Li Bai known as Li Bo, courtesy name Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights. He and his friend Du Fu were the two most prominent figures in the flourishing of Chinese poetry in the Tang dynasty, called the "Golden Age of Chinese Poetry"; the expression "Three Wonders" denote Li Bai's poetry, Pei Min's swordplay, Zhang Xu's calligraphy. Around a thousand poems attributed to him are extant, his poems have been collected into the most important Tang dynasty poetry anthology Heyue yingling ji, compiled in 753 by Yin Fan, thirty-four of his poems are included in the anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, first published in the 18th century. In the same century, translations of his poems began to appear in Europe; the poems were models for celebrating the pleasures of friendship, the depth of nature and the joys of drinking wine. Among the most famous are "Waking from Drunkenness on a Spring Day", "The Hard Road to Shu", "Quiet Night Thought", which still appear in school texts in China.
In the West, multilingual translations of Li's poems continue to be made. His life has taken on a legendary aspect, including tales of drunkenness and the well-known fable that Li drowned when he reached from his boat to grasp the moon’s reflection in the river while drunk, he was a drug addict. Much of Li's life is reflected in his poetry: places which he visited, friends whom he saw off on journeys to distant locations never to meet again, his own dream-like imaginations embroidered with shamanic overtones, current events of which he had news, descriptions taken from nature in a timeless moment of poetry, so on. However, of particular importance are the changes in the times through which he lived, his early poetry took place in the context of a "golden age" of internal peace and prosperity in the Chinese empire of the Tang dynasty, under the reign of an emperor who promoted and participated in the arts. This all changed and shockingly, beginning with the rebellion of the general An Lushan, when all of northern China was devastated by war and famine.
Li's poetry as well takes on new qualities. Unlike his younger friend Du Fu, Li did not live to see the quelling of these disorders. However, much of Li's poetry has survived. Li Bai, Li Po, Li Bo, Ri Haku have been all used in the West, but are all written with the same characters, his given name, is romanized by variants such as Po, Bo, Pai. In Hanyu Pinyin, reflecting modern Mandarin Chinese, the main, colloquial equivalent for this character is Bái; the reconstructed version of how he and others during the Tang dynasty would have pronounced this is Bhæk. His courtesy name was Taibai "Great White," as the planet Venus was called at the time. Thus, combining the family name with the courtesy name, his name appears in variants such as Li Taibo, Li Taibai, Li Tai-po, among others, he is known by his, or pen-name Qīnglián Jūshì, meaning Householder of Azure Lotus, or by nicknames "Immortal Poet" (Poet Transcendent. The Japanese pronunciation may be romanized as "Ri Haku"or "Ri Taihaku"; the two "Books of Tang", The Old Book of Tang and The New Book of Tang, remain the primary sources of bibliographical material on Li Bai.
Other sources include internal evidence from poems by or about Li Bai, certain other sources, such the preface to his collected poems by his relative and literary executor, Li Yangbin. Li Bai is considered to have been born in 701, in Suyab of ancient Chinese Central Asia, where his family had prospered in business at the frontier. Afterwards, the family under the leadership of his father, Li Ke, moved to Jiangyou, near modern Chengdu, in Sichuan province, when the youngster was five years old. There is some mystery or uncertainty about the circumstances of the family relocations, at the least a lack of legal authorization which would have been required to move out of the border regions if one's family had been assigned there. However, despite much speculation, the facts are scant. Also,most Chinese people believe that Li Bai was born in Jiangyou,though, not true. Two accounts given by contemporaries Li Yangbing and Fan Chuanzheng state that Li's family was from what is now southwestern Jingning County, Gansu.
