Nihon Shoki focuses on the merits of the virtuous rulers as well as the errors of the bad rulers. It describes diplomatic contacts with other countries.
The Nihon Shoki was written in classical Chinese. The Kojiki, on the other hand, is written in a combination of Chinese and phonetic transcription of Japanese; the Nihon Shoki contains numerous transliteration notes telling the reader how words were pronounced in Japanese. Collectively, the stories in this book and the Kojiki are referred to as the Kiki stories; the tale of Urashima Tarō is developed from the brief mention in Nihon Shoki that a certain child of Urashima visited Horaisan and saw wonders. The tale has plainly incorporated elements from the famous anecdote of "Luck of the Sea and Luck of the Mountains" found in Nihon Shoki; the developed Urashima tale contains the Rip Van Winkle motif, so some may consider it an early example of fictional time travel. Chapter 01: Kami no Yo no Kami no maki. Chapter 02: Kami no Yo no Shimo no maki. Chapter 03: Kan'yamato Iwarebiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 04: Kamu Nunakawamimi no Sumeramikoto. Shikitsuhiko Tamatemi no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Hikosukitomo no Sumeramikoto.
Mimatsuhiko Sukitomo no Sumeramikoto. Yamato Tarashihiko Kuni Oshihito no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Futoni no Sumeramikoto. Ōyamato Nekohiko Kunikuru no Sumeramikoto. Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 05: Mimaki Iribiko Iniye no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 06: Ikume Iribiko Isachi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 07: Ōtarashihiko Oshirowake no Sumeramikoto. Waka Tarashihiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 08: Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 09: Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto. Chapter 10: Homuda no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 11: Ōsasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 12: Izahowake no Sumeramikoto. Mitsuhawake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 13: Oasazuma Wakugo no Sukune no Sumeramikoto. Anaho no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 14: Ōhatsuse no Waka Takeru no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 15: Shiraka no Take Hirokuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Sumeramikoto. Woke no Sumeramikoto. Oke no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 16: Ohatsuse no Waka Sasagi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 17: Ōdo no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 18: Hirokuni Oshi Take Kanahi no Sumeramikoto.
Take Ohirokuni Oshi Tate no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 19: Amekuni Oshiharaki Hironiwa no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 20: Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 21: Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Hatsusebe no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 22: Toyomike Kashikiya Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 23: Okinaga Tarashi Hihironuka no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 24: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 25: Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 26: Ame Toyotakara Ikashi Hitarashi no Hime no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 27: Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Sumeramikoto. Chapter 28: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Kami no maki. Chapter 29: Ama no Nunakahara Oki no Mahito no Sumeramikoto, Shimo no maki. Chapter 30: Takamanohara Hirono Hime no Sumeramikoto; the background of the compilation of the Nihon Shoki is that Emperor Tenmu ordered 12 people, including Prince Kawashima, to edit the old history of the empire. Shoku Nihongi notes that "先是一品舍人親王奉勅修日本紀。至是功成奏上。紀卅卷系圖一卷" in the part of May, 720.
It means "Up to that time, Prince Toneri had been compiling Nihongi on the orders of the emperor. The process of compilation is studied by stylistic analysis of each chapter. Although written in classical Chinese character, some sections use styles characteristic of Japanese editors; the Nihon Shoki is a synthesis of older documents on the records, continuously kept in the Yamato court since the sixth century. It includes documents and folklore submitted by clans serving the court. Prior to Nihon Shoki, there were Tennōki and Kokki compiled by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, but as they were stored in Soga's residence, they were burned at the time of the Isshi Incident; the work's contributors refer to various sources
Emperor Sujin known as Mimakiirihikoinie no Mikoto in the Kojiki, Mimakiiribikoinie no Sumeramikoto or Hatsukunishirasu Sumeramikoto in the Nihon Shoki was the tenth Emperor of Japan. The legendary Emperor's reign is conventionally assigned the years of reign 97 BC – 30 BC, but he may have lived in the early 1st century, or the third or fourth century. Sujin's grave site has not been identified, Andonyama kofun in Tenri, Nara has been designated by the Imperial Household Agency as the kofun, it is formally named Yamanobe no michi no Magari no oka no e no misasagi. Sujin is responsible for setting up the Ise Shrine or the Saikū associated with it to enshrine Amaterasu, he is credited with initiating the worship of Ōmononushi. He confiscated certain sacred treasures, passed down the line in Izumo; the Emperor may have been the first to perform a census and establish and regularize a system of taxation. Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine Emperors. Sujin is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" and the paucity of material information about him makes difficult any further verification and study.
The reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. Sujin is a Posthumous name assigned by generations ascribed during the compilation of the Kojiki. According to the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Sujin was the second son of Emperor Kaika Sujin's mother was Ikagashikome no Mikoto, a stepmother of his father, he acceded to the throne purportedly in 97 BC. On the third year of his reign, he removed the capital to Shiki, naming it the Palace of Mizu-gaki, or Mizugaki-no-miya; the Kujiki records the legendary appointment of 137 governors for the provinces ruled by Emperor Sujin. Pestilence struck the 5th year of his rule, half the populace died. By the 6th year, peasants abandoning fields and rebellion became rampant. Up to this time, both the sun goddess Amaterasu and the god Yamato-ōkunitama were enshrined in Imperial Residence; the Emperor, over-awed with having to cohabit with these two powerful deities, set up separate enshrinements to house them.
Amaterasu was moved to Kasanui village in Yamato Province, there built as Himorogi altar out of solid stone, placing a daughter, the princess Toyosukiiri-hime in charge. The other god was entrusted to another daughter named Nunakiiri-hime but her hair fell out and became emaciated so she could not perform her duties. In the 7th year, the Emperor decreed a divination to be performed, so he made a trip to the plain of Kami-asaji or Kamu-asaji-ga-hara, invoked the eighty myriad deities. Yamatototohimomoso-hime acting as a shaman became possessed by a god, who identified himself as Ōmononushi and said that the land will be pacified if he were to be venerated; the Emperor complied. The Emperor was given guidance in a dream to seek out a certain Ōtataneko and appoint him as head priest; the pestilence subsided, the land was calmed, the five cereal crops ripened. The Miwa sept of the Kamo clan claim descent from this Ōtataneko personage; the Emperor appointed Ikagashikoo, ancestor of the Mononobe clan and elder brother of the empress as kami-no-mono-akatsu-hito, i.e. one who sorts the offerings to the gods.
Other gods were vernerated as dictated by divinations, eight red shields and spears were offered to Sumisaka Shrine in the east, eight black shields and spears were offered to Ōsaka Shrine in the west. In his 10th year of rule, Sujin instituted the Generals to the Four Cardinal Quarters Shidō shōgun, instructing them to quell those who would not submit to their rule. General Prince Ōhiko, sent up north, was at the top of the Wani acclivity, when a certain maiden approached him and sang him a cryptic song, disappeared; the Emperor's aunt, Yamatototohimomoso-hime was skilled at clairvoyancy and interpreted this to mean that Take-hani-yasu-hiko was plotting an insurrection. She pieced it together from the news she heard that the prince's wife Ata-bime came to Mount Amanokaguya and took a clump of earth in the corner of her neckerchief. Just as the Emperor gathered his generals in meeting, the couple had mustered troops to the west and was ready to attack the capital; the Emperor sent an army under Isaseri-hiko no Mikoto, which crushed the rebel forces, Ata-bime too was slain.
Subsequently, Hiko-kuni-fuku was sent to Yamashiro Province to punish the rebel prince, in an exchange of bowshots, the rebel prince Take-hani-yasu-hiko was struck in the chest and died. In the 12th year of his rule, he decreed a census be taken of the populace, "with grades of seniority, the order of forced labour"; the taxes, imposed in the form of mandatory labor, were called yuhazu no mitsugi for men and tanasue no mitsugi for women. Peace and prosperity ensued; the Emperor received the title Hatsu kuni shirasu sumeramikoto (
Association of Shinto Shrines
The Association of Shinto Shrines is a religious administrative organisation that oversees about 80,000 Shinto shrines in Japan. These shrines take the Ise Grand Shrine as the foundation of their belief; the association has five major activities, in addition to numerous others: Publication and dissemination of information on Shrine Shinto The performance of rituals. It has an administrative structure including a main office and branches, its headquarters in Yoyogi, Tokyo, adjacent to Meiji Shrine. Its leadership includes the head priestess of the Ise Shrine, presently Sayako Kuroda; the tōri is Kuniaki Kuni, the post of sōchō or Secretary-General is held by Masami Yatabe, the chief priest of the Mishima Shrine. The association maintains regional offices in every prefecture, they handle financial and personnel matters for member shrines. The association was established following the Surrender of Japan at the end of World War II. On 15 December 1945, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers issued the Shinto Directive, ordering the Disestablishment of Shinto as a state religion.
