Cimarron National Grassland
Cimarron National Grassland is a National Grassland located in Morton County, United States, with a very small part extending eastward into Stevens County. Cimarron National Grassland is located near Comanche National Grassland which is across the border in Colorado, the grassland is administered by the Forest Service together with the Pike and San Isabel National Forests and the Comanche National Grassland, from common headquarters located in Pueblo, Colorado. There are local district offices in Elkhart, Kansas. The grassland is the largest area of land in the state of Kansas. The Cimarron National Grassland consists of 108,176 acres of Great Plains bisected by the Cimarron River, the elevations on the Grassland range from 3,100 to 3,700 feet. The terrain is flat, sloping downward west to east. Vegetation is mostly shortgrass prairie grassland, dominated by sand sagebrush in salty soils, groves of cottonwood and other trees are found near the river. The climate of the National Grassland is semi-arid, receiving about 18 inches of precipitation annually, mostly in summer, high winds are common and further desiccate the soil.
Summer temperatures are hot, with a high of 93 °F. Winters are cold with a high of 45 °F and an average low of 18 °F in January. The all-time high temperature is 110 °F and the low is −22 °F. Landmarks. The Cimarron River flows through the grassland, from late summer through winter it is usually dry above ground, yet lush vegetation still grows on the banks. Middle Spring flows year round and beaver dams create pools of water nearby, Point of Rocks has an elevation of 3,540 feet. The present-day Cimarron National Grassland was the territory of the Comanche, in 1822, William Becknell was the first to traverse the Santa Fe Trail by wagon, pioneering the alternate route called the Cimarron cut-off which passed through the National Grassland. Middle Spring was one of the three sources of good water along more than 150 miles of the Cimarron Cutoff trail. In or near the Grassland, mountain man Jedediah Smith was killed by Comanches in 1831, in 1879, the Beaty Brothers established Point of Rocks Ranch, the first in the area.
Wheat farmers soon moved in and prospered in wet years, Morton County, Kansas was the most devastated county in the nation. The Federal government bought land from farmers, restored the original prairie
Crawford State Park (Kansas)
Crawford State Park is a state park in Crawford County, United States, located 9 miles north of Girard. The 500-acre park, resides on a 150-acre lake built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, there are two recorded archaeological sites within the parks boundaries, including remnants of a 19th-century U. S. military outpost. An interpretive trail connects the park with the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks Farlington Fish Hatchery, anglers enjoy excellent fishing for channel catfish and striped bass. Pleasure boating and scuba diving are among favorite recreational pursuits, located on the edge of the Ozarks, Crawford State Park illustrates the variety of landscapes available in Kansas. Redbud trees offer spectacular beauty in spring, and the foliage of the surrounding forest is a naturalists delight. List of Kansas state parks List of lakes, Kansas Department of Wildlife and Tourism
Big Basin Prairie Preserve
The Big Basin Prairie Preserve is a 1,818 acres nature preserve owned and managed by the Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks. The preserve is in the Red Hills near Ashland in Clark County, the main features are St. Jacobs Well, a water-filled sinkhole which lies in the Little Basin, and the Big Basin, a lush mile-wide crater-like depression, resulting from a sinkhole. The area is stocked with buffalo and is open to the public, the Big Basin is transected by U. S. Route 283 and U. S. Route 160 which run together for a short ways. The portion of the basin west of the highway is privately owned, the property was acquired in 1974 from The Nature Conservancy which made operation as a nature preserve a condition of the sale. In December 1978, the preserve was designated as a National Natural Landmark and was added to the National Registry of Natural Landmarks, the area was one of the locations where the Northern Cheyenne camped and rested during the Northern Cheyenne Exodus in the fall of 1878.
The area was not occupied, and perhaps not even generally known and it has no drainage out, and drainage into it frequently results in shallow ponding at various low areas over the floor. Notching the rim at the southwest is a basin, without outlet. A short distance to the east is another, called Little Basin. Here, the plane of the ground water is revealed. The floor of Little Basin, close to the foot of its encircling bluff, shows a number of shallow depressions, St. Jacobs Well has every appearance of having been rather recently formed. The effort to preserve the land now known as the Big Basin Prairie Preserve began in 1972 when an interested Clark County citizen, formed the Big Basin Foundation and contacted and worked closely with numerous agencies, Congressional Representatives, and individuals over several years. She worked with landowners and The Nature Conservancy to encourage setting this land aside to preserve the bison. Her son John Paul Stein wrote a song about his mothers involvement in this project, she has not received the recognition due her except for family and local lore.
Castle Rock Cimarron National Grassland Flint Hills Konza Prairie List of sinkholes of the United States Rylands v Fletcher Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve Set of photos on Flickr
Salina /səˈlaɪnə/ is a city in and the county seat of Saline County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 47,707, located in one of the worlds largest wheat-producing areas, Salina, is a regional trade center for north-central Kansas. It is home to multiple colleges, prior to European colonization of the area, the site of Salina was located within the territory of the Kansa people. Claimed first by France as part of Louisiana and acquired by the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, in 1856, a colony led by Preston B. Plumb established the first American settlement near the site at a location on the Saline River, settlers led by journalist and lawyer William A. Phillips founded Salina in 1858. During the following two years, the legislature chartered the town company, organized the surrounding area as Saline County. The westernmost town on the Smoky Hill Trail, Salina established itself as a trading post for westbound immigrants, prospectors bound for Pikes Peak, and area American Indian tribes.
The towns growth halted with the outbreak of the American Civil War when much of the population left to join the U. S. Army. In 1862, local residents fended off American Indian raiders only to fall victim to an assault by bushwhackers that year. In May and June 1864, the Salina Stockade was built to protect the town against further Indian raids, troops were garrisoned in Salina until March 1865, and some may have returned in June 1865. The stockade was used until at least spring or summer 1865. Growth returned with the soldiers after the war, and the town expanded rapidly with the arrival of the Kansas Pacific Railway in 1867, Salina incorporated as a city in 1870. The cattle trade arrived in 1872, transforming Salina into a cowtown, the trade brought the city further prosperity, but a rowdy culture that agitated local residents. The cattle trade relocated westward just two years later, during the 1870s, wheat became the dominant crop in the area, steam-powered flour mills were built, and agriculture became the engine of the local economy.
In 1874, Salina resident E. R. Switzer introduced alfalfa to area farmers, by 1880, the city was an area industrial center with several mills, a carriage and wagon factory, and a farm implement works. Salina was the location of the first garment factory of jeans maker Lee, over the following decade, three railroads were built through the city. In 1943, the U. S. Army established Smoky Hill Army Airfield southwest of the city, the installation served as a base for strategic bomber units throughout World War II. Renamed Smoky Hill Air Force Base in 1948, the base closed the year only to be reopened in 1951 as Schilling Air Force Base
The crappies are a genus, Pomoxis, of North American freshwater fish in the sunfish family Centrarchidae. Both species in this genus are popular pan fish, the genus name Pomoxis derives from the Greek πώμα and οξύς. The common name, derives from the Canadian French crapet, which refers to many different fishes of the sunfish family, other names for crappie are papermouths, strawberry bass, speckled bass or specks, speckled perch, crappie bass, calico bass, sac-a-lait and Oswego bass. They have diverse diets, including zooplankton, insects, by day, crappie tend to be less active and will concentrate around weed beds or submerged objects, such as logs and boulders. They feed during dawn and dusk, by moving into open water or approaching the shore, the Pomoxis species are highly regarded pan fish and are often considered to be among the best-tasting freshwater fish. Because of their diets, crappie may be caught in many ways, including casting light jigs, trolling with minnows or artificial lures, using small spinnerbaits.
Crappies are popular with ice-fishers, as they are active in winter, the current all-tackle fishing world record for a black crappie is 2.25 kg and for a white crappie is 2.35 kg. Angling for crappie is popular throughout much of North America, anglers who employ the Spider Rigging method may choose from among many popular baits. Some of the most popular are plastic jigs with lead jig heads, many anglers chum or dump live bait into the water to attract the fish to bite their bait. Crappies are targeted and caught during the spawning period by fly fishermen. A commercial fishery for crappies existed at Reelfoot Lake in Tennessee until 2003 and it was one of the few commercial fisheries for crappies. By information from International Game Fish Association IGFA the most outstanding records, Black crappie is a 5-pound fish caught April 21,2005, by John R. Horstman from a private lake in Missouri. USA on April 21,2006 that weighed 2.26 kg White crappie is a 5-pound fish caught July 31,1957, USA on July 31,1957 that weighed 2.35 kg Pomoxis.
The Sunfishes-A Fly Fishing Journey of Discovery, americas Favorite Fishing, A Complete Guide to Angling for Panfish
Quivira National Wildlife Refuge
Quivira National Wildlife Refuge is located in south central Kansas near the town of Stafford. It lies mostly in northeastern Stafford County, but small parts extend into southwestern Rice and its proximity to the Central Flyway migration route and the salt marshes on the refuge combine to endow the refuge with a large variety of birds. Many of these birds are uncommon in parts of Kansas or even the central part of the continent. On January 29,2008, Quivira NWR and Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Area were jointly named as one of the 8 Wonders of Kansas, Quivira NWR is one of 29 places in the United States on the Ramsar list as a wetland of international importance. The name Quivira derives from a fabled Native American city of gold, in 1541 Spanish conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led an expedition onto the Great Plains of Kansas searching for wealth. He spent a month with the Quivirans, the ancestors of the Wichita tribe, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge was created in 1955 and in 1998 the refuge reached its present size of 22,135 acres.
The Refuge is bisected by Rattlesnake Creek and has two lakes, Big Salt Marsh and Little Salt Marsh, that have attracted migratory birds. Twenty-one miles of canals have been constructed to create additional marshland, the Refuge has 34 wetlands from 10 to 1,500 acres in size totaling 7,000 acres. The wetlands have high salt levels, Quivira has about 13,000 acres of sand dunes covered with prairie grasses. The sand prairie has species from both the eastern Tallgrass prairie and the western Shortgrass prairie or steppe, about 1,500 acres of the Refuge is wooded with trees such as cottonwood, black locust, and eastern redcedar. Another 1,200 acres of Refuge land is farmed with winter wheat, a portion of the crop is left in the fields for wildlife. Cattle are grazed on part of the Refuge to simulate grazing by bison, bison grazing was a traditional component of the ecology of the region. Two roads, one 14 miles and the other 4 miles in length, a 1. 2-mile nature trail passes through woodlands and across a marsh on an elevated boardwalk.
Birdhouse Boulevard is a 1, 000-foot wheel-chair accessible trail lined with birdhouses, a wildlife observation tower is located on the south side of Little Salt Marsh. Two photography blinds and a spotting scope aid in observing wildlife, hunting for small game and waterfowl is permitted on 8,000 acres of the refuge. A Kids Fishing Pond is located near the Visitor Center which has interpretative displays, Fishing is permitted in the marshes. Bicycles and horses are permitted on established trails and roads, boats of any kind are prohibited. 331 species of birds have been seen on Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, the Christmas bird count in 2010 counted 43,548 birds of 95 species
The Smoky Hills are an upland region of hills in the central Great Plains of North America. They are located in the Midwestern United States, encompassing north-central Kansas, the hills are a dissected plain covered by tallgrass and mixed-grass prairie. The Smoky Hills were formed by sedimentary deposits during the Cretaceous period and consist of chalk, the Smoky Hills region is part of the Plains Border subregion of the Great Plains. The region extends into south-central Nebraska, bordered on the north by the Rainwater Basin and it consists of three belts of hills, all running southwest to northeast, which correspond to the underlying geological formations. The Smoky Hills proper comprise the easternmost belt, the two western belts are known as the Blue Hills, the hills of the westernmost belt are known as the Chalk Bluffs. The Blue Hills escarpment forms the boundary with the High Plains to the west, the Republican River, Saline River, Solomon River, and Smoky Hill River all flow eastward through the Smoky Hills from their sources in the High Plains.
These include Cedar Bluff Reservoir, Kanopolis Lake, Kirwin Reservoir, Waconda Lake, Webster Reservoir, land use in the Smoky Hills consists primarily of cropland and rangeland. The region is populated with numerous communities of varying size. The two largest communities in the Smoky Hills region are Salina and Hays, elevations in the Smoky Hills range from about 1,200 feet in the river valley near Salina to about 2,400 feet at the western edge of the region. The region is divided into three based on the underlying rock outcroppings, The Dakota Formation, the Greenhorn Limestone. The Dakota Formation forms the eastern region and this area includes the Smoky Hill buttes, which are capped by sandstone and provide a sharp contrast with the surrounding plains. One of the most notable buttes is Coronado Heights in Saline County, there are concretions at Rock City in Ottawa County and Mushroom Rock State Park in Ellsworth County. These are cemented by calcium carbonate, the Greenhorn Limestone region in the central region is made up of thin—usually less than 6 inches —chalky limestone beds alternating with thicker beds of grayish shale.
This area is known as post rock country due to the practice of early settlers using limestone for buildings, the chalk beds of the Niobrara Chalk are exposed in bluffs of the western Solomon and Smoky Hill Rivers and in an irregular belt in the west. This area includes such Kansas landmarks as Castle Rock and Monument Rocks in Gove County, Smoky Hills Wind Farm U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Smoky Hills
Ellsworth County, Kansas
Ellsworth County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 6,497 and its county seat and most populous city is Ellsworth. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America were inhabited by tribes of nomadic Native Americans and they developed a complex culture based on using the bison as their main source of food, and adopting horses in the 17th century from Spanish colonists. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of parts of North America both east and west of the Mississippi River. In 1762, after losing the French and Indian War to Great Britain, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, in 1763 France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. It regained the territory under Napoleon, who sold it in 1803 to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. He had decided to get rid of the New World territories after failing to control of Saint-Domingue. In 1804 Haiti declared independence as the republic of the Western Hemisphere.
The Plains Indians retained control of much of their territory until the late 19th century, giving way finally before superior United States arms and these brought tens of thousands of settlers to the Plains. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France, in 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized, and in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state, Ellsworth County was established February 26,1867. The fort was moved to a new site about one mile to the northeast. Though the Pawnees had discharge papers from the army, a fight ensued, the Indians retreated to a sandstone cave, known today as Palmers Cave. Their attackers set fire to grass at the entrance. The others died from exposure without their possessions, in the 19th century, this area became known for cattle ranching and cattle drives. Town life was often riotous with cowboys celebrating after long drives, according to the U. S.
Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 723 square miles, of which 716 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. It is intersected by the Smoky Hill River, as of the U. S. Census in 2000, there were 6,525 people,2,481 households, and 1,639 families residing in the county. The population density was 9 people per square mile, there were 3,228 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
In fact, these living species are all included in Anatidae except for the three screamers and the magpie goose. All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface, the males, except for the screamers, have a penis, a trait that has disappeared in Neoaves. All are web-footed for efficient swimming, the earliest known Anseriform is the recently discovered Vegavis, which lived during the Cretaceous period. It is thought that the Anseriformes originated when the original Galloanserae split into the two main lineages, the extinct dromornithids may possibly represent early offshoots of the anseriform line, if they arent stem-Galliformes instead, and so maybe Gastornis. The ancestors of the Anseriformes developed the characteristic bill structure that they still share, the prehistoric wading presbyornithids were even more bizarre. The Anseriformes and the Galliformes are the most primitive neognathous birds, Anatidae systematics, especially regarding placement of some odd genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not fully resolved.
See the Anatidae article for information, and for alternate taxonomic approaches. Some unusual groups, such as the extinct Gastornithidae and Dromornithidae, are found to be at the base of the Anseriformes family tree. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae, the Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Angolin,2007, Mikkos Phylogeny Archive, the clade Somaterini has a single genus Somateria. List of Anseriformes by population Agnolin, F. Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. Clarke, J. A. Tambussi, C. P. Noriega, erickson, G. M. & Ketcham, R. A. Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous, & Zusi, R. L. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds based on comparative anatomy. Zoological Journal of the Linnen Society, murray, P. F.
& Vickers-Rich, P. Magnificent Mihirungs, The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime
United States National Grassland
National Grassland is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States authorized by Title III of the Bankhead–Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937. For administrative purposes, they are identical to United States National Forests. Like National Forests, National Grasslands may be open for hunting, mineral extraction, various National Grasslands are typically administered in conjunction with nearby National Forests. All but three National Grasslands are on or at the edge of the Great Plains and those three are in southeastern Idaho, northeastern California, and central Oregon. The three National Grasslands in North Dakota, together with one in northwestern South Dakota, are administered jointly as the Dakota Prairie Grasslands, National Grasslands are generally much smaller than National Forests. Whereas a typical National Forest would be about 1,000,000 acres, the largest National Grassland, the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota, covers 1,028,784 acres, which is approximately the median size of a National Forest.
As of September 30,2007, the area of all 20 National Grasslands was 3,838,280 acres. The catastrophic Dust Bowl of the 1930s led to the creation of the Soil Conservation Service in 1933 and this and subsequent federal laws paved the way for establishing national grasslands. Grassland Prairie Temperate grasslands and shrublands List of U. S. National Forests Wilderness preservation systems in the United States
Interstate 70 is a major Interstate Highway in the United States that runs from I-15 near Cove Fort, Utah to I-695 near Baltimore, Maryland. I-70 approximately traces the path of U. S. Route 40 east of the Rocky Mountains, West of the Rockies, the route of I-70 was derived from multiple sources. The Interstate runs through or near major cities, including Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis, Columbus, Pittsburgh. The sections of the interstate in Missouri and Kansas have laid claim to be the first interstate in the United States. The construction of I-70 in Colorado and Utah is considered an engineering marvel as the passes through the Eisenhower Tunnel, Glenwood Canyon. The Eisenhower Tunnel is the highest point along the Interstate Highway system with an elevation of 11,158 ft. Interstate 70 begins at an interchange with Interstate 15 near Cove Fort. Upon leaving the valley near Salina, I-70 crosses 7,923 ft Salina Summit, prior to the construction of I-70, the swell was inaccessible via paved roads and relatively undiscovered.
It became the longest piece of highway to be opened at one time. Although opened in 1970, this section was not formally complete until 1990, since I-70s construction, the swell has been noted for its desolate beauty. The swell has since been nominated for National Park and/or National Monument status on multiple occasions, if the swell is granted this status it arguably would be the first time a National Park owes its existence to an interstate highway. Most of the exits in this span are rest areas, brake check areas, I-70 exits the swell near Green River. From Green River to the Colorado state line, I-70 follows the edge of the Book Cliffs. Entering from Utah, I-70 descends into the Grand Valley where it meets the Colorado River, here I-70 serves the Grand Junction metro area before traversing more mountainous terrain. The last section of I-70 to be completed was the 15-mile Glenwood Canyon, construction was delayed for many years due to environmental concerns. Much of the highway is elevated above the Colorado River, the speed limit in this section is 50 mph due to the limited sight distance and sharp corners.
The Eisenhower–Johnson Memorial Tunnel, the highest vehicular tunnel in North America, because of the rugged and narrow terrain of the Rocky Mountains, I-70 is one of few roads connecting Colorados ski resorts with Denver. Descending through the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, the Denver skyline can be seen on a clear day. This can fool truckers and other unsuspecting drivers because there is still over 10 miles of steep grade road before reaching the city, a series of signs warns truckers of the steep grade