Shueisha Inc. is a Japanese company headquartered in Chiyoda, Japan. The company was founded in 1925 as the entertainment-related publishing division of Japanese publisher Shogakukan; the following year, Shueisha became a independent company. Magazines published by Shueisha include Weekly Shōnen Jump, Weekly Young Jump, Non-no and Ultra Jump. Shueisha, along with Shogakukan, owns Viz Media, which publishes manga from all three companies in North America. In 1925, Shueisha was created by major publishing company Shogakukan. Jinjō Shōgaku Ichinen Josei became the first novel published by Shueisha in collaboration with Shogakukan—the temporary home of Shueisha. In 1927, two novels titled Danshi Ehon, Joshi Ehon were created. In 1928, Shueisha was hired to edit a compilation. Gendai Humor Zenshū continued 12 volumes, some issues being Joshi Shinjidai Eishūji-chō and Shinjidai Eishūji-chō. In the 1930s another novel called Tantei-ki Dan was launched and Gendai Humor Zenshū was completed in 24 volumes.
In 1931 two more novels were launched, Danshi Joshi Yōchien. After World War II, Shueisha started publishing a manga line called Omoshiro Book. Omoshiro Book published a picture book called Shōnen Ōja, which became a huge hit among boys and girls; the first full volume of Shōnen Ōja was released as Shōnen Ōja Oitachi Hen, which became an instant best-seller. The first magazine published by Shueisha was Akaruku Tanoshii Shōnen-Shōjo Zasshi. In September 1949, Omoshiro Book was made into a magazine with all the contents of the former line. In 1950, a special edition of the magazine was published under the title Hinomaru. In addition to Omoshiro Book, a female version was published in 1951: Shōjo Book which featured manga aimed at adolescent girls; the Hitotsubashi building of Shueisha became independent in 1952. In that year, Omoshiro Book ceased Myōjō began publication as a monthly magazine; the series of Omoshiro Book were published in bunkoban editions under the Omoshiro Manga Bunko line. A novel called Yoiko Yōchien was published and Omoshiro Book was replaced with another children's manga magazine called Yōnen Book.
In 1955, the success of Shōjo Book led to the publication of running Ribon. The novel Joshi Yōchien Kobato began publication in 1958. On November 23, a special issue of Myōjō titled. In 1951, another male edition of Shōjo Book was released, Shōnen Book was made, Shōjo Book series were released in bunkoban editions under the Shōjo Manga Bunko imprint. In the 1960s, another spin-off issue of Myōjō was released called Bessatsu Weekly Myōjō. Shueisha continues to publish many novels. A compilation of many Omoshiro Book series was released as Shōnen-Shōjo Nippon Rekishi Zenshū complete in 12 volumes. Many other books were published including Hirosuke Yōnen Dōwa Bungaku Zenshū, Hatachi no Sekkei, Dōdō Taru Jinsei, Shinjin Nama Gekijō, Gaikoku kara Kita Shingo Jiten. In 1962, Shueisha published a female version of many more novels. In 1963, Shueisha began publication of the successful Margaret with the additional offshoot Bessatsu Margaret; the novel Ukiyo-e Hanga was released complete in seven volumes, the picture book Sekai 100 Nin no Monogatari Zenshū was released in the usual 12.
In 1964, Kanshi Taikei was released in 24 volumes plus a reprint. In that year a line of novels, Compact Books, was made and a line of manga called Televi-Books. In 1965, two more magazines were made: Cobalt and the Shōnen Book offshoot Bessatsu Shōnen Book. In 1966, Shueisha began publication of Weekly Playboy, Seishun to Shōsetsu Junior. A novel called. Another manga magazine was made titled Young Music. Deluxe Margaret began publication in the additional Margaret Comics and Ribon Comics lines. In 1968 the magazine Hoshi Young Sense began publication as spin-off to the short-lived Young Sense. In that year Margaret launched the Seventeen magazine as a Japanese version of the English edition. Shōnen Jump was created in the same year as a semi-weekly magazine. Another children's manga magazine was created in that year called Junior Comic and another Ribon spin-off called Ribon Comic. In 1969 the magazine Joker began publication along with guts. Several other novels were published; the magazine Bessatsu Seventeen began publication.