Li's ancestry is traditionally traced back to Li Gao, the noble founder of the state of Western Liang. This provides some support for Li's own claim to be related to the Li dynastic royal family of the Tang dynasty: the Tang emperors claimed descent from the Li rulers of West Liang; this family was known as the Longxi Li lineage. Evidence suggests that during the Sui dynasty, Li's own ancestors, at that time for some reason classified as commoners, were forced into a form of exile from their original home to some location or locations further west. During their exile in the far west, the Li family lived in the ancient Silk Road city of Suiye (Suyab, now an archeological site in present-day Kyrgyzstan, also in Tiaozhi, a state near modern Ghazni, Afghanistan; these areas were on the anci
Shi and shih are romanizations of the character 詩 or 诗, the Chinese word for all poetry and across all languages. In Western analysis of the styles of Chinese poetry, shi is used as a term of art for a specific poetic tradition, modeled after the Old Chinese works collected in the Confucian Classic of Poetry; this anthology included both aristocratic poems and more rustic works believed to have derived from Huaxia folk songs. They are composed in ancient Chinese in four-character lines. In such analysis, "shi" poetry is contrasted with other forms such as the Chu-derived "ci" and the Han-era "fu"; this use is not common within Chinese literature, which instead classifies these poems into other categories such as "classical Chinese poetry", "Field and Garden" poetry, "curtailed" poetry. Gushi, which means "Ancient Poetry", may be used in either of two senses, it may be used broadly to refer to the ancient poetry of China, chiefly the anonymous works collected in the Confucian Classic of Poetry, the separate tradition exemplified by Qu Yuan and Song Yu's Songs of Chu, the works collected by the Han "Music Bureau".
It may be used to refer to poems in the styles of the Confucian classic, regardless of their time of composition. Owing to the variety of pieces included in the Classic, there are few formal constraints apart from line length and rhyming every other line. Jintishi, which means "Modern Poetry", was composed from the 5th century onwards and is considered to have been developed by the early Tang dynasty; the works were principally written in five- and seven-character lines and involve constrained tone patterns, intended to balance the four tones of Middle Chinese within each couplet. The principal forms are the four-line jueju, the eight-line lüshi, the unlimited pailü. In addition to the tonal patterns, lüshi and pailü were understood to further require parallelism in their interior couplets: a theme developed in one couplet would be contrasted in the following one by means of the same parts of speech. Jueju Lüshi Gushi Classical Chinese poetry forms Classical Chinese poetry genres List of Chinese-language poets Davis, Albert The Penguin Book of Chinese Verse.
Penguin Books, 1970. Chinese Poems, a collection of Chinese poems with pinyin and parallel translation "Jintishi", an introduction to regulated verse
Tanka is a genre of classical Japanese poetry and one of the major genres of Japanese literature. In the time of the Man'yōshū, the term tanka was used to distinguish "short poems" from the longer chōka. In the ninth and tenth centuries, notably with the compilation of the Kokinshū, the short poem became the dominant form of poetry in Japan, the general word waka became the standard name for this form. Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki revived the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Haiku is a term of his invention, used for his revision of standalone hokku, with the same idea. Tanka consist of five units with the following pattern of on: 5-7-5-7-7; the 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku, the 7-7 is called the shimo-no-ku. During the Kojiki and Nihonshoki periods the tanka retained a well defined form, but the history of the mutations of the tanka itself forms an important chapter in haiku history, until the modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples as contributors.
Yosano Tekkan and the poets that were associated with his Myōjō magazine were one example, but that magazine was short-lived. A young high school student, Otori You, Ishikawa Takuboku contributed to Myōjō. In 1980 the New York Times published a representative work: Masaoka Shiki's poems and writing have had a more lasting influence; the magazine Hototogisu, which he founded, still publishes. In the Meiji period, Shiki claimed the situation with waka should be rectified, waka should be modernized in the same way as other things in the country, he praised the style of Man'yōshū as manly, as opposed to the style of Kokin Wakashū, the model for waka for a thousand years, which he denigrated and called feminine. He praised Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate, a disciple of Fujiwara no Teika and composed waka in a style much like that in the Man'yōshū. Following Shiki's death, in the Taishō period, Mokichi Saitō and his friends began publishing a magazine, which praised the Man'yōshū.
Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country. Their modernization aside, in the court the old traditions still prevailed; the court continues to hold many utakai both and privately. The utakai that the Emperor holds on the first of the year is called Utakai Hajime and it is an important event for waka poets. After World War II, waka began to be considered out-of-date, but since the late 1980s it has revived under the example of contemporary poets, such as Tawara Machi. With her 1987 bestselling collection Salad Anniversary, the poet has been credited with revitalizing the tanka for modern audiences. Today there are many circles of tanka poets. Many newspapers have a weekly tanka column, there are many professional and amateur tanka poets; as a parting gesture, outgoing PM Jun'ichirō Koizumi wrote a tanka to thank his supporters. The Japanese imperial family continue to write tanka for the New Year. In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose.
In particular, it was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home; the exchanged waka were called Kinuginu, because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress. Works of this period, The Pillow Book and The Tale of Genji provide us with such examples in the life of aristocrats. Murasaki Shikibu uses 795 waka in her The Tale of Genji as waka her characters made in the story; some of these are her own. Shortly and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture, they recited a part of appropriate waka to imply something on an occasion. Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party that produced occasional poetry: Uta-awase.
Utakai was a party in which all participants recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme; the judge gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner; the first recorded Utaawase was held in around 885. At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with more formality. Ochiai Naobumi Masaoka Shiki Yosano Akiko Ishikawa Takuboku Saitō Mokichi Itō Sachio Kitahara Hakus
Occasional poetry is poetry composed for a particular occasion. In the history of literature, it is studied in connection with orality and patronage; as a term of literary criticism, "occasional poetry" describes the work's purpose and the poet's relation to subject matter. It is not a genre, but several genres originate as occasional poetry, including epithalamia, dirges or funerary poems and victory odes. Occasional poems may be composed exclusive of or within any given set of genre conventions to commemorate single events or anniversaries, such as birthdays, foundings, or dedications. Occasional poetry is lyric because it originates as performance, in antiquity and into the 16th century with musical accompaniment. Occasional poetry was a significant and characteristic form of expression in ancient Greek and Roman culture, has continued to play a prominent if sometimes aesthetically debased role throughout Western literature. Poets whose body of work features occasional poetry that stands among their highest literary achievements include Pindar, Ronsard, Dryden, Goethe and Mallarmé.
In the 18th century in Germany, occasional poems were written by women, a phenomenon, the subject of feminist literary criticism. The occasional poem is important in Persian, Arabic and Japanese literature, its ubiquity among all world literatures suggests the centrality of occasional poetry in the origin and development of poetry as an art form. Goethe declared that "Occasional Poetry is the highest kind," and Hegel gave it a central place in the philosophical examination of how poetry interacts with life: In the 19th and 20th centuries, newspapers in the United States published occasional poems, memorial poems for floods, train accidents, mine disasters and the like were written as lyrics in ballad stanzas. A high-profile example of a 21st century occasional poem is Elizabeth Alexander's "Praise Song for the Day," written for Barack Obama's 2009 US presidential inauguration, read by the poet during the event to a television audience of around 38 million. Poetry Haiku Sugano, Marian Zwerling.
The Poetics of the Occasion: Mallarmé and the Poetry of Circumstance. Stanford University Press, 1992. Limited preview online
Count Nogi Maresuke known as Kiten, Count Nogi, was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army and a governor-general of Taiwan. He was one of the commanders during the 1894 capture of Port Arthur from China, he was a prominent figure in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, as commander of the forces which captured Port Arthur from the Russians. He was a national hero in Imperial Japan as a model of feudal loyalty and self-sacrifice to the point of suicide. In the Satsuma Rebellion, he lost a banner of the emperor in battle, for which he tried to atone with suicidal bravery in order to recapture it, until ordered to stop. In the Russo-Japanese War, he captured Port Arthur but he felt that he had lost too many of his soldiers, so requested permission to commit suicide, which the emperor refused; these two events, as well as his desire not to outlive his master, motivated his suicide on the day of the funeral of the Emperor Meiji. His example revitalized the samurai practice of seppuku ritual suicide.
