Downtown Kansas City
Downtown Kansas City is the central business district of Kansas City and the Kansas City metropolitan area. It is to 31st Street in the south. However, the definition used by the Downtown Council is the most accepted. In March 2012, Downtown Kansas City was selected as one of America's Best downtowns by Forbes magazine for its rich culture in arts, numerous fountains, upscale shopping, various local cuisine – most notably barbecue. According to the Downtown Council of Kansas City, as of 2013, the Downtown area has a population of 19,899 residents with 11,790 housing units and a median household income of $61,491; as of 2013, Downtown has 137 units under construction and 1,326 in the planning stages. The United States Census in 2010 suggests Downtown has a population of 22,576, though this may include land outside the district boundaries defined by the Downtown Council of Kansas City. In 2000, the population may have been as low as 10,000 people with 7,330 units. In 2005, Downtown Kansas City had a population density of 5,617 inhabitants per square mile in its 3.0-square-mile area.
According to Local Market reports, Downtown houses 20,000,000 square feet of office space. However, the vacancy of this space is at about 15%. There are about 12,800,000 square feet of Class A&B office space in Downtown, with a vacancy rate of 15.9%. There are over 100,000 employees working in the Downtown area. Downtown has a total of 5,606 hotel rooms, accounting for 22.5% of the total amount of hotel rooms in the metropolitan area. The average occupancy of these rooms is about 56.5%. As of 2007, about 2,800,000 square feet of office space are under construction in Downtown Kansas City. Current investments into downtown redevelopment have exceeded $6 billion. Boley Building, one of the world's first glass-curtain buildings, listed on the National Register in 1971 Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, serves as the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kansas City-St. Joseph along with the Cathedral of St. Joseph Central Library, main branch of the Kansas City Public Library system Commerce Tower, headquarters of Commerce Bank City Hall, 29-story skyscraper Hotel President, historic hotel whose famous Drum Room lounge has attracted entertainers from across the country, including Frank Sinatra, Benny Goodman, Marilyn Maye, hosted the 1928 Republican National Convention, listed on the National Register in 1983 Kansas City Athletic Club, athletic club and gentlemen's club, notable members have included President Harry S. Truman Kansas City Convention Center, major convention center, largest column-free convention environment in the world Kansas City Club, was the oldest gentlemen's club in Missouri, notable members included Presidents Harry Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower, General Omar Bradley, political boss Tom Pendergast Kansas City Power and Light Building, was the tallest building west of the Mississippi River upon its completion after succeeding the Smith Tower until the completion of the Space Needle in 1962, listed on the National Register in 2002 Louis Curtiss Studio Building, designed by architect Louis Curtiss and served as his studio, listed on the National Register in 1972 Mainstreet Theater, historic theater, listed on the National Register in 2007 Midland Theatre, historic theater, listed on the National Register in 1977 Municipal Auditorium, multi-purpose facility that features Streamline Moderne and Art Deco architecture, hosted 9 Final Fours New York Life Building, regarded as Kansas City's first skyscraper and was the first building in the city equipped with elevators, listed on the National Register in 1970 One Kansas City Place, tallest building in the state of Missouri Oppenstein Brothers Memorial Park, urban park located in the financial district Power and Light District, shopping and entertainment district Sprint Center, large multi-use indoor arena, connected to the College Basketball Experience In recent years, Downtown Kansas City has been undergoing a massive "boom" in renovations and new construction.
Since 2000, the estimated cost of these projects has totaled over $5.5 billion. The Power & Light District known as the "Entertainment District", is a nine-block area to the immediate south of the Central Business District. To be named "Kansas City Live", Inc. of Baltimore, Maryland – which developed the area – decided to name the district after the historic art deco Power & Light Building. The present headquarters of the Kansas City Power & Light Company, a subsidiary of Great Plains Energy, is on the district's northern side. Instead, a one-block area near the new H&R Block headquarters tower – devoted to live music venues – was named Kansas City Live!. The H&R Block building, which opened in the summer of 2006, has a prominent oval shape in its design, mixed with blue-green reflective glass, making for an architectural transition between the Central Business District's skyscrapers and the south loop's older buildings; this ties together a theme of new, glass-walled buildings in the area including the Sprint Center and the Kansas City Star printing press across I-670.