In that year Shōnen Jump changed its name to Weekly Shōnen Jump. Following up the end of Shōnen Book a spin-off of Weekly Shōnen Jump started at the same time as it became weekly called Bessatsu Shōnen Jump, it changed its name to Monthly Shōnen Jump with the second issue. The 1970s started with the launch of the novel magazine Subaru and in 1971 the Non-no and Ocean life magazines began publication; the novel series Gendai Nippon Bijutsu Zenshū became a huge seller. In 1972 Roadshow began publication and The Rose of Versailles begins in the Margaret Comics line gaining massive popularity. In 1973 Playgirl magazine began publication and the novel series Zenshaku Kanbun Taikei spawning a huge 33 volumes. In 1974 Weekly Shōnen Jump launched Akamaru Jump. Saison de Non-no launches. Shueisha announced that in the summer of 2011, it would launch a new manga magazine titled Miracle Jump. In October 2016, Shueisha announced that they had created a new department on June 21 called the Dragon Ball Room. Headed by V Jump editor-in-chief Akio Iyoku, it is dedicated to Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball and optimizing and expanding the brand.
Shueisha has published many kanzenban magazine
They Kiss Again
They Kiss Again is a 2007 Taiwanese television series starring Joe Cheng, Ariel Lin, Jiro Wang and Danson Tang. It is the sequel to It Started with a Kiss, based on the Japanese manga series Itazura na Kiss written by Kaoru Tada, it was directed by Chu Yu-ning. It started filming 26 March 2007 and wrapped 19 January 2008, it was first broadcast in Taiwan on free-to-air China Television from 16 December 2007 to 27 April 2008, every Sunday at 22:00 to 23:30 and cable TV Gala Television Variety Show/CH 28 on 22 December 2007 to 3 May 2008, every Saturday at 21:30 to 23:00. It is the third live-action television adaptation following the Japanese adaptation titled Itazura na Kiss, its prequel It Started with a Kiss in 2005 and followed by a South Korean adaptation Playful Kiss in 2010 broadcast on MBC, it Started with a Kiss ended with odd couple Zhi Shu and Xiang Qin getting married in characteristically comical fashion, the sequel picks up the story with their honeymoon and married life. Xiang Qin is as ham-fisted as creating many funny situations as she learns the ropes of being a wife and tries hard to become a good nurse and work alongside her genius husband.
Aspiring doctor Zhi Shu meets some obstacles at school when he encounters both academic and romantic rivals who are determined to over-rule him. As Zhi Shu and Xiang Qin struggle with their professional ambitions, they struggle with their personal relationship. Many times, Zhi Shu's coldness and harshness drives Xiang Qin to tears and she tries to run away. Zhi Shu learns to understand and deal with his jealousy when Xiang Qin's nursing fellow student Yang Qi Tai becomes too close, he tries to push Xiang Qin to higher ambition and independence. Zhi Shu soon learns to love Xiang Qin and forgive her bumbling ways, Xiang Qin tries harder to become a better wife and nurse to her husband. Zhi Shu and Xiang Qin are not the only ones having problems with their relationship. Xiang Qin's childhood friend Ah Jin deals with the unwelcome affections of Christine, an English exchange student who latches onto him against his will. Xiang Qin's friend, Chun Mei, gets pregnant by her boyfriend, Ah Bu, but his wealthy, highbrow mother is desperate to keep them apart.