Nogi was born as the son of a samurai at the Edo residence of the Chōfu clan from Chōshū. He was born on 11 November 1849, according to the old Japanese lunar calendar, or Christmas day, according to the new one, his childhood name was Mujin "no one", to prevent evil spirits from coming to harm him. On turning 18, he was renamed Nogi Bunzō. In November 1869, by the order of the Nagato domain's lord, he enlisted in Fushimi Goshin Heisha to be trained in the French style for the domainal Army. After completing the training, he was reassigned to the Kawatō Barrack in Kyoto as an instructor, as Toyōra domain's Army trainer in charge of coastal defense troops. In 1871, Nogi was commissioned as a major in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army. Around this time, he renamed. In 1875, he became the 14th Infantry Regiment's attaché; the next year, Nogi was named as the Kumamoto regional troop's Staff Officer, transferred to command the 1st Infantry Regiment, for his service in the Satsuma Rebellion, against the forces of Saigō Takamori in Kyūshū, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 22 April 1877.
In a fierce battle at that time, he lost the 14th Infantry Regiment’s regimental banner to the enemy, considered to be the property of the Emperor. Its loss was an extreme disgrace. Nogi considered this such a grave mistake that he listed it as one of the reasons for his suicide. On 27 August 1876, Nogi married Shizuko, the fourth daughter of Satsuma samurai Yuji Sadano, 20 years old; as Nogi was 28 years old, it was a late marriage for that time, considering that the average age to marry was in the early 20s. On 28 August 1877, their first son Katsunori was born, Nogi bought his first house at Nizakamachi, Tokyo. In 1879, his second son Yasunori, was born, he was promoted to colonel on 29 April 1880. Promoted major general on 21 May 1885, in 1887 Nogi went to Germany with Kawakami Soroku to study European military strategy and tactics. In 1894, during the First Sino-Japanese War, Major-General Nogi commanded the First Infantry Brigade which penetrated the Chinese defenses and occupied Port Arthur in only one day of combat.
As such, he was a senior commander during the Port Arthur massacre. The following year, he was promoted to lieutenant general and assigned to the Second Division, tasked with the invasion of Taiwan. Nogi remained with the occupation forces in Taiwan until 1898. In 1899, he was recalled to Japan, placed in command of the newly formed 11th Infantry Brigade, based in Kagawa. After the war, he was elevated to danshaku. Nogi was appointed as the third Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan from 14 October 1896 to February 1898; when moving to Taiwan, he moved his entire family, during their time in Taiwan, his mother contracted malaria and died. This led Nogi to take measures to improve on the health care infrastructure of the island. However, unlike many of his contemporary officers, Nogi expressed no interest in pursuing politics. In 1904, Nogi was recalled to active service on the occasion of the Russo-Japanese War, was promoted to army general in command of the Japanese Third Army, with an initial strength of 90,000 men and assigned to the capture of the Russia port of Port Arthur on the southern tip of Liaodong Peninsula, Manchuria.
Nogi's forces landed shortly after the Battle of Nanshan, in which his eldest son, serving with the Japanese Second Army, was killed. Advancing down the Liaodong Peninsula, Nogi encountered unexpectedly strong resistance, far more fortifications than he had experienced ten years earlier against the Chinese; the attack against Port Arthur turned into the lengthy Siege of Port Arthur, an engagement lasting from 1 August 1904 to 2 January 1905, costing the Japanese massive losses. Due to the mounting casualties and failure of Nogi to overcome Port Arthur's defenses, there was mounting pressure within the Japanese government and military to relieve him of command. However, in an unprecedented action, Emperor Meiji spoke out during the Supreme War Council meeting, defending Nogi and demanding that he be kept in command. After the fall of Port Arthur, Nogi was regarded as a national hero, he led his Third Army against the Russian forces at the final Battle of Mukden, ending the land combat phase of operations of the war.
