Oropos is a small town and a municipality in East Attica, Greece. The village of Skala Oropou, within the bounds of the municipality, was the site an important ancient Greek city and the famous nearby sanctuary of Amphiaraos was a large settlement, visible today; the municipality Oropos stretches between the Parnitha mountains and the South Euboean Gulf, opposite Eretria. The town Oropos, the seat of the municipality, is situated on the lower course of the river Asopos, 4 km south of the coast, it lies 36 km north of Athens. The community Oropos consists of the nearby villages Kampos and Platania; the municipality has an area of 338.183 km2, the community 11.967 km2. The present municipality Oropos was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 9 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Afidnes Avlonas Kalamos Kapandriti Malakasa Markopoulo Oropou Oropioi Polydendri Sykamino Oropos was founded by colonists from Eretria. In ancient times, it was a border city between Boeotia and Attica, its possession was a continual cause of dispute between the two states.
The actual harbour, called Delphinium, was at the mouth of the Asopus, about a mile north of the city. The famous Sanctuary of Amphiaraos was situated in the territory of 12 stadia from the city; the site has been excavated by the Greek Archaeological Society. Worshippers used to consult the oracle of Amphiaraos by sleeping on the skin of a slaughtered ram within the sacred building. List of settlements in Attica GTP Travel Pages Museum "O Phaeton" Ferry boats Oropos-Eretria
Motorway 1 (Greece)
The Greek Motorway 1, code: A1, is a motorway in Greece. It is the 2nd longest motorway in Greece, it is the principal north–south road connection in Greece, connecting the country's capital Athens with the regions of Thessaly and Macedonia, as well as the country's second largest city, Thessaloniki. The motorway passes through Mainland Greece, it begins at Kifissou Avenue, just north of the Bay of Phaliro, continues northward to Evzonoi, on the border with the country's northern neighbour, North Macedonia, where it continues as the A1. Before the European routes numbers were changed, the northern part from Efzoni to EO2 was E5N, while today the entire road is part of European route E75; the task of maintaining and charging for parts of the motorway has been ceded to private consortia, part of the deal for the construction of the Ionia Odos, the E65, as well as the bypass of Tempe Valley. The part west of downtown Athens runs over Kifissou Avenue. From north of the boundary of Voiotia - Phthiotis, up to near Velestino, the tollway runs close to the coast of the Aegean Sea.
It continues north of the Tempe Valley and up to the junction of the European route E90. It shares a 25 km common part with A2 / E90, at the "Axios Interchange", continues north to Evzonoi and the national border with North Macedonia, its total length is 550 km. The motorway used to be a 2-lane highway and ended near Katerini until 1973; the section Athens - Lamia opened in August 1962 as a 14 m width road. The section Lamia - Larissa opened in October 1967 as a 14 m width road; the section Larissa - Katerini opened in September 1959 as a 13 m width road. The section Katerini - Thessaloniki opened in September 1973 as a 14 m width road; the section Axios junction - Evzoni opened in July 1973. The section Axios junction - Polykastro opened as a 14 m width road, while the section Polykastro - Evzoni opened as a motorway; when it was extended to Thessaloniki and to the border with North Macedonia, the motorway had 4-lanes. It was extended during construction in the north in the 1980s and the south in the early and mid 1990s which began near the Afidnes toll.
In 1995, Motorway 1 had motorway characteristics in the sections Athens - Thebes and Kleidi - Thessaloniki, while the section Thebes - Kleidi was an undivided 14 m road. In 1998, the motorway had 6-lanes up to north of Thebes, 4 lanes from Thebes up to the Tempe Valley with a few sections at western Magnesia still having 2 lanes. Since the Larissa bypass has been constructed; as from 2017, it complies with all motorway standards for its whole length with either two, three or four traffic lanes in each direction plus an emergency lane. The final part of the motorway, 25 km through the Tempe Valley including the longest road tunnel in the Balkans, about 6 km long, as well as 2 more tunnels, was completed in April 2017; the circular motorway around Athens, Attiki Odos, means that traffic can continue to the Peloponnese, linking up with the motorway to the port city of Patras and that of Kalamata. The exits of the completed sections of the A1 motorway
Mount Parnitha is a densely forested mountain range north of Athens, the highest on the peninsula of Attica, with an elevation of 1,413 m, a summit known as Karavola. Much of the mountain is designated a national park, is a protected habitat for wildfowl, first created in 1961; the summit is located 18 km N of Acharnae and about 30 km N of Athens city centre, while the mountain covers 250 km² of land. Other peaks include Mavrovouni, Area, Avgo or Avgho, Xerovouni, it has two shelters Mpafi and Flampouri. The name of the mountain dates back to ancient times, when it was under the ancient demes of Acharnae and Decelea. Towns surrounding the mountain include Aspropyrgos, Acharnes, Thrakomakedones, Dekeleia and Agios Stefanos as well as the settlement of Agios Merkourios; the highway GR-1 surrounds the northern and eastern part of the mountain along with the Cephissus river, while the Attiki Odos motorway runs to its south. The mountain offers panoramic views of the mountains northeast of Parnitha, Penteli to the east, the Ymittos to the southeast, the Aigaleo to the south and another to the west.