Zhi Shu's younger brother Yu Shu deals with his own first love and their story remarkably resembles that of Zhi Shu and Xiang Qin. Ariel Lin as Jiang Xian Qin - Kotoko Aihara in the manga and Jiang Zhi Shu's wife Joe Cheng as Jiang Zhi Shu - Naoki Irie in the manga and Yuan Xiang Qin's husband Jiro Wang as Jin Yuan Feng - Kinnosuke Nakamura in the manga and Yuan Xiang Qin's friend Chang Yung Cheng as Jiang Wan Li - Zhi Shu's father Cyndi Chaw as Jiang Zhao Zi - Zhi Shu's mother Tang Tsung Sheng as Yuan Cai - Xiang Qin's father Zhang Bo Han as Jiang Yu Shu - Zhi Shu's brother Petty Yang as Lin Chun Mei - Xiang Qin's best friend Candice Liu as Liu Ya Nong - Xiang Qin's best friend Ann Hsu as Pei Zi Yu - Zhi Shu's friend Jason Wang as Wang Hao Qian - Zhi Shu's college friend Aaron Yan as Ah Bu - Chun Mei's boyfriend They Kiss Again Original Soundtrack was released on December 28, 2007 by various artists under Avex Taiwan, it contains eleven songs. The opening theme song is "Xing Fu He Zhuo She" or "Happiness Cooperative" by Mavis Fan, while the ending theme song is by Ariel Lin entitled "Ni" or "You".
The Philippines broadcast the series on ABS-CBN starting July 29, 2008. It was awarded by the 2009 USTv Student's Choice Award for "Best Foreign Soap Opera"; the names were changed to English as follows: In Thailand, it aired on Channel 3 on Saturday to Sunday at 01:00 a.m and 0:30 a.m. from February 20, 2011. and re-run on 3 Family on Saturday to Sunday at 3:45 p.m. beginning September 5, 2015. Itazura na Kiss: The original manga version of the novel It Started with a Kiss: prequel of the Taiwanese television drama adaptation Playful Kiss: Korean TV drama adaptation Mischievous Kiss: Love in Tokyo: Japanese series adaptation of the manga 2013 remake CTV They Kiss Again official homepage GTV They Kiss Again official homepage
Mischievous Kiss: Love in Tokyo
Mischievous Kiss: Love in Tokyo is a 2013 Fuji TV Japanese television drama, starring Honoka Miki and Yuki Furukawa in the lead roles. It aired from March 2013, to July 19, 2013 with 16 episodes. In early October 2013, it was announced on the official website of Mischievous Kiss: Love in Tokyo that there is a green light for a second season, it was announced that a special titled Love in Okinawa would air on September 12, 2014. The second season began airing on November 24, 2014, it is based on the Japanese manga Itazura Na Kiss written by Tada Kaoru. The Japanese series is the fifth television adaptation of the manga, following the Japanese Itazura Na Kiss in 1996, the Taiwanese It Started with a Kiss in 2005, its sequel They Kiss Again in 2007, Korean Playful Kiss in 2010 the Thai kiss me in 2015 and the Chinese Miss in Kiss in 2016. Kotoko Aihara isn't intelligent and lacks ability in school, she is in the least intelligent class in her grade. Despite this, she has been in love with the school's most handsome and most intelligent guy, Naoki Irie since she saw him give a speech at the high school entrance ceremony.
In her third year of high school, she is rejected instantly. She is crushed to see her letter was not looked at and decides to give up on the jerk who rejected her without reading it. On the same day, Kotoko's house collapses; as it is being rebuilt, her dad gets a phone call from his longtime friend and is invited to stay with them. When she arrives, she is in shock to see that this is the house of his family. Although he shows a cold attitude, she realizes she can't love him. What will happen when fate takes over, Kotoko's chance of winning Naoki's heart falls in her hands? Honoka Miki as Kotoko Aihara Kotoko Aihara is the protagonist, she has had a one-sided love for the school's most popular boy since her freshman year of high school. Though she is not good in academics, she works hard to succeed, she lives with her mother having died when she was young. Due to an incident with their new house and her father are forced to move out and now live with the Irie family. Although Naoki and his younger brother are cold to her, she is welcomed by their parents — their mother, who develops an instant attachment to Kotoko due to always wanting a daughter.