British historian Richard Storry noted that Nogi imposed the best of the Japanese samurai tradition on the men under his command such that "...the conduct of the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War tow
Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language. While this last term comprises Classical Chinese, Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese, Yue Chinese, other historical and vernacular forms of the language, its poetry falls into one of two primary types, Classical Chinese poetry and Modern Chinese poetry. Poetry has been held in high regard in China incorporating expressive folk influences filtered through the minds of Chinese literati. In Chinese culture, poetry has provided a format and a forum for both public and private expressions of deep emotion, offering an audience of peers and scholars insight into the inner life of Chinese writers across more than two millennia. Westerners have found in it an interesting and pleasurable field of study, in its exemplification of essential contrasts between the Western world and Chinese civilization, on its own terms. Classical Chinese poetry includes first and foremost shi, other major types such as ci and qu. There is a traditional Chinese literary form called fu, which defies categorization into English more than the other terms, but can best be described as a kind of prose-poem.
During the modern period, there has developed free verse in Western style. Traditional forms of Chinese poetry are rhymed, however the mere rhyming of text may not qualify literature as being poetry. For example, lines from I Ching are rhymed, but may not be considered to be poetry, whereas modern verse may be considered to be poetry without rhyme. A cross-cultural comparison to this might be the Pre-Socratic philosophical works in ancient Greece which were written in verse versus free verse; the earliest extant anthologies are the Shi Jing. Both of these have had a great impact on the subsequent poetic tradition. Earlier examples of ancient Chinese poetry may have been lost because of the vicissitudes of history, such as the burning of books and burying of scholars ( 焚书坑儒） by Qin Shi Huang, although one of the targets of this last event was the Shi Jing, which has survived; the elder of these two works, the Shijing is a preserved collection of Classical Chinese poetry from over two millennia ago.
Its content divided into 3 parts: feng, ya(雅,Imperial court songs,subdiviede in daya and xiaoya,105 songs in total）and song(颂,singing in ancestral worship, 40 songs in total）. This anthology received its final compilation sometime in the 7th century BCE; the collection contains both aristocratic poems regarding life at the royal court and more rustic poetry and images of natural settings, derived at least to some extent from folk songs. The Shijing poems are predominantly composed of four-character lines, rather than the five and seven character lines typical of Classical Chinese poetry; the main techniques of espression are fu ， xing. In contrast to the classic Shijing, the Chu Ci anthology consists of verses more emphasizing lyric and romantic features, as well as irregular line-lengths and other influences from the poetry typical of the state of Chu; the Chuci collection consists of poems ascribed to Qu Yuan(屈原） and his follower Song Yu, although in its present form the anthology dates to Wang I's 158 CE compilation and notes, which are the only reliable source of both the text and information regarding its composition.
During the Han dynasty, the Chu Ci style of poetry contributed to the evolution of the fu style, typified by a mixture of verse and prose passages. The fu form remained popular during the subsequent Six Dynasties period, although it became shorter and more personal; the fu form of poetry remains as one of the generic pillars of Chinese poetry. During the Han dynasty, a folk-song style of poetry became popular, known as yuefu "Music Bureau" poems, so named because of the government's role in collecting such poems, although in time some poets began composing original works in yuefu style. Many yuefu poems are composed of five-character or seven-character lines, in contrast to the four-character lines of earlier times. A characteristic form of Han Dynasty literature is the fu; the poetic period of the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Six Dynasties era is known as Jian'an poetry. An important collection of Han poetry is the Nineteen Old Poems. Between and over-lapping the poetry of the latter days of the Han and the beginning period of the Six Dynasties was Jian'an poetry.