Cordish will build four residential towers as part of the project, which include a 25-floor residential tower, lying to the immediate north of the H&R Block headquarters on a lot
A wide receiver referred to as wideouts or receivers, is an offensive position in American and Canadian football, is a key player. They get their name because they are split out "wide". Wide receivers are among the fastest players on the field; the wide receiver functions as the pass-catching specialist. The wide receiver's principal role is to catch passes from the quarterback. On passing plays, the receiver attempts to avoid, outmaneuver, or outrun defenders in the area of his pass route. If the receiver becomes open, or has an unobstructed path to the destination of a catch, he may become the quarterback's target. Once a pass is thrown in his direction, the receiver's goal is to first catch the ball and attempt to run downfield; some receivers are perceived as a deep threat because of their flat-out speed, while others may be possession receivers known for not dropping passes, running crossing routes across the middle of the field, converting third down situations. A receiver's height contributes to their expected role.
A wide receiver has two potential roles during running plays. In the case of draw plays and other trick plays, he may run a pass route with the intent of drawing off defenders. Alternatively, he may block for the running back. Well-rounded receivers are noted for blocking defensive backs in support of teammates in addition to their pass-catching abilities. Sometimes wide receivers are used to run the ball in some form of an end-around or reverse; this can be effective because the defense does not expect them to be the ball carrier on running plays. For example, wide receiver Jerry Rice rushed the ball 87 times for 645 yards and 10 touchdowns in his 20 NFL seasons. In rarer cases, receivers may pass the ball as part of a trick play. A receiver can pass the ball so long as they receive the ball behind the line of scrimmage, in the form of a handoff or backwards lateral; this sort of trick play is employed with a receiver who has past experience playing quarterback at a lower level, such as high school, or sometimes, college.
Antwaan Randle El threw a touchdown pass at the wide receiver position in Super Bowl XL playing for the Pittsburgh Steelers against the Seattle Seahawks. Antwaan Randle El played quarterback for four years at Indiana University. Wide receivers also serve on special teams as kick returners or punt returners, as gunners on kick coverage teams, or as part of the hands team during onside kicks. On errant passes, receivers must play a defensive role by attempting to prevent an interception. If a pass is intercepted, receivers must use their speed to chase down and tackle the ball carrier to prevent him from returning the ball for a long gain or a touchdown. In the NFL, wide receivers can use the numbers 10–19 and 80–89; the wide receiver grew out of a position known as the end. The ends played on the offensive line next to the tackles. By the rules governing the forward pass and backs are eligible receivers. Most early football teams used the ends as receivers sparingly, as their position left them in heavy traffic with many defenders around.
By the 1930s, some teams were experimenting with moving one end far out near the sideline, to make them more open to receive passes. These split ends became the prototype for the modern wide receiver. Don Hutson, who played college football at Alabama and professionally with the Green Bay Packers, was the first player to exploit the potentials of the split end position, is credited as inventing the wide receiver position; as the passing game evolved, a second wide receiver position was added. While it is possible to move the opposite end out wide for a second split end position most teams preferred to leave that end in close to provide extra blocking protection on the quarterback's blind side; that player was playing the modern day tight end position. Instead of moving the blind side end out, one of the three running backs was split wide instead, creating the flanker position; the flanker lined up off the line of scrimmage like a running back or quarterback, but split outside like a split end.