Throughout the first season, Kotoko feels as though Naoki hates her and is slow in realizing that he is falling in love with her. This is due to Naoki giving her mixed signals of his feelings towards her, when he himself doesn't understand them. Despite his indifference, Kotoko still works hard and tries her best to help Naoki and his family whenever she can. Kotoko is close friends with Kinnosuke or'Kin-chan' who expresses his love for her. However, she likes him as a close friend. Towards the season one finale, when Naoki is about marry Sahoko, she gives up on him and tries to move on with Kinnosuke. Despite her effort, she realizes that she is unable to let go of her love for Naoki. After this realization, Naoki proposes to her; this leaves her shocked, but she accepts. Yuki Furukawa as Naoki Irie Naoki Irie is the most handsome boy at Tonan High School, he is rumored to have an IQ of 200 and is popular among the girls due to his intelligence and good looks. He can be somewhat intimidating to other students at Tonan the bottom ranking class F, which Kotoko is a part of.
Despite being loved by all the girls in his school, he has no interest in any of them. He is cold and rather mean to Kotoko, leaving the impression that he dislikes her. However, he warms up to her as the story begins to fall in love with her. However, he fails to understand his feelings. Although he is an academic genius, he is slow in terms of emotional intelligence and does not realize that he is in love with Kotoko; because Naoki could do anything he set his mind to with ease, he had never experienced any sort of physical or mental hardship before meeting Kotoko. While he makes it clear that Kotoko causes him trouble, he admits that she has made his life more interesting, he confesses how she has allowed him to experience basic human emotions for the first time. He experiences jealousy when he sees her with Kin-chan in season one, but is still unable to understand his feelings until hearing that Kin-chan proposed to her. Realizing and accepting his true feelings for Kotoko and knowing that he could lose her, he decides to make his feelings known and confesses to her.
After this, he proposes to Kotoko and they get married. In the series, Naoki reveals that Kotoko was the reason he wanted to attend college and became a doctor. Yuki Yamada as Kinnosuke IkezawaKinnosuke is Kotoko's good friend, he is willing to do anything for her. He is the only one in his class, unable to go to college due to low scores, he was upset about this, but cheered up when Kotoko told him that he can always find something he is good at. This encourages him to work as a chef at her father's restaurant, he has a hatred for Naoki due to the way he treats Kotoko and his cold attitude toward her, but because he knows that Kotoko loves him. He goes to great lengths to win Kotoko over after high sch
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Itazura na Kiss
Itazura na Kiss is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Kaoru Tada. Itazura na Kiss was first serialized and published in 1990 by Shueisha through Bessatsu Margaret magazine, it became successful quickly and became the manga series that Tada became known for in Japan. The manga became so popular that three live TV series have been made so far in 1996, 2005, 2010, with a sequel of the 2005 drama in late 2007. In 2013, a remake of the Japanese live TV series, called Mischievous Kiss: Love in Tokyo, was made. Despite its success, the manga was never completed due to the unexpected death of the author in a house accident while she was moving to another house with her husband and son; however the manga series continues to be published with the permission of the artist's widower. A drama CD series was released in 2005–2006 and a 25 episode anime adaptation aired in 2008. In an interview, the author's widower, Shigeru Nishikawa, revealed that the manga's intended finale was to be conceptualized in the anime for the first time.
Scripts regarding the plot of the anime followed the author's planned ending. On January 27, 2009, Digital Manga Publishing issued a press release announcing the acquisition of the license to publish Itazura na Kiss in English, they will be publishing the series in 12 omnibus editions. The last two volumes are available in their Akadot Retail store; the series was adapted into three live-action films. In this romantic comedy story, a high school girl named Kotoko Aihara tells a fellow senior named Naoki that she has loved him from afar since she saw him on their first day of high school. However, Naoki, a hottie "super-ikemen", smart and good at sports, rejects her offhand. Fate intervenes. While the house gets rebuilt and her dad stay at the home of her dad's childhood bestfriend...whose son is Naoki. Naoki falls for Kotoko and starts to have romantic, protective feelings for her. Kotoko Aihara - Kotoko Aihara is a ditzy and poor achieving high school student, she has been in love with the handsome and intelligent Naoki Irie since their first year in high school after hearing his speech at the opening ceremony.
She writes a love letter to Naoki, but is rejected right away. On the same day as her confession, Kotoko's poorly constructed house is destroyed in a mild earthquake, she and her father Shigeo are invited to stay at a house owned by her father's close friend Shigeki. Arriving to the house, she is shocked to find out that Shigeo's friend is the dad of Naoki, that she will be living in the same house as him. In the beginning of their new life together, Naoki teased Kotoko, but the two warm up to each other. Naoki realizes that he is in love with Kotoko and confesses to her, the couple marry in their first year of college. Kotoko is known as Kotoko Irie onwards. After coming back from her honeymoon with Naoki, Kotoko decides to become a nurse, so that she could be a wife fit for Naoki. After several years of marriage, Kotoko has a daughter with Naoki named Kotomi. Naoki Irie - Naoki Irie is the smartest and most handsome guy in his high school, he is rumored to have an IQ of 200, is praised by his peers as being perfect all around.
He receives a love letter from Kotoko, but rejects her before she finishes confessing, explaining that he despises "dumb girls." When Kotoko and her father move in with Naoki and his father, he gives Kotoko many hardships and maintains a rather cold attitude towards her, although he secretly began to fall in love with her, because he believed that the trouble she caused made his mundane life more interesting. Though Naoki's grades allow for him to attend any university of his choosing, he decides to attend the same college as Kotoko. After his wedding to Kotoko, Naoki becomes a doctor. Noriko Irie is Naoki and Yuuki's mother, Kotoko's mother-in-law, she loves Kotoko much, was the first person to suggest that Naoki and Kotoko date. Kotomi Irie is Kotoko's daughter, she fights for Naoki's affection with Kotoko much to her mother's dismay, in which Naoki favors Kotomi over his wife. Kotomi tells Naoki that she wants to marry him when she grows up. However, Naoki replies that he can't because he belongs to her mother.
Reiko Matsumoto, Portrayed by: Maju Ozawa and Kanna Mori ) is one of Naoki's many love trials. She has been interested in him since before college, but decides to give up after Kotoko and Naoki get married. After graduation, she starts to work for a computer company. Christine "Chris" Robbins is a foreign exchange student from the United Kingdom who has gone to Japan to find a Japanese boyfriend, she falls for Kinnosuke, manages wins his heart and marries him. She is known as Christine Ikezawa and has several children with Kinnosuke after their marriage. In the anime adaptation, she is the daughter of the bank involved with Naoki's father's company. Sahoko does not appear and Chris is the one Naoki casually dates, she is voiced by Yūko Gotō Jinko Komori (Voiced by: Kinoko Yamada, Portrayed by: Sakura Uehara, Nanami Fujimoto in the 2013
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Manga are comics or graphic novels created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art; the term manga in Japan is a word used to refer to cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga; the medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure and commerce, detective, historical, mystery, science fiction and fantasy, erotica and games, suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books and manga magazines in Japan. Manga have gained a significant worldwide audience. In 2008, in the U. S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, equivalent to ten times that of the United States.
In France, the manga market was valued at about €460 million in 2005. In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012. Manga stories are printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist. In Japan, manga are serialized in large manga magazines containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are republished in tankōbon volumes but not paperback books. A manga artist works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centering on existing live-action or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world in Algeria, Hong Kong and South Korea; the word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 meaning "pictures".
The same term is the root of the Korean word for the Chinese word. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan; the term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the Edo period, Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga; the word itself first came into common usage in 1798, with the publication of works such as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the Hokusai Manga books.
Adam L. Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books; these graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing. Writers on manga history have described two complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses U. S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics and images and themes from U. S. television and cartoons. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka and Machiko Hasegawa. Astro Boy became immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.
Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots; this kind of visual dynamism was adopted by manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience came to characterize shōjo manga. Between 1950 and 1969, an large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the