On February 2, 1946, to comply with the SCAP order, three organizations – the Kōten Kōkyūjo, Dainippon Jingikai, Jingū Hōsaikai – established the nongovernmental Association, assuming the functions of the Jingi-in, a branch of the Home Ministry. The association is a successful lobbyist. Shinto This article incorporates material in 神社本庁 in the Japanese Wikipedia, retrieved on January 27, 2008. Official website
Shide is a zigzag-shaped paper streamer seen attached to shimenawa or tamagushi, used in Shinto rituals. A popular ritual is using a haraegushi, or "lightning wand", named for the zig-zag shide paper that adorns the wand. A similar wand, used by miko for purification and blessing, is the gohei with two shide. A Shinto priest waves the haraegushi over a person, item, or newly bought property, such as a building or car; the wand is waved at a slow rhythmic pace, but with a little force so that the shide strips make a rustling noise on each pass of the wand. For new properties, a similar ritual known as jijin sai is performed with a haraegushi, an enclosed part of the land, sake, or ritually purified sake known as o-miki; the haraegushi has been used for centuries in Shinto ceremonies and has similarities in Ainu culture. In Ainu culture, a shaved willow branch called an inaw or inau resembles the Shinto haraegushi, is used in similar blessing rituals. Media related to Shide at Wikimedia Commons
Kogakkan University is a private university at Ise, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1882, it was chartered as a university in 1940. Kogakkan University is one of only two universities in Japan to offer a Shinto studies program, whose graduates earn the qualifications needed to become a Shinto priest. Literature Shinto Japanese Literature Japanese History Communication Education Education Contemporary Japanese society Contemporary Japanese society Literature Shinto specialization Japanese Literature specialization Japanese History specialization Education Education specialization Shinto Studies Graduate Program Official website
Ōmiwa Shrine known as Miwa Shrine, is a Shinto shrine located in Sakurai, Japan. The shrine is noted because it contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve Mount Miwa, the mountain on which it stands. For the same reason, it no place for the deity to be housed. In this sense, it is a model of. Ōmiwa Shrine is one of the oldest extant Shinto shrines in Japan and the site has been sacred ground for some of the earliest religious practices in Japan. Because of this, it has sometimes been named as Japan's first shrine. Ōmiwa Shrine is a tutelary shrine of the Japanese sake brewers. Ōmiwa Shrine's history is related to Mount Miwa and the religious practices surrounding the mountain. In the early Kofun period, Yamato kings and leaders had shifted their attention to kami worship on Mount Miwa, Ōmiwa Shrine was the major institution for this branch of worship; the style of Shinto surrounding Miwa became known as Miwa Shinto, is set apart from previous practices by a more structured theological philosophy.
The shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers be sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan; these heihaku were presented to 16 shrines, including Ōmiwa.Ōmiwa was designated as the chief Shinto shrine for the former Yamato Province. From 1871 through 1946, Ōmiwa was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank among government supported shrines; the Ōmiwa Shrine is directly linked to Mount Miwa in that the mountain is the shrine's shintai, or "kami-body", instead of a building housing a "kami-body". This type of mountain worship is found in the earliest forms of Shinto, has been employed at Suwa Shrine in Nagano, at Isonokami Shrine in Nara and Munakata Shrine in Fukuoka. According to the chronicle Nihon Shoki, Emperor Sujin appealed to Mount Miwa's kami when Japan was crippled by plague. In response, the kami Ōmononushi demanded rituals be performed for him at Mount Miwa.
He demanded that the rites be led by Ōtata Neko, his half-kami, half-human son born from the union with a woman of the Miwa clan. Ōta Taneko performed the rites to satisfaction, the plague subsided. A building dedicated to Ōta Taneko was erected in his honor. A legendary white snake is said to live in around the shrine, is one of the kami worshipped there. Indeed and the snake cult figures in the myths surrounding Mount Miwa as well as early Shinto in general; the Ōmiwa shrine complex includes notable auxiliary shrines, including 12 Sessha and 28 massha which are marked by small structures falling under Ōmiwa's jurisdiction. For example, the sessha Ikuhi jinja enshrines the kami, appointed Ōmiwa's sake brewer in the 4th month of the 8th year of the reign of Emperor Sujin. A poem associated with Ikuhi is said to have been composed by Empress Jingū on the occasion of a banquet for her son, Emperor Ōjin: This is sacred sake is not my sacred sake; this sacred sake brewed by Ōmononushi How long ago How long ago.
Ōmiwa Shrine is situated in a quiet forest, built directly in front of Mount Miwa. An ancient Japanese cedar tree can be found on shrine compound, is considered sacred; the mountain itself serves as main hall, instead of a man-made building. Decorations in the form of Borromean rings are found throughout the shrine's buildings; this ornamentation symbolizes the three rings, as "Miwa" is written with the kanji for "three" and "ring". Built in 1984, at 32 m the torii on its sandō is the second highest in Japan; the shrine has a great shime torii, an ancient form of gate made only with two posts and a rope called shimenawa. It is one of few shrines; this gate is one of the few to have doors, which bar access to the mountain it enshrines. The buildings at Ōmiwa Shrine are a mix of structures built from ancient times to the Edo period; the entire shrine compound The 17th century haiden, or prayer hall, built with cypress bark roofing The "Triple-torii" The shinden dedicated to Ōtata Neko. Suit of bronze armor, lacquered red A copy of the Book of Zhou, scroll number 19.
Asteroid 24640 Omiwa Koshintō List of Shinto shrines Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines Mount Miwa Twenty-Two Shrines Official Site Official Site