Lining up behind the line of scrimmage gave flankers some advantages. Flankers have more "space" between themselves and a pressing defensive back, so cornerbacks can not as "jam" them at the line of scrimmage; this is in addition to being eligible for motion plays, allowing for the flanker to move laterally before and during the snap. Elroy "Crazy Legs" Hirsch is one of the earliest players to exploit the potentials of the flanker position as a member of the Los Angeles Rams during the 1950s. While some teams did experiment with more than two wide receivers as a gimmick or trick play, most teams used the pro set as the standard set of offensive personnel. An early innovator, coach Sid Gillman used 3+ wide receiver sets as early as the 1960s. In sets that have three, four, or five wide receivers, extra receivers are called slot receivers, as they play in the "slot" between the furthest receiver and the offensive line. In most situations, the slot receiver lines
Sprint Center is a multi-purpose arena in downtown Kansas City, Missouri. It is located at the intersection of 14th Street and Grand Boulevard on the east side of the Power & Light District; the arena's naming rights partner is Sprint Telecommunications, headquartered in nearby Overland Park, Kansas. Sprint Center opened on October 10, 2007, a concert by Elton John held three days was the arena's first event; the arena has 72 suites. Sprint Center has replaced Kemper Arena, built in 1974 just a few miles away in the southern portion of the West Bottoms neighborhood. Additionally, the College Basketball Experience, which includes the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame, is connected to and directly north of Sprint Center. Sprint Center hosted the Big 12 Men's Basketball Tournament in 2008 and has done so every year since 2010, it hosted the first and second rounds of the 2009 and 2013 NCAA Men's Tournaments, as well as the regional rounds of the 2017 NCAA Men's Tournament and the 2010 NCAA Women's Tournament.
The arena was the home of the former Kansas City Command of the Arena Football League. The city of Kansas City has entered into discussions with the National Hockey League and the National Basketball Association about possible expansion or relocation of a professional hockey and/or basketball franchise for the arena. Ground was broken for the arena on June 24, 2005, construction completed on October 11, 2007; the final design, by the Downtown Arena Design Team, was selected in August 2005. The construction manager responsible for the entire project was M. A. Mortenson Company, based out of Minneapolis, Minnesota; the complete exterior glass facade system, all metal panels for the adjacent buildings and all accessory metal cladding was custom designed and supplied by Overgaard Ltd. Hong Kong to Architectural Wall Systems, the Des Moines, Iowa based glazing contractor who installed the building envelope. In total there are 13,000 m² of double insulated glass and 5,000 m² painted aluminum curtain wall panels.
In addition there are 200 tons of system profiles and accessories. All of the 2,404 individual glass units on the main building were produced sequentially and assembled prior to shipping; the 5 million lbs of rebar used in construction was detailed and supplied by The Carter-Waters Corporation of Kansas City. The arena features a work of public art, The Moons, by artist Chris Doyle, commissioned by the Kansas City Municipal Arts Commission; the Big 12 Conference Men's Basketball Tournament was held at Sprint Center in 2008, marking the tournament's return to Kansas City after three years in Dallas and Oklahoma City. After returning to Oklahoma City in 2009, the Sprint Center again hosted the tournament in 2010 and 2011, it is scheduled to be the tournament host site through 2020. Because of Kansas City's proximity to the University of Kansas in neighboring Lawrence, Jayhawk fans who fill the arena for Big 12 Tournament games refer to the arena as "Allen Fieldhouse East" in reference to Kansas' home arena in Lawrence, Allen Fieldhouse.
However, due to Iowa State's recent Big 12 Tournament success - winning four tournament championships in a six-year span - and their fanbase's huge migration to the annual event, the Sprint Center is referred to by Iowa State fans as "Hilton South", after Iowa State's home venue, Hilton Coliseum. The arena houses the College Basketball Experience and the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame, at 1301 Grand Boulevard and connected to Sprint Center; the arena's exterior is made of glass, the interior has a 360-degree LED video screen. This facility allows Kansas City to draw most concerts touring the United States. Sprint Center opened on budget on October 10, 2007 at 10:10 am. A tour lasted from 10:10 am – 10:10 pm for those who wanted to see it to grab a ticket at the box office; the tour consisted of the College Basketball Experience, two open concession stands: "Taco Taco" and "Oak Street Pizza". UMB Bank is the only ATM in the new arena because it is a Sprint Center Founding Partner along with Farmland, The University of Kansas Hospital, QuikTrip, Olevia.