The view during clear days can extend to the Peloponnese. The mountain was affected by several major blizzards, including two in 2005 and 2006, stranding cars and closing roads, as well as the cable car. Forests of Aleppo Pine cover all slopes beneath 1,000 m altitude, are threatened by forest fires, such as happened in 2005 and 2007. Above 1,000 m it is covered principally in Greek Fir and shrubbery, beneath 300 m farmlands and suburban housing to the east. About 1,000 species of plants can be found on the mountain, including crocus and tulips, the mountain provides a native habitat to its red deer, which were known in ancient times. After the traumatic fire in 2007, they are scarcer. Several large mines lie to the northwest, the ore from them was shipped to a nearby factory in industrial areas. Parnitha has many places with archaeological interest. Most usual ancient buildings in Parnitha are the fortresses. In antiquity, many fortresses had been built on the mountain, for the Athenian defense against the Boeotians and others enemies from the north.
Today some fortresses are kept in good condition such as the Phyle fortress, at a height of 687 meters in the west of Parnitha. Other notable fortresses are the Panakton, in the area of Dervenochoria and Eleutherae fortress near Mount Cithaeron. A notable monument of periods is the Monastery of Kleiston, it is a Byzantine monastery dated from 13th century. It is mentioned by Pope Innocent IV in 1209 with the name Monastery of Kyras. Southeast of Parnitha, in a dense forest, is Tatoi Palace, it was the palace of the Greek royal family and it was built in 19th century. Today it is abandoned. Parnitha has natural monuments; the cave of Panas is on the west slopes of the mountain at a height of 750 meters. It was a worship site in antiquity. Near the cave there is the gorge of Keladonas river. A beautiful site of the mountain is Beletsi Lake, on the east slopes of the mountain, near Afidnes, it is important place for migratory birds. A casino, the Mont Parnes Casino, is located near the top of the mountain and is served by a suspended cable car.
Two shelters are on Parnitha, the most known of, Mpafi. A series of trails are found around the mountain as well as forest roads, on the mountain is Athens' second transmitter, broadcasting radio and television since the mid-1950s, across the range of television channels from ERT, ANT1, Mega and more, to satellite, including Super Sport, Seven X and Filmnet, a multitude of radio including ERA Radio, Klik FM, ANT1 Radio, Ciao FM, Super Sport FM, Top FM and others; the supporting road connection was paved in the mid-20th century. Parnitha suffered extensive damage from a wildfire on Thursday, 28 June 2007 around the morning and noon hours, continuing for several days and burning 56 km² of land; the magnitude of the devastation was unforeseen. A smaller fire had, taken place in the 1960s; the fire consumed forests in two prefectures. Firefighters and planes were brought into action across the mountain area and its edges fighting the enormous blaze,which took days to contain, it spread with the help of intense winds, intensified into the northwestern edges of Greater Athens, including both Ano Liosia and towns and villages such as Fyli, near Thrakomakedones and both Skoura and Schimatari north of the mountain.
From Athens, inhabitants could see the mountainside burning throughout the night. In Schimatari in Boeotia, it ruined several acres of forest and businesses; the fire claimed 80% of the rare Greek Fir and Aleppo Pine forest, 150 animals of the red deer population and other rare animals. The remains of the green firs and pines are scattered around its edges; the smoke from the massive destruction formed a line that traveled east over Attica, southern Euboea, Chios, to the edge of Turkey 350 km away. On June 30, the fire was contained and warnings of new fires were reduced, as only a few fires were burning sporadically in separate
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Marathon is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BCE, in which the outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. Legend has it that Pheidippides, a Greek herald at the battle, was sent running from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory, how the marathon running race was conceived in modern times; the name "Marathon" comes from the herb fennel, called marathon or marathos in Ancient Greek, so Marathon means "a place full of fennels". It is believed that the town was named so because of an abundance of fennel plants in the area. Anciently, Marathon occupied a small plain in the northeast of ancient Attica, which contained four places, Probalinthus and Oenoe, which formed the Tetrapolis, one of the 12 districts into which Attica was divided before the time of Theseus. Here Xuthus, who married the daughter of Erechtheus, is said to have reigned; the Marathonii claimed to be the first people in Greece who paid divine honours to Heracles, who possessed a sanctuary in the plain.
Marathon is celebrated in the legends of Theseus, who conquered the ferocious bull, which used to devastate the plain. Marathon is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey in a way that implies that it was a place of importance. In mythology, its name was derived from an eponymous hero Marathon, described by Pausanias as a son of Epopeus, king of Sicyon, who fled into Attica in consequence of the cruelty of his father Plutarch calls him an Arcadian, who accompanied the Dioscuri in their expedition into Attica, voluntarily devoted himself to death before the battle. After Theseus united the 12 independent districts of Attica into one state, the name of Tetrapolis fell into disuse. Hence Lucian speaks of "the parts of Marathon about Oenoë". Few places have obtained such celebrity in the history of the world as Marathon, on account of the victory which the Athenians here gained over the Persians in 490 BCE. After Miltiades defeated Darius' Persian forces, the Persians decided to sail from Marathon to Athens in order to sack the unprotected city.
Miltiades ordered all his hoplite forces to march "double time" back to Athens, so that by the time Darius' troops arrived they saw the same Greek force waiting for them. Although the name Marathon had a positive resonance in Europe in the nineteenth century, for some time, sullied by the Dilessi murders, which happened nearby in 1870. In the 19th century and beginning of twentieth century the village was inhabited by Albanian population; the sophist and magnate Herodes Atticus was born in Marathon. In 1926, the American company ULEN began construction on the Marathon Dam in a valley above Marathon, in order to ensure water supply for Athens, it was completed in 1929. About 10 km² of forested land were flooded to form Lake Marathon; the beach of Schinias is located southeast of the town and it is a popular windsurfing spot and the Olympic Rowing Center for the 2004 Summer Olympics is located there. At the 1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics, Marathon was the starting point of the marathon races; the area is susceptible to flash flooding, because of forest fires having denuded parts of the eastern slopes of Mount Penteli in 2006.
The municipality Marathon was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Grammatiko Marathon Nea Makri VarnavasThe municipality has an area of 222.747 km2, the municipal unit 97.062 km2. The other settlements in the municipal unit are Agios Panteleimonas, Kato Souli, Avra, Ano Souli, Schinias; the Soros, a tumulus, or burial mound, erected to the 192 Athenian fallen at the Battle of Marathon, is a feature of the coastal plain, now marked by a marble memorial stele and surrounded by a small park. Kato Souli Naval Transmission Facility with its 250-metre tall radio mast, the tallest structure in Greece. Hopkinton, United States Xiamen, China List of municipalities of Attica List of settlements in Attica Dimitrion Yordanidis, oldest man to have run the marathon, at age 98 Notes References This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Marathon". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography.
London: John Murray. Official web site www.e-marathon.gr
Lake Marathon or the Marathon Reservoir is a water supply reservoir formed from the construction of Marathon Dam at the junction of Charadros and Varnavas Torrents near the town of Marathon, Greece. It was the primary water supply for Athens from 1931, when it became operational, until 1959. In 1959 water from Lake Yliki became available, water from Mornos Reservoir became available in 1981; the area of the lake at the height of the spillway of the dam is 2.45 square kilometres, the maximum depth is 54 m, the lake concentrates water from a drainage basin of 118 square kilometres with an average runoff of 14,400,000 m³ per year in an average rainfall of 580 mm per year, the average inbound volume is 12,000,000 m³ per year and the maximum reservoir capacity is 41,000,000 m³. The dam has a maximum width of 28 m at the base and 4.5 m at the crest. Its length is 285 m; the crest is 227 m above sea level, the toe is 173 m above sea level, the spillway is 223 m above sea level. The spillway disgorges 520 m³/s.
The dam is a gravity dam. It is unique worldwide because its external cladding of white pentelikon marble is the same marble used in construction of the Parthenon and the other buildings in the Acropolis; the dam was constructed by the American firm ULEN. It was constructed to meet the increased water demand caused by the rapid population increase in the Athens area following the huge influx of refugees from Asia Minor during and after the end of Greco-Turkish War; the construction lasted from 1926 to 1929. List of lakes in Greece Media related to Lake Marathon at Wikimedia Commons EYDAP SA Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece