Kannauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city's name is a modern form of the classical name Kanyakubja, it was known as Mahodaya during the time of Gurjara-Pratihara Emperor Mihira Bhoja, around the 9th century. Kannauj is an ancient city, it is said that Kanyakubja Brahmins of whom Shandilya is held to have constituted one of the three prominent families from Kannauj. During Classical India, it served as the center of imperial Indian dynasties; the earliest was under Maukhari dynasty, Emperor Harsha of the Vardhana dynasty. Between the 7th and 11th century, Kannauj became the center of the Tripartite struggle, that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara Empire; the city came under the Gahadavala dynasty, under the rule of Govindachandra, the city reached "unprecedented glory". However, the "glory of Imperial Kannauj" ended with conquests of the Delhi Sultanate.
Kannauj famous for distilling of scents is known as India’s perfume capital and is famous for its traditional Kannauj Perfume, a government protected entity, Kannauj itself has more than 200 perfume distilleries and is a market center for tobacco and rose water. It has given its name to a distinct dialect of the Hindustani known as Kanauji, which has two different codes or registers. Archaeological discoveries show that Kannauj was inhabited by the Painted Grey Ware and Northern Black Polished Ware cultures, ca. 1200-600 ca. 700-200 BCE, respectively. Under the name of Kanyakubja, it is mentioned as a well-known town in the Hindu Epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, by the grammarian Patanjali; the early Buddhist literature mentions Kannauj as Kannakujja, refers to its location on the trade route from Mathura to Varanasi and Rajgir. Kannauj may have been known to the Greco-Roman civilization under the name of Kanagora or Kanogiza, which appears in Geography by Ptolemy, but this identification is not confirmed.
It was visited by the Chinese Buddhist travellers Faxian and Xuanzang in the fifth and seventh centuries CE, respectively. Kannauj formed part of the Gupta Empire. During the decline of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, the Maukhari dynasty of Kannauj - who had served as vassal rulers under the Guptas - took advantage of the weakening of central authority, broke away and established control over large areas of northern India. Under the Maukharis, Kannauj continued to grow in prosperity, it became the greatest city of Northern India under Emperor Harsha of the Vardhana dynasty, who conquered it and made it his capital. Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited India during the reign of Harsha, described Kannauj as a large, prosperous city with many Buddhist monasteries. Harsha died with no heir, resulting in a power vacuum until Maharaja Yashovarman seized power as the ruler of Kannauj. Kannauj became a focal point for the three powerful dynasties, namely the Gurjara Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas, between the 8th and 10th centuries.
The conflict between the three dynasties has been referred to as the Tripartite struggle by many historians. There were initial struggles but the Gurjara Pratiharas succeeded in retaining the city; the Gurjara-Pratiharas ruled Avanti, bounded to the South by the Rashtrakuta Empire, the Pala Empire to the East. The Tripartite struggle began with the defeat of Indrayudh at the hands of Gurjara-Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja; the Pala ruler Dharampala was keen to establish his authority at Kannauj, giving rise to a struggle between Vatsaraja and Dharampala. Dharampala was however defeated. Taking advantage of the chaos, the Rastrakuta ruler Dhruva surged northwards, defeated Vatsaraja, took Kannauj for himself, completing the furthest northern expansion by a South Indian ruler; when the Rashtrakuta ruler advanced back to the south, Dharampala was left in control of Kannauj for some time. The struggle between the two northern dynasties continued: the Pala Chakrayudh was defeated by the Pratihara Nagabhata II, Kannauj was again occupied by the Gurjara Pratiharas.
Dharampala tried to take control of Kannauj but was defeated badly at Moongher by the Gurjara Pratiharas. However, Nagabhata II was in turn soon defeated by the Rashtrakuta Govinda III, who had initiated a second northern surge. An inscription states that Chakrayudh and Dharampala invited Govinda III to war against the Gurjara Pratiharas, but Dharampala and Chakrayudh both submitted to the Govinda III, in order to win his sympathy. After this defeat, Pratihara power degenerated for some time. After the death of Dharampala, Nagabhata II regained hold over Kannuaj and made it the capital of the Gurjara Pratihara Empire. During this period, the Rashtrakutas were facing some internal conflicts, so they, as well as the Palas, did not contest this, thus Gurjara Pratiharas became the greatest power in Northern India after occupying Kannauj. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni captured Kanauj in 1018. Chandradeva founded the Gahadvala dynasty with its capital at Kanauj around 1090, his grandson Govindachandra "raised Kanauj to unprecedented glory."
Muhammad Ghori advanced against the city, in the Battle of Chandwar of 1193, killed Jayachandra. Alberuni has referred to "Kanoj" as the key geographical point to explain marching distances to other Indian cities; the "glory of Imperial Kanauj" ended with Iltutmish's conquest. Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun at the battle of Kannauj on 17 May 1540. During early English rule in India, the city was s
The Bareilly district pronunciation belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Its capital is Bareilly city and it is divided in six administrative division or tehsils: Aonla, Bareilly city, Faridpur and Nawabganj; the Bareilly district is a part of the Bareilly Division and occupies an area of 4120 km² with a population of 4,448,359 people according to the census of 2011. The region was a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire; the modern City of Bareilly was founded by Mukrand Rai in 1657. It became the capital of the Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and to the East India Company, becoming an integral part of India; the region was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Panchala. The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganges; the country was divided into Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Ahichatra tehsil of Bareilly district, while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad district.
The famous city of Kannauj or Kanyakubja was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. The last two Panchala clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas are mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married to the Pandavas belonged to the Somaka clan. However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan. Divodasa, Srinjaya and Drupada were the most notable rulers of this clan. During 176 -- 166 BC, Panchala coins were minted at the surrounding areas, it was the Gupta kings who established mints here. The city's continued status as a mint town since the beginning of the Christian era was helped by the fact that Bareilly was never a disturbed area. Found at Ganga Ghati in abundance were the Adi Vigraha and Shree Vigraha coins of the Pratihara Kings that were minted here between the 4th to the 9th centuries. Dating to this period are the silver coins — similar to those of Firoz Second — known as Indo-Sasanian.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Panchala, the City was under the rule of local rulers. In the twelfth century, it was ruled by different clans of Rajputs referred to by the general name of Katehriyas Rajputs. According to British historian Matthew Atmore Sherring the district of Bareilly was a dense jungle inhabited by a race of Ahirs and was called Tappa Ahiran. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the Delhi Sultanate was established, Katehr was divided into the provinces of Sambhal and Budaun, but the thickly forested country infested with wild animals provided just the right kind of shelter for rebels. And indeed, Katehr was famous for rebellions against imperial authority. During the Sultanate rule, there were frequent rebellions in Katehr. All were ruthlessly crushed. Sultan Balban ordered vast tracts of jungle to be cleared so as to make the area unsafe for the insurgents; the slightest weakening of the central authority provoked acts of defiance from the Katehriya Rajputs. Thus the Mughals initiated the policy of allotting lands for Afghan settlements in Katiher.
Afghan settlements continued to be encouraged throughout the reign of Aurangzeb and after his death. These Afghans, known as the Rohilla Afghans, caused the area to be known as Rohilkhand; the city of Bareilly was founded in 1537 by a Katehriya Rajput. The city is mentioned in the histories for the first time by Budayuni, who he writes that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of Bareilly and Sambhal in 1568; the divisions and revenue of the district fixed by Todar Mal were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. In 1658, Bareilly was made the headquarters of the province of Budaun; the foundation of the'modern' City of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. The tract of land forming the subah or province of Rohilkhand was called Katehr/Katiher; the Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements for keeping the Katehriyas in check worked only as long as the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans, having themselves become local potentates, began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.
In 1623 two Afghan brothers of the Barech tribe, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, settled in the region, bringing with them many other Pashtun settlers. The Rohilla Daud Khan was awarded the Katehr region in the northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir to suppress Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region; some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun Tribes were hired by Mughals to provide soldiers to the Mughal armies and this was appreciated by Aurangzeb Alamgir, an additional force of 25,000 men was given respected positions in Mughal army. However most of them settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739 increasing their population up to 100,0000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, the Katehar region gained fame as Rohilkhand. Meanwhile, Ali Muhammad Khan, grandson of Shah Alam, captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital uniting the Rohillas to form the state of'Rohilkhand', between 1707 and 1720, making Bareilly his capital.
He rose to power and got confirmed in possession of the lands he had seized. The Emperor made him a Nawab in 1737, he was recognised as the governor of Rohilkhand in 1740. According to 1901 cen
Agra Division is one of the divisions of Uttar Pradesh, India. It contains Agra, Firozabad and Mathura districts; the Population of Agra Division was 11,304,646 as of 2011
Chakeri is a census town in Kanpur metropolitan area situated about 16 kilometres east of Kanpur city in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is an industrial town with textiles and food products as its major productions. Chakeri Airforce Station, North India's second largest Airforce base is situated here. Chakeri has reputed educational institutions and colleges. Central Leather Research Institute is one of the largest institution in Kanpur. Grand Trunk Road made by the great emperor Sher Shah Suri passes from Chakeri; the town is enlisted as a Town Area Development Authority of Kanpur metropolitan area. Chakeri has population of 7,526 of which 3,803 are males while 3,723 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 1116, 14.83% of total population of Chakeri. In Chakeri Census Town, Female Sex Ratio is of 979 against state average of 912. Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Chakeri is around 996 compared to Uttar Pradesh state average of 902. Literacy rate of Chakeri city is 89.63% higher than state average of 67.68%.
In Chakeri, Male literacy is around 93.74% while female literacy rate is 85.41%. Chakeri Census Town has total administration over 2,109 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, it is authorized to build roads within Census Town limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction. Chakeri is a suburb to Jajmau on the banks of river Ganges. Founder of this place was Gangadeen Yadav, he built wells and restroom for passengers in the memory of his mother Ramadevi. Now it is one of the famous landmark in Kanpur. An artificial pond made by emperor Sher Shah Suri is present here which attracts large numbers of tourists. Siddhnath Temple and Ghat on the banks of Ganges are major tourist destinations in Chakeri. Chakeri Air Force Station, established in the 1970s is the second largest Air Force Base in India. Chakeri is an educational hub in East Kanpur. Many private and government colleges and institutes are present here. Kanpur Institute of Technology, Vision Group of Colleges, Allenhouse Group of Colleges, Apollo Institutes, Axis college, Central Leather Research Institute and Ratan Industrial Training Institute are major educational institutions in Chakeri.
The important highways which pass through Chakeri are:- National Highway 2 The NHAI proposes to upgrade a road project in Uttar Pradesh. The Authority intends to take up six-laning of the Etawah-Ramadevi chowk section of NH-2 from Km 323.475 to Km 483.687 under NHDP Phase V. The project is expected to cost Rs 1,698.50 crore. RFQs have been invited from prospective entities, with last date of submission being 10 December 2010. National Highway 25 Airways Kanpur Airport is situated in Chakeri which has flights to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Bengaluru; the airport is expected to be connected with other major cities of India, Middle East and the Orient by 2020. Railways Chakeri Railway Station is on the Delhi-Howrah line. Kanpur Central Railway Station is 12 km away from Chakeri. Public transport is available throughout 24 hrs from Chakeri Railway Station Bus Stop situated 750 metres from the station on NH 2. Roadways Chakeri has KMBS terminal and City Buses of Kanpur have routes from different bus stops of Chakeri to different localities and subruban towns of Kanpur metropolitan area.
One can catch interstate buses from Ramadevi in regular frequency. Multi national cab companies like Ola and Uber have their services in the town; some famous personalities from Chakeri are:- Sriprakash Jaiswal Satish Mahana Ghazala Lari Kritika Kamra Poonam Dhillon Kuldeep Yadav Chakeri, Iran
Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of northern India. The historic town of Mathura is the district headquarters; the District is part of Agra division. Mathura is bounded on the northeast by Aligarh District, on the southeast by Hathras District, on the south by Agra District, on the west by Rajasthan and northwest by Haryana state. Mathura district is an important pilgrimage centre of Hindus. Many towns in the district Mathura have banned non-vegetarian food. Mathura has an ancient history. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana. In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded Madhupura and Mathura. In the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena mahajanapada; the city was ruled by the Maurya empire and the Shunga dynasty.
It may have come under the control of Indo-Greeks some time between 180 BCE and 100 BC. It reverted to local rule before being conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the 1st century BC. Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of their capitals, the other being Purushapura; the dynasty had kings with the names of Kujula Kadphises, Kanishka and Vasudeva I. Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BC, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα; the Indo-Scythians conquered the area of Mathura over Indian kings around 60 BCE. The findings of ancient stone inscriptions in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres from Mathura, provide historical artifacts giving more details on this era of Mathura; the opening of the 3 line text of these inscriptions are in Brahmi script and were translated as: "In the 116th year of the Greek kings..."The Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa.
After Rajuvula, several successors are known to have ruled as vassals to the Kushans, such as the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, who are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushans. Mathura served as one of the Kushan Empire's two capitals from the first to the third centuries. Fa Xian mentions the city, as a centre of Buddhism about AD 400, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and Mathura, on the Yamuna river. The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517. Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of'But Shikan', the'Destroyer of Hindu deities'; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the city's Jami Masjid. The noteworthy fact is that the exact place of birth of Lord Krishna, according to historians, is in the place of worship of the Hindus, though the mosque was built near the birthplace of Lord Krishna.
The bigger Krishna shrine, better known as Dwarkadeesh temple is a few metres away from what is believed to be the actual birthplace of Krishna, was built in 1815 by Seth Gokuldas Parikh, Treasurer of Gwalior. According to the 2011 census Mathura district has a population of 2,541,894 equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada; this gives it a ranking of 167th in India. The district has a population density of 761 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 22.53%. Mathura has a sex ratio of 858 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 72.65%. Mathura is a Jat dominated region with around 5.30 lakh Jat. Mathura receives a large number of daily visitors besides pilgrims who stay for an average of 3 days. Mathura's urban area's floating population on normal days is between 100,000 and 125,000 per day, whereas on festive and auspicious days it is over twice the population of urban area. People in Mathura and nearby areas speak Braj.
Braj Bhasha called Brij Bhasha, Braj Bhakha, or Dehaati Zabaan, is a Western Hindi language related to Hindustani. In fact, it is considered to be a dialect of Western Hindi, along with Awadhi was one of the two predominant literary languages of North-Central India before the switch to Hindustani in the 19th century. Braj Bhasha language spelled Braj Bhasa, Braj Bhakha, or Brij Bhasa, language descended from Shauraseni Prakrit and viewed as a western dialect of Hindi, it is spoken by some 575,000 people in India. Its purest forms are spoken in the cities of Mathura, Agra and Aligarh. Most speakers of Braj Bhasha worship the Hindu deity Krishna, their bhakti finds expression in the language, which has a firm base in folk literature and songs. All of the enactments of episodes from Krishna's life that are performed during the Janmashtami festival are presented in Braj Bhasha. Mathura is located at 27.28°N 77.41°E / 27.28. It has an average elevation of 174 metres; the climate of Mathura is tropical extreme with hot summers with tempe
Etawah is a city on the banks of Yamuna River in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. It is about 160 km west of Kanpur; the city was an important center for the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Is the place of sangam or confluence between Yamuna and Chambal; the noted. As per 2011 census, Etawah city had a population of 257,838 - an increase of 22% from 211,460 in 2001 census; the literacy rate was 82.89 per cent. This region is believed to have existed in the Bronze Age; the earliest Aryans who lived here were the Panchalas. They are said to have had close connections with Kurus; the Guptas, Kanishka, Naga kings ruled over this area. In the fourth century A. D. it was part of united India under the Guptas. During the ninth and tenth centuries, this region was governed by Gurjara Pratihara rulers; the conquest of Kannauj by Nagabhata II handed Pratiharas control over this region. During the reign of Gurjara Pratihara monarch Mihir Bhoj, the region is mentioned as prosperous, safe from thieves and rich in natural resources.
In 1244, Ghiyas ud din Balban attacked the region. During the First War of Independence in 1857, major disturbances occurred in Etawah and the district was occupied by the freedom fighters from June to December. British rule was not restored till the end of 1858. Etawah has experienced modernization and development under British Raj and in the post-independence period; the district is watered by branches of the Ganges canal. It is traversed by the main line of the Indian railway from Delhi to Howrah. Cotton, oilseeds and other agricultural produce are grown and exported. Special breed of goat Jamunapaari and special breed of buffalo Bhadawari are exported; the region has a 652 MW natural gas-based power generation plant. However, it lacks manufacturing industries. Etawah was known for its handloom products. City is served by Saifai Domestic Airport, around 15 km from city center; the airport has only unscheduled chartered flights. The nearest domestic airport is at Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Airport, 175 km.
The nearest International Airport is Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport located at a distance of around 220 km. Etawah Junction railway station is the main station of the city as well as of the Howrah-Delhi main line and Guna - Etawah Rail Line, it is a class A station of Allahabad division of North Central Railways. It has a secondary railway line to Agra via reserved sanctuary area. Etawah - Mainpuri line is constructed and train is running between Etawah and Mainpuri. One another railway line from Etawah to Bindki is to be constructed, it has halt for fastest trains like Kanpur New Delhi Shatabdi Express, Lucknow Swarna Shatabdi Express and many more. Etawah Junction is one of the cleanest railway station of Indian Railways. Necessary basic amenities like water taps and use toilets, platform shed, waiting hall, railway enquiry window, computerized reservation hall, ATMs, food stalls, train announcement system, train display boards, infotainment screens, wheelchair accessible ramp can be found at station.
Sooner, we will find platform - coach escalators to the bridge at the station. The city is served by four other railway stations viz. Udi Junction, Sarai Bhopat and Vaidhpura. Etawah is well-connected by roads with the rest of Uttar Pradesh state. Etawah is the regional office of Etawah Region of UP Roadways and one of the largest and busiest bus station of state, it has buses for all cities of Uttar Pradesh as well as for all neighbouring states. It has buses to Delhi for every 15 minutes. National Highway 19 passes through Etawah, connecting it to important cities like Delhi, Agra, Allahabad, Mughalsarai and Kolkata. There are three big cities namely Gwalior and Kanpur, are nearby to Etawah with well connected roads. Agra Lucknow Expressway have various cuts, from where roads connect it to city like with Farrukhabad Road near Baralokpur, with Etawah - Mainpuri State Highway near Kathal, with NH 19 near Bhadan. Within the city, auto-rickshaw and cycle rickshaw are the major forms of transport.
Bus services run at high frequencies. Etawah city is waiting for city bus services as it was announced by UPA government to run 85 city buses to connect the city and to develop a ring road around the city. City buses will be available from Sai City Udaypur in North to Udi More in South, from Sarai Bhopat in the west to Pilkhar in the east, it will cover 50 km distance. Baba Saheb Dr. B. R. A. College of Agriculture Engineering & Technology, Etawah is an engineering college and faculty of Technology of Kanpur's Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, established during the year 1994-95 and in 2015, College of Dairy Technology and College of Fisheries Science and Research Centre started along with College of Agriculture Engineering & Technology. Government Girls Post Graduate College, Etawah or Panchayat Raj Government Mahila College, Etawah is government women's college offering BA, BCom and MA courses in Etawah; the college is affiliated to Kanpur. Karm Kshetra Post Graduate College or K.
K. P. G. College, Etawah is a college offering undergraduate and post-graduate courses in Science, Commerce faculties; the college is affiliated to Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj Univers