There are other Sprint Center Founding Partners: H&R Block, American Century Investments, YRC Worldwide, Time Warner Cable of Kansas City. On October 13, 2007, Elton John performed the inaugural concert to a crowd that sold out in less than 90 minutes. Garth Brooks performed nine sold-out shows on November 5–12 & 14, 2007. All shows sold out in under two hours; the November 14 show was broadcast live in movie theatres across the United States. Tina Turner performed her first live concert in 8 years to a sold-out crowd at the Sprint Center on October 1, 2008 as part of her 50th Anniversary Tour, she returned to the Sprint Center a week on Oct. 8 to perform an additional show. The February 27, 2010 concert of Elton John & Billy Joel holds the record for highest grossing show at the arena. Roger Waters performed The Wall Live, the highest-grossing tour of all time by a solo artist, at The Sprint Center on October 30, 2010, to a sold-out crowd. Foo Fighters performed at the arena on August 30, 2011 and August 21, 2015.
Both shows were picketed by the Westboro Baptist Church to which the band offered counter protests of their own. Jason Aldean's perf
Rickey Foggie is a former gridiron football quarterback. Foggie was the starting quarterback for the Minnesota Golden Gophers for four seasons, before going on to play professionally in the Canadian Football League and Arena Football League. Foggie is a head football coach in high school football in Red Wing, Minnesota, he became a successful option quarterback in the South Carolina high school ranks and was recruited by Lou Holtz to play collegiately at the University of Minnesota, where Holtz was coming in to take over the program, after leaving powerhouse Arkansas. The Gophers were coming off a 1–10 season under Joe Salem, from the previous year, it didn’t take long for Foggie to assert himself as the starting quarterback for Minnesota as a true freshman; the Gophers finished the 1984 season with a 4–7 record in Holtz’s first season as coach and Foggie’s first year as signal caller, as Foggie started to show off some of his versatile skills, both as a runner and a passer and give Minnesota fans a glimpse of a more promising outlook for the Gophers, with Foggie entrenched at quarterback.
The season was topped off by a surprising upset over Iowa and star quarterback Chuck Long, which returned the Floyd of Rosedale to Minnesota after a two-year absence. In 1985, Foggie’s sophomore season, the Gophers made further strides to be a solid program, as they finished off the regular season at 6–5 and earned an invitation to the Independence Bowl, their first bowl game in 8 years. Among the Gophers five defeats were close losses to Oklahoma and Ohio State. Meanwhile, when the Notre Dame head coaching position became available, Lou Holtz was offered and accepted the job to coach the Irish. Assistant John Gutekunst was named the new head coach and led the Gophers in their bowl game against Clemson, which the Gophers won to raise their final season record to 7–5; the Gophers fisished 6–5 the following year in 1986 and earn another bowl invitation – this time to the Liberty Bowl. They lost to Tennessee in this matchup. Foggie continued to develop into a better and more mature quarterback and was helped along by the addition of talented freshman running back, Darrell Thompson, who emerged as a star in the making, that season.
The highlight of that season was the Gophers upset of Rose Bowl bound Michigan at The Big House – earning Minnesota the Little Brown Jug for the first time in 9 years. In Foggie’s senior year in 1987, the Gophers again finished 6–5, however this year they failed to receive a bowl invite. Thought of as running quarterback who wouldn’t succeed in the National Football League, Foggie was bypassed in the 1988 NFL Draft. Although many felt he would have a better chance of making the NFL at another position, Foggie opted to remain a quarterback and joined the Canadian Football League, he started out in the CFL with the BC Lions backing up Matt Dunigan, whom he followed to the Toronto Argonauts in 1990, in which he won the Grey Cup in 1991. Where he was an instrumental part of the league’s highest scoring team. Foggie played for the Edmonton Eskimos and the Memphis Mad Dogs in the CFL. Next he embarked on a career in the Arena Football League, where he played 8 seasons spanning 10 years, he started off his AFL career back in Minnesota, where he had starred collegiately, as the starting quarterback of the expansion Minnesota Fighting Pike, who only played one season at the Target Center in 1996.
He quarterbacked the New Jersey Red Dogs from 1997 to 2000, where he attained his greatest success in the AFL, throwing for over 8,700 yards and 155 touchdowns in his first three seasons with the club. In 2001, he played for the Florida Bobcats, where he may have had his best season in the AFL – setting personal season highs with 3619 yards passing and 69 touchdowns. In 2002, he played for the Detroit Fury and the Toronto Phantoms, after a season off in 2003, he played one final season in 2004 with the Carolina Cobras, he finished his AFL career with 17921 yards passing, 325 touchdowns and a 96.38 quarterback rating. At 38, Foggie retired on the playing field, but continued on in arena football as a coach. Foggie moved to the lower tier af2 to pursue this. In 2005 as the offensive coordinator of the Amarillo Dusters, he orchestrated the highest scoring offense in the af2, with a 55.8 average. In 2006, he got his only head coaching job to date, when he took over the Everett Hawks after an 0–3 start.
After only six games as the head man, Foggie was lured over to the Macon Knights by head coach Derek Stingley to be their offensive coordinator. In 2007, Foggie followed Stingley to Albany, Georgia to be the offensive coordinator for the South Georgia Wildcats. Foggie agreed to be the offensive coordinator of Burnsville High School, a suburb of Minneapolis, after the af2 season ends. In 2014, Foggie accepted the position of head coach for the Red Wing High School football team. Foggie was named head coach of the Eagan High School Wildcats, a metropolitan school in the Minnesota 6A South Suburban Conference, "accepting" the job May 13, 2016, after two seasons at Red Wing, but 10 days Foggie was out, as a district communication specialist said, never official and that Foggie had changed his mind. Foggie asserted that he was forced to resign due to an accidental Twitter follow of a pornographic website. Coach Rickey Foggie was cited Coolest Coach by his players at Red Wing High School. Rickey is the father of Trey Foggie, the starting tight end at Division 2 powerhouse Winston-Salem State University
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in the U. S. state of Missouri. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States, it is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after. Sitting on Missouri's western boundary, with Downtown near the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, the modern city encompasses some 319.03 square miles, making it the 23rd largest city by total area in the United States. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay and Platte counties. Along with Independence, one of its major suburbs, it serves as one of the two county seats of Jackson County.
Other major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Blue Springs and Lee's Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of several neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east, the Country Club Plaza in the south. Kansas City is known for its long tradition of jazz music and culture, for its cuisine, its craft breweries. Kansas City, Missouri was incorporated as a town on June 1, 1850, as a city on March 28, 1853; the territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a good place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, Woodneath are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, he had deserted his post as fort commander and was avoiding French authorities.
Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. To clear his name, he wrote Exact Description of Louisiana, of Its Harbors and Rivers, Names of the Indian Tribes That Occupy It, the Commerce and Advantages to Be Derived Therefrom for the Establishment of a Colony in 1713 followed in 1714 by The Route to Be Taken to Ascend the Missouri River. In the documents, he describes the junction of the "Grande Riv des Cansez" and Missouri River, making him the first to adopt those names. French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the area's first reasonably accurate map; the Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, but were not to play a major role other than taxing and licensing Missouri River ship traffic. The French continued their fur trade under Spanish license; the Chouteau family operated under Spanish license at St. Louis in the lower Missouri Valley as early as 1765 and in 1821 the Chouteaus reached Kansas City, where François Chouteau established Chouteau's Landing.
After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, noting it was a good place to build a fort. In 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in, they built the first school within Kansas City's current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833 and their settlement remained vacant. In 1833 John McCoy, son of missionary Isaac McCoy, established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail, 3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a landing point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, taking their name from an English spelling of "Cansez." In 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas. By that time, the Town of Kansas and nearby Independence, had become critical points in the United States' westward expansion. Three major trails – the Santa Fe, Oregon – all passed through Jackson County. On February 22, 1853, the City of Kansas was created with a newly elected mayor.
It had an area of 0.70 square miles and a population of 2,500. The boundary lines at that time extended from the middle of the Missouri River south to what is now Ninth Street, from Bluff Street on the west to a point between Holmes Road and Charlotte Street on the east; the Kansas City area was rife with animosity just prior to the U. S. Civil War. Kansas petitioned the U. S. to enter the Union as a free state that did not allow slavery under the new doctrine of popular sovereignty. Missouri had many slaves, slavery sympathizers crossed into Kansas to sway the state towards allowing slavery, at first by ballot box and by bloodshed. During the Civil War, the city and its immediate surroundings were the focus of intense military activity. Although the First Battle of Independence in August 1862 resulted in a Confederate States Army victory, the Confederates were unable to leverage their win in any significant fashion, as Kansas City was occupied by Union troops and proved too fortified to assault.
The Second Battle of Independence, which occurred on October 21–22, 1864 as part of Sterling Price's Missouri expedition of 1864 resulted in a Confederate triumph. Once again their victory proved hollow, as Price was decisively defeated in the pivotal Battle of Westport the next day ending Confederate e
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
Arena football is a variety of indoor gridiron football played by the Arena Football League, China Arena Football League, Champions Indoor Football and others. The game is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian outdoor football, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game; the sport was invented in 1981, patented in 1987, by Jim Foster, a former executive of the National Football League and the United States Football League. The name is trademarked by Gridiron Enterprises and had a proprietary format until its patent expired in 2007. Due to the patent, other indoor American football leagues that launched following the popularity of the original AFL developed variants on the arena rules. Three leagues have played under arena football rules: the AFL, which played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008 and resumed play under new ownership in 2010, AF2, the AFL's erstwhile developmental league, which played 10 seasons from 2000 through 2009, the CAFL, which began play in 2016 but is not directly affiliated with the AFL.
While attending the 1981 Major Indoor Soccer League All-Star Game on February 11 at Madison Square Garden, Jim Foster came up with his version of football and wrote the rules and concepts down on the outside of a manila folder, which resides at the Arena Football Hall of Fame. Over the next five years, he created a more comprehensive and definitive set of playing rules, playing field specifications and equipment, along with a business plan to launch a proposed small, initial league to test market the concept of arena football nationally; as a key part of that plan, while residing in the Chicago area, he tested the game concept through several closed door practice sessions in late 1985 and early 1986 in nearby Rockford. After fine tuning the rules, he secured additional operating capital to play several test games in the MetroCentre in April 1986, the Rosemont Horizon Arena in February 1987; the next critical step for Jim Foster was securing a network television contract with ESPN and an initial group of key national corporate sponsors including United Airlines, Holiday Inn, Wilson Sporting Goods, Budget Rental Car, Hardees Restaurants.
As the league's founding commissioner he established a league office with a small staff in suburban Chicago, with addition of some much needed additional investor capital, was ready to launch the Arena Football League. On June 19, 1987, the Pittsburgh Gladiators hosted the Washington Commandos in the first league game after a two-week training camp for all four charter teams in Wheaton, Illinois. AFL football operations and training was overseen by veteran college and pro head coach, Mouse Davis, the father of the famed "run and shoot" offense; the other two 1987 teams were the Denver Dynamite. As the AFL grew into an established league with close to 20 teams, it defined itself as a major market pro sports product and welcomed commissioner C. David Baker. In the early 2000s the league appeared to have financially strong team ownership including NFL owners, as well as major names in the entertainment world, for a while, a weekly Sunday afternoon broadcast on NBC starting the week after the Super Bowl, during the stadium-played game's off season.
The growth and establishment of the AFL as a major market league spawned a developmental league that Foster helped co-found, a minor league called Arena Football 2, in 2000. The league was set up to operate in medium size markets around the U. S. where it enjoyed growth under the guidance of af2 president Jerry Kurz. Many other people have started their own indoor football minor leagues; these leagues do not technically play arena football or use the proper name "Arena Football", a registered trademark, because of the patent on the rules that Foster obtained in 1990. The other two partners were Chicago based lawyers Bill Niro and Jerry Kurz, who in early 1987 joined Foster to help secure the patents on the Arena Football game system and re-establish the Arena Football League in early 1990 as a franchised league after removing a small group of limited partners for multiple breaches of the limited partnership agreement, the basis for operating the AFL during the 1988 season; the patents expired in 2007.
The trademarks only cover the words "arena football" in immediate succession. Arena football is played indoors, in arenas designed for either basketball or ice hockey teams; the field is the same width and length as a standard NHL hockey rink, making it 55% of the dimensions of a regular American gridiron football field. The scrimmage area is long, each end zone is deep. Depending on the venue in which a game is being played, the end zones may be rectangular or, where necessary because of the building design, rounded; each sideline has a padded barrier, with the padding placed over the hockey dasher boards. The goalpost uprights are 9 feet wide, the c