Examples of surviving poetry from this period include the works of the "Three Caos": Cao Cao, Cao Pi, Cao Zhi. The Six Dynasties era was one of various developments in poetry, both continuing and building on the traditions developed and handed down from previous eras and leading up to further developments of poetry in the future. Major examples of poetry surviving from this dynamic era include the works of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, the poems of the Orchid
Occupation of Japan
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth. Unlike in the occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union was allowed little to no influence over Japan; this foreign presence marks the only time in Japan's history that it has been occupied by a foreign power. The country became a parliamentary democracy that recalled "New Deal" priorities of the 1930s by Roosevelt; the occupation, codenamed Operation Blacklist, was ended by the San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, effective from April 28, 1952, after which Japan's sovereignty – with the exception, until 1972, of the Ryukyu Islands – was restored. According to John Dower, in his book Cultures of War: Pearl Harbor/Hiroshima/9-11/Iraq, the factors behind the success of the occupation were: Discipline, moral legitimacy, well-defined and well-articulated objectives, a clear chain of command and flexibility in policy formulation and implementation, confidence in the ability of the state to act constructively, the ability to operate abroad free of partisan politics back home, the existence of a stable, sophisticated civil society on the receiving end of occupation policies – these political and civic virtues helped make it possible to move decisively during the brief window of a few years when defeated Japan itself was in flux and most receptive to radical change.
Japan surrendered to the Allies on August 14, 1945, when the Japanese government notified the Allies that it had accepted the Potsdam Declaration. On the following day, Emperor Hirohito announced Japan's unconditional surrender on the radio; the announcement was the emperor's first planned radio broadcast and the first time most citizens of Japan heard their sovereign's voice. This date is known as Victory over Japan, or V-J Day, marked the end of World War II and the beginning of a long road to recovery for a shattered Japan. Japanese officials left for Manila, Philippines on August 19 to meet MacArthur and to be briefed on his plans for the occupation. On August 28, 1945, 150 US personnel flew to Kanagawa Prefecture, they were followed by USS Missouri, whose accompanying vessels landed the 4th Marine Regiment on the southern coast of Kanagawa. The 11th Airborne Division was airlifted from Okinawa 30 miles from Tokyo. Other Allied personnel followed. MacArthur arrived in Tokyo on August 30, decreed several laws.
No Allied personnel were to assault Japanese people. No Allied personnel were to eat the scarce Japanese food. Flying the Hinomaru or "Rising Sun" flag was severely restricted; this restriction was lifted in 1948 and lifted the following year. On September 2, 1945, Japan formally surrendered with the signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender. On September 6, US President Truman approved a document titled "US Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan"; the document set two main objectives for the occupation: eliminating Japan's war potential and turning Japan into a democratic-style nation with pro-United Nations orientation. Allied forces were set up to supervise the country, "for eighty months following its surrender in 1945, Japan was at the mercy of an army of occupation, its people subject to foreign military control." At the head of the Occupation administration was General MacArthur, technically supposed to defer to an advisory council set up by the Allied powers, but in practice did not and did everything himself.
As a result, this period was one of significant American influence, described near the end of the occupation in 1951 that "for six years the United States has had a freer hand to experiment with Japan than any other country in Asia, or indeed in the entire world." Looking back to his work among the Japanese, MacArthur said, "Measured by the standards of modern civilization, they would be like a boy of twelve" compared to the maturity of the US and Germany, had a good chance of putting away their troubled past. On V-J Day, US President Harry Truman appointed General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, to supervise the occupation of Japan. During the war, the Allied Powers had planned to divide Japan amongst themselves for the purposes of occupation, as was done for the occupation of Germany. Under the final plan, however, SCAP was given direct control over the main islands of Japan and the surrounding islands, while outlying possessions were divided between the Allied Powers as follows: Soviet Union: North Korea, South Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands United States: South Korea, the Amami Islands, the Ogasawara Islands and Japanese possessions in Micronesia China: Taiwan and Penghu It is unclear why the occupation plan was changed.
Common theories include the increased power of the United States following development of the atomic bomb, Truman's greater distrust of the Soviet Union when compared with Roosevelt, an increased desire to restrict Soviet influence in East Asia after the Yalta Conference. The Soviet Union had some intentions of occupying Hokkaidō. Had this occurred, there might have been a communist state in the Soviet zone of occupation. However, unlike the Soviet occupations of East Germany and North Korea, these plans were frustrated by Truman's opposition. MacArthur's first priority was to set up a food distribution